During the Industrial Revolution of the late 19th century, farmers in the United States worked to increase their land holdings and modernize their equipment. A lasting effect of these changes was
Higher prices for crops
Increased rural population density
A shortage of land for farming
Greater productivity of farming
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, improvements in steel technology allowed architects to be design buildings taller than had previously been possible. As a result, skyscrapers began to be built in cities such as New York and Chicago.
What was the result of this new technology on population patterns in the United States in the first half of the 20th century?
Decreased growth of suburban areas
Migration from the West to the Midwest
Greater population density in urban areas
Increased migration from urban to rural areas
One effect of industrialization in the United States in the late 19th century was
A decrease in child labor
An increase in demand for handicraft goods
A decrease in immigration to the United States
An increase in urbanization
Which innovation extended the number of hours in a day that Americans could work and play?
Which industry most spurred economic growth and innovation in related industries?
Consider the following changes that occurred in the United States in the late 19th century:
Improvements in agricultural production
Increases in immigration from Europe
Advancements in networks of railroad and streetcar lines.
These changes led to the
Rapid growth of urban areas
Acquisition of overseas territories
Elimination of large suburbs around many cities
Movement of people from the urban to rural areas
Why was the formation of labor unions an effect of U.S. industrialization in the late 1800s?
Union were needed to guarantee a steady supply of workers
In the late 19th century, industrialization led to harsh working conditions in the United States. Which policies of the U.S. government allowed such conditions to develop and later led to the growth of labor unions to correct abuses of workers?
Isolationist policies regarding international alliance
As a result of industrialization in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, progressive reformers sought government regulation of business in order to
Control economic cycles of inflation and recession
Provide money for public services such as schools and libraries
Restore competition by limiting the power of monopolies and trusts
Prevent companies from moving their factories to other countries
What effect of 19th century industrialization in the United States is represented by the changes shown in the above graph?
Increased regulation of child labor
Modernization of agriculture
Decreased demand for farm products
Emigration from the United States
The appearance in many U.S. cities of department stores, organized sporting events, musical theaters and amusement parks in the last decades of the 19th century was evidence of what effect of industrialization?
The growing power of unions to negotiate benefits for their members
Government-sponsored programs to improve public health and education
An increase in the leisure time and disposable income of the urban middle class
Consider the following changes that occurred in the United States in the late 19th century:
Increases in immigration
Improvements in agricultural technology
What was one result of these developments during this time period?
The growth of large cities
The decline of labor unions
The spread of plantation agriculture
The construction of interstate highways
In 1770 James Hargreaves of England received a patent for his spinning jenny. Another Englishman, Samuel Crompton, combined the spinning jenny with a water frame. He called his new invention the spinning mule. The spinning jenny and spinning mule are examples of
What is the meaning of the cartoon?
The children need food
The children need new clothes
Capitalists cared about child welfare
Children are being treated as property
Railroads brought goods and people to America’s trade and manufacturing centers. Chicago grew as a meatpacking city. Philadelphia became a manufacturing center for steel and coal. New York grew as a thriving center for trade. Increased industrialization led to
Improved sanitation and housing
The elimination of the working class
Improvements in the lifestyle of the working class
An increase in the number of people working in manufacturing
Corporations had the important advantage of
Being run by an individual or family
Developing into monopolies
Reducing the financial risk for individual investors
Keeping prices high
Which argument supports the perception of big business leaders as “Captains of Industry”?
In the late 1800s, workers tolerated poor wages because they
Thought that the government would protect them
Believed it had to get worse before it got better
Could be replaced easily by other workers
Were tricked by employers into taking dangerous jobs.
Which labor leader began the AFL?
Uriah Smith Stephens
What was one result of the Haymarket Riot?
Steelworkers’ wages increased
Public support for unions grew.
The AFL ceased to exist
Membership in the Knights of Labor declined
Labor unions formed as a way to help workers
Find better jobs
Learn more skilled trades
Improve their working conditions
Increase the hours children could work
How did federal government support employers during labor unrest?
Called on the Pinkertons to stop strikes
Denied unions recognition as legally protected groups
Imprisoned Eugene Debs and other labor leaders for life
Made company towns illegal
As part of the garment industry, adults and children worked in small, crowded rooms called sweatshops making new clothes. Their hours were long. Their pay was little. Often the rooms were dark. What advantage were sweatshops to the textile industry?
They eliminated textile factories
They kept the cost of production low
They employed only women and children
They helped families create their own small businesses
In his article The Gospel of Wealth, Andrew Carnegie stated, “The contrast between the palace of the millionaire and the cottage of the laborer with us to-day…is not to be deplored, but welcomed as highly beneficial. It is…essential for the progress of the race.” Andrew Carnegie
Believed in equality
Promoted regulation of industry as a means to wealth
Felt a class system was essential
Believed that everyone should receive the same opportunities
Government attempted to regulate business
Through the Keating-Owen Act
Through the Sherman Antitrust Act
By calling for the establishment of monopolies
By forcing railroads to create a fair pricing structure
Labor unions grew in response to unregulated working conditions. Why, then, did strikes, such as the Homestead Steel Strike in 1892, result in a loss of support for organized labor?
The strikes turned violent
Immigrants refused to join labor unions
Management agreed to better working conditions
Labor unions banded together to form one large labor union
In 1906 Congress passed the Meat Inspection Act and the Federal Food and Drugs Act. Both laws were in response to industry practices exposed by
The Industrial Revolution began in which country?
The United States
Which was the first industry impacted by the Industrial Revolution?
Which of the following was NOT an effect of the Industrial Revolution?
An increasing number of people worked in factories
An increasing number of people lived in cities
An increasing number of people worked on family farms
An increasing number of people left the family farms
Politics not being affected by the economic changes
Workers seeing no need to unite to form labor unions
The transformation from an urban to an agrarian (farming) society
The country becoming more urban than rural
Which group of people made up the majority of immigrants to America before 1870?
South American Jews
Which of these factors pulled immigrants to the United States?
Lack of food
Poor economic conditions
Which of the following was an important effect of nineteenth-century industrialization on American society?
An increase in the number of small farms
A decline in international trade
A lowering of the prices of many manufactured goods
A decline in the economic power of the middle class
As the inventions and methods of the Industrial Revolution spread around the world, they brought many important changes. What was an important effect of industrialization in the United States?
A decline in the size of the middle class
A decline in the use of labor-saving technologies
An increase in migration from the countryside to the cities
An increase in the demand for hand-made goods
“It was a town of red brick, or of brick that would have been red if the smoke and ashes had allowed it; but as matters stood it was a town of unnatural red and black like the painted face of a savage. It was a town of machinery and tall chimneys, out of which endless smoke trailed forever and ever. It had a black canal in it, and a river that ran purple with ill-smelling dye.”
This is a quotation from the novel Hard Times, by Charles Dickens. The condition of the town described in this passage illustrates the effects of the
Why was industrialization in the United States primarily concentrated in the Northeast?
This region had the greatest supplies of capital and labor.
The climate of the North favored industrial development.
Other regions of the country lacked water transportation.
The Midwest and South had fewer natural resources.
Overthrow capitalist governments through violent revolution
Liberate colonial areas in Africa and Asia from imperialist rule
Curb the worst abuses of industrialization by government regulation
Limit the powers of absolute rulers by introducing democratic reforms
“Crouched over the coal chutes, the boys sit hour after hour, picking out the pieces of slate. I once tried to do the work a twelve-year old boy was doing day after day, for ten hours at a stretch, for sixty cents a day. The gloom appalled me.”
What development did the conditions described in this quotation lead to?
Passage of child labor laws
Ideas of the Enlightenment
Spread of imperialism to Africa
A migration from the countryside to cities
Which of the following societal changes was brought on by the Industrial Revolution?
Coal miners moved out of the cities
Rural folk moved to cities for factory jobs
Farm wives gained a valuable source of income
Seamstresses were promoted to management positions
Cities had been built on rivers from the very beginning of human civilization. When the Industrial Revolution began, growing cities were often located close to what other resource?
Coal and iron mines
The major feature of industrial cities in Britain was a growing population. How did population growth affect these industrial cities?
Population growth created more jobs
Population growth resulted in more schools
Population growth encouraged migration to rural areas
Population growth led to overcrowded, unsanitary living conditions
At processing stations, officials met with immigrants to determine their medical condition and
Certain conditions workers faced in growing industries led them to form labor unions. Which of the following conditions was most responsible for the growth of unions?
Long hours and low wages in industry
Women in the workforce
Lack of skilled jobs in factories
Violence in the workplace
Industrialization began in northeastern Europe, but later spread to the rest of the world. This expansion was the result of
Better working conditions
A ban on child labor
Reliance on a family-based economy
Which of the following provided Americanization programs for new immigrants?
The first reliable streetcars were powered by
Most Midwestern cities were established near
Zoning laws were designed primarily to
Encourage growth of heavy industry
Separate functions within a city
Create immigrant ghettoes
Protect water from pollutants
Even though unlit city streets were dangerous,
Most city planners did nothing about it
Professional police officers refused to patrol them
Factory workers had to travel to and from work in the dark
City governments rejected electric streetlights
The middle-class lifestyle of the Gilded Age featured
A return to classical ideals
A reflection of rural values
A new emphasis on acquiring goods
Renewed interest in controlling journalists
Consumption patterns were most influenced by
New educational theories
After the Civil War, the cost of living decreased because