Ush ch 17 Test Review The us in wwii 1941-1945 ch objective

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USH CH 17 Test Review

The US in WWII

CH Objective: to understand the military campaigns, political decisions, and efforts on the home front that won WWII
Section 1: Mobilizing for Defense:

Main Idea: following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the US mobilized for war
Why it Matters Now: military industries in the US today are a major part of the American economy
Terms & Names to Identify:

1. George Marshall:

2. Women’s Auxiliary Army Corp (WAAC):

3. Manhattan Project:

4. Office of Price Administration (OPA):

5. War Production Board (WPB):

6. rationing:

-(1) explain how the US expanded its armed forces in WWII

*Americans Join the War Effort

-Selective Service & the GI

-after Pearl Harbor, 5 million men volunteer for military service

-10 million more drafted to meet needs of two-front war

-Expanding the Military

-Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) – women in noncombat positions

-thousands enlist; get full US army benefits

-Recruiting & Discrimination

-minority groups are denied basic citizenship rights

-question whether they should fight for democracy in other countries

-Dramatic Contributions

-300,000 Mexican Americans join armed forces

-1 million African Americans serve; live, work in segregated units

-13,000 Chinese Americans & 33,000 Japanese Americans serve

-25,000 Native Americans enlist
-(2) describe the wartime mobilization of industry, labor, scientists, & the media

*A Production Miracle

-Labor’s Contribution

-nearly 18 million workers in war industries; 6 million are women

-over 2 million minorities hired; face strong discrimination at first

-FDR executive order forbids discrimination
-Mobilization of Scientists

-Office of Scientific Research & Development – technology, medicine

-Manhattan Project develops atomic bomb
-(3) trace the efforts of the US government to control the economy & deal with the alleged subversion

1. Why did President Roosevelt create the OSRD, and what did it do?

2. What basic problems were the OPA and WPB created to solve?

3. How did the government regulations impact the lives of civilians?

Section 1 Comprehension:

1. How did the American response to the Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor differ from Japanese expectations?

2. Answer the two questions on p. 564 regarding the charts.

Section 2: The War for Europe & North Africa:

Main Idea: Allied forces, led by the US & GB, battled Axis powers for control of Europe & North Africa
Why it Matters Now: during WWII, the US assumed a leading role in world affairs that continues today
Terms & Names to Identify:

1. Dwight D. Eisenhower:

2. D-Day:

3. Omar Bradley:

4. George Patton:
5. Battle of the Bulge:

6. V-E Day:

7. Harry S. Truman:
-(1) summarize the Allies’ plan for winning the war

*The US & Britain Join Forces

-War Plans

-Churchill convinces FDR to strike first against Hitler
-The Battle of the Atlantic

-Hitler orders submarine attacks against supply ships to Britain

-wolf packs destroy hundreds of ships in 1942

-Allies organize convoys of cargo ships with escort:

-destroyers with sonar; planes with radar

-construction of Liberty ships speeds up

-(2) identify events in the war in Europe

*The Eastern Front & the Mediterranean

-The Battle of Stalingrad

-Hitler wants to capture Caucasus oil fields & destroy Stalingrad

-Soviets defeat Germans in bitter winter campaign

-over 230,000 Germans; 1,100,000 Soviets die

-battle a turning point:Soviet army begins to move towards Germany

-The North African Front

-General Dwight D. Eisenhower commands invasion of North Africa

-Afrika Korps, led by General Rommel, surrenders May 1943
-The Italian Campaign

-Allies decide will accept only unconditional surrender from Axis

-summer 1943, capture Sicily; Mussolini forced to resign

-1944 Allies win “Bloody Anzio”; Germans continue strong resistance

-(3) describe the liberation of Europe

-D-Day: video

-Put the following events into a flow chart with detailed descriptions:

*D-Day *St. Lo *Paris Liberated *Battle of the Bulge

*Russian Army storms Berlin *V-E Day

Section 2 Comprehension:

1. Do you agree with the decision made by Roosevelt & Churchill to require unconditional surrender by the Axis Powers? Why or why not?

-think about:
-the advantages of defeating a foe decisively

-the advantages of ending a war quickly

-how other conflicts, such as the Civil War & WWI, ended

Section 3: The War in the Pacific:

Main Idea: in order to defeat Japan and end the war in the Pacific, the US unleashed a terrible new weapon, the atomic bomb
Why it Matters Now: countries of the modern world struggle to find ways to prevent the use of nuclear weapons
Terms & Names to Identify:

1. Douglas MacArthur:

2. Chester Nimitz:

3. Battle of Midway:

4. kamikaze:

5. J. Robert Oppenheimer:

6. Hiroshima:

7. Nagasaki:

8. Nuremburg Trials:

-(1) identify key turning points in the war in the Pacific

-(2) describe the Allied offensive against the Japanese

Military Action


Doolittle’s Raid

(April 18, 1942)

Battle of the Coral Sea

(May 1942)

Battle of Midway

(June 1942)

Battle of Leyte Gulf

(October 1944)

Iwo Jima

(March 1945)

Battle for Okinawa

(April 1945)


(August 6, 1945)


(August 9, 1945)

-(3) explain both the development of the atomic bomb & debates about its use

*The Atomic Bomb Ends the War

-The Manhattan Project

-J. Robert Oppenheimer is research director of Manhattan Project

-July 1945, atomic bomb is tested in New Mexico desert

-President Truman orders military to drop 2 atomic bombs on Japan
-Hiroshima & Nagasaki

-September 2, 1945 Japan Surrenders

-(4) describe the challenges faced by the Allies in building a just & lasting peace

*Rebuilding Begins

-The Yalta Conference

-February 1945, FDR, Churchill, Stalin (& Mr. Adams) meet in Yalta

-discuss post-war world

-FDR, Churchill make concession: temporarily divide Germany into 4 parts

-Stalin promises free elections in Eastern Europe; will fight Japan

-FDR gets support for conference to establish United Nations
-Human Costs of the War

-WWII is most destructive war in human history

-The Nuremberg War Trials

-Nuremberg Trials – 24 Nazi leaders tried, sentenced

-charged with crimes against humanity, against the peace, war crimes

-establish principle that people responsible for own actions in war

-The Occupation of Japan

-MacArthur commands US occupation forces in Japan

-over 1,100 Japanese tried, sentenced

-MacArthur reshapes Japan’s economy, government

Section 3 Comprehension:

1. In what ways was the American victory at Midway & the Japanese triumph at Pearl Harbor alike?

2. Why was Okinawa a significant island in the war in the Pacific?

3. Why was Roosevelt anxious to make concessions to Stalin concerning the fate of postwar Germany?

Section 4: The Home Front:

Main Idea: after WWII, Americans adjusted to new economic opportunities & harsh social tensions
Why it Matters Now: economic opportunities afforded by WWII led to a more diverse middle class in the US
Terms & Names to Identify:

1. GI Bill of Rights:

2. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE):

3. internment:

(1)-describe the economic & social changes that reshaped American life during WWII

*Opportunity & Adjustment

-Economic Gains

-defense industries boom, unemployment falls to 1.2% in 1944

-average pay rises 10% during war

-farmers prosper from rising crop prices, increase in production

-many pay off mortgages

-percentage of women in work force rises to 35%
-Social Adjustments

-families adjust to fathers in military; mothers rear children alone

-families must get to know each other again after fathers return

-many couples rush to marry before husband goes overseas

-1944 GI Bill of Rights or Servicemen’s Readjustment Act:

-pays education; loan guarantees for homes & new businesses

Section 4 Comprehension:

1. How did WWII cause the US population to shift?

2. Turn to page 594 and review the map of Japanese Relocation Camps. How many Japanese internment camps existed in 1942?

3. Why do you think the majority of these camps were located in the West?

4. Complete the table.




Civil Rights

5. How were the experiences of African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Japanese Americans similar during WWII? How were they different?

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