Bill of Rights adopted, 1791
The first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guarantee basic individual rights.
President George Washington
He established many of the presidential traditions, including limiting a president's tenure to two terms. He was against political parties and strove for political balance in government by appointing political adversaries to government positions.
Judiciary Act, 1789
created the federal court system, allowed the president to create federal courts and to appoint judges.
Sec. of the Treasury Hamilton
A leading Federalist, he supported industry and strong central government. He created the National Bank and managed to pay off the U.S.’s early debts through tariffs and the excise tax on whiskey.
Hamilton’s Program: ideas, proposals, reasons for it
Designed to pay off the U.S.’s war debts and stabilize the economy, he believed that the United States should become a leading international commercial power. His programs included the creation of the National Bank, the establishment of the U.S.’s credit rate, increased tariffs, and an excise tax on whiskey. Also, he insisted that the federal government assume debts incurred by the states during the war.
Tariff of 1789
Designed to raise revenue for the federal government, resulted in a government surplus.
Bank of the U.S.
Part of Hamilton’s Plan, it would save the government’s surplus money until it was needed.
National debt, state debt, foreign debt
The U.S.’s national debt included domestic debt owed to soldiers and others who had not yet been paid for their Revolutionary War services, plus foreign debt to other countries, which had helped the U.S. The federal government also assumed all the debts incurred by the states during the war. Hamilton’s program paid off these debts.
Taxes placed on manufactured products. The excise tax on whiskey helped raise revenue for Hamilton’s program.
Loose interpretation of the Constitution
Loose interpretation allows the government to do anything, which the Constitution does not specifically forbid it from doing.
Strict Interpretation Strict interpretation forbids the government from doing anything except what the Constitution specifically empowers it to do.
Washington put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem.
Washington’s Farewell Address
He warned against the dangers of political parties and foreign alliances.
Federalists / Democratic-Republicans: Philosophies
Federalists believed in a strong central government, a strong army, industry, and loose interpretation of the Constitution. Democratic-Republicans believed in a weak central government, state and individual rights, and strict interpretation of the Constitution.
Federalists / Democratic-Republicans: Foreign support
Federalists supported Britain, while the Democratic-Republicans felt that France was the U.S.’s most important ally.
Americans were upset about French influence in US. Led to Alien and Sedition Acts.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Signed by Federalist John Adams. The Alien Act empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stop Democratic-Republican opposition.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
It said that states could nullify federal laws.
Election of 1800, Jefferson and Burr
Revolutionary because a different political party won the presidency. Led to the 12th Amendment, which requires the president and vice-president of the same party to run on the same ticket.
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson’s election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution."
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all.
In the 1790’s British seized neutral American merchant ships, which tried to trade at French ports. Eventually led to War of 1812.
It dealt with the Northwest British posts or forts. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships.
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
In the early 1790's, the British held trading posts in the Ohio Valley and encouraged the local Indian tribes to attack the Americans. The Americans defeated the Miami Indians in the Battle of Fallen Timbers & this paved the way for American settlement of the Ohio Valley.
Treaty of Greenville, 1795
Drawn up after the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Essentially gets rid of Indian threats in the Ohio Valley.
War of 1812 (1812-1814)
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressments of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Clay’s American System
Internal improvements (roads, bridges, industrial improvements, etc.), protective tariff to foster the growth of American industries, and strengthening the national bank.
Bank war: enemies and defenders
President Jackson opposed the national bank saying it was only benefiting the wealthy. Nicholas Biddle and Henry Clay, defended the bank saying it was good for economic stability of the country.
Bank war: Veto message by Andrew Jackson
1832 - President Jackson vetoed the bill to recharter the national bank.
Improvements in transportation: Erie Canal & National (Cumberland) Road
The result was faster trade and easier access to the western frontier. It aided the growth of the nation.
He wanted to reduce federal spending and government interference in everyday life. He was a Democratic-Republican, so he believed in strict interpretation of the Constitution.
Jefferson’s Inaugural Address, "We are all Federalists, we are all Republicans"
Jefferson (a Republican) said that he wanted to keep the nation unified and avoid political conflicts.
Federalist control of courts and judges, midnight judges
On his last day in office, President Adams appointed a large number of Federalist judges to the federal courts in an effort to maintain Federalist control of the government. These newly-appointed Federalist judges were called midnight judges because John Adams had appointed them late in his presidency.
Louisiana Purchase: reasons, Jefferson, loose construction
1803 - The U.S. purchased the land from the French (Napoleon), The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase.
Lewis and Clark expedition and its findings
1804-1806 - It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
British seamen often deserted to join the American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve the deserters, and often seized any sailor who could not prove that he was an American citizen and not British.
Embargo of 1807
Jefferson called for no trade with France & G. Britain. Difficult to enforce because merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade opposed it. It also hurt the national economy.
Western settlers who advocated war with Britain. In Congress, the War Hawks were Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.
Causes of the War of 1812
These included: British impressments of sailors, British seizure of neutral American trading ships, and the reasons given by the War Hawks.
Jackson’s victory at New Orleans
January, 1815 – Future president Andrew Jackson is victorious over British in New Orleans. This victory inspired American nationalism.
Federalist Hartford Convention
December 1814 - The Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise (end) of the party.
Treaty of Ghent, provisions
Armistice - Ended the War of 1812 - nothing else.
War of 1812 increased nationalism and economics
The U.S.’s success in the War of 1812 gave Americans a feeling of national pride. The War of 1812 had cut off America’s access to British manufactured goods and forced the U.S. to develop the means to produce those goods on its own.
Tariff of 1816 -- Protective
Helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods
Panic of 1819
Post War of 1812 Economic depression that was blamed on the National Bank.
Spain gave up Florida to the U.S.
Monroe Doctrine: origins, provisions, impact
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
Era of Good Feelings
A period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion after War of 1812. Since the Federalist Party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
Chief Justice John Marshall: decision
Justice Marshall was promoted federal power over state power and strengthened the judiciary branch of government. In Marbury v. Madison he established the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review, which allows the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional.
Missouri Compromise, provisions
Admitted Missouri as a slave state and at the same time admitted Maine as a free state. Declared that all territory north of the 36°30" latitude would become free states, and all territory south of that latitude would become slave states.
Growth of industry in New England, textiles
New England, rather than the South, emerged as a manufacturing center because New England had many rivers to supply water power, plus a better system of roads and canals. Textiles were important.
Samuel Slater (1768-1835)
He helped build the first factory in America.
Robert Fulton, Clermont Robert Fulton designed and built America’s first steamboat, the Clermont in 1807.
Eli Whitney: cotton gin (short for "engine")
1798 - He developed the cotton gin, a machine that could separate cotton from its seeds. This invention made cotton a profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy. It also reinforced the importance of slavery in the economy of the South.
1799-1800 - Eli Whitney developed a manufacturing system, which uses standardized parts. Strengthened factory system.
Lowell and other businessmen opened a factory that made cloth so cheaply that women began to buy it rather than make it themselves.
Daniel Webster (1782-1852)
Great public speaker (orator). He was a major representative of the North in pre-Civil War Senate debates (opposite Sen. John C. Calhoun – South).
National Road (also called Cumberland Road)
It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and the West.
Connected NY to Midwest. Made NY trade capital of US.
The charge make by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in return for the office of Secretary of State.
Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said the tariff was unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
Vice-President Calhoun: South Carolina Exposition and protest, nullification
Vice-President Calhoun from South Carolina had threatened to secede if the 1828 tariff was not revoked. He said nullification was a peaceful solution to the Tariff. He did this at the South Carolina Exposition.
Age of the Common Man
Jackson's presidency was the called the Age of the Common Man. All white men (not just rich property owners) could now vote, and the increased voting rights allowed Jackson to be elected.
Spoils system - the winner of the election may do whatever they want with the staff. Jackson used the spoils system more than any previous president, firing many people and replacing them with his own.
Cherokee Indian removal, "Trail of Tears"
Indians forcibly removed to Oklahoma. Many died on the trail; the journey became known as the "Trail of Tears".
Worchester v. Georgia Worchester v. Georgia: 1832 –Cherokee win case to stay in GA. Georgia refused to enforce decision and President Jackson didn't support the Court. Result Trail of tears.
Whigs: origins, policies
The Whigs took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. They all hated Andrew Jackson (they called him King Andrew I). Whig leaders were Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and, for a while, Calhoun.
Jackson's removal of deposits, pet bank
Angry because Biddle used bank funds to support anti-Jacksonian candidates, Jackson removed federal deposits from the bank Pet banks were state banks into which Jackson deposited federal funds in 1833, after he vetoed the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S.
Over States' rights (South) vs. nationalism (North). Webster showed the danger of the nullification doctrine, which permitted each state to decide for itself which laws were unconstitutional, claiming it would lead to civil war.
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832.
Panic of 1837
Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
Ralph Waldo Emerson says each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches.
Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)
Essayist, poet. A leading transcendentalist. He spoke and wrote many works on the behalf of the Abolitionists.
Henry David Thoreau, Walden (1817-1862), "On Civil Disobedience"
A transcendentalist and friend of Emerson. Wrote on transcendentalism in Walden. In his essay, "On Civil Disobedience," he advised people to protest by not obeying laws (passive resistance). Later used by MLK, Jr.
Washington Irving (1783-1859)
Author, diplomat. Wrote "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow." He was the first American to be recognized in England (and elsewhere) as a writer.
Walt Whitman (1819-1892), wrote Leaves of Grass Writer & Poet. Patriotic American. He had radical ideas and abolitionist views
Hudson River School of Art
In about 1825, a group of American painters, led by Thomas Cole, used their talents to do landscapes, which were not highly regarded. They painted many scenes of New York's Hudson River. Mystical overtones.
Charles G. Finney (1792-1875)
An immensely successful church revivalist of the 1800's. Led the 2nd Great Awakening.
Mormons: Joseph Smith (1805-1844)
Founded Mormon church. Died trying to lead Mormons through Indiana.
Brigham Young, Great Salt Lake, Utah
1847 – Mormon leader after Smith. Brigham Young let the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake Valley in Utah, where they prospered politically and economically.
An experiment in Utopianism in Massachusetts.
A failed utopian settlement in Indiana
An experimental utopian community in NY.
Christians who were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
Dorothea Dix, treatment of the insane
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendent of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
National Trade Union
Unions formed by groups of skilled craftsmen.
Commonwealth v. Hunt 1842 - Case heard by the Massachusetts Supreme Court. The case was the first judgment in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members.
Public education, Horace Mann
Secretary of the newly formed Massachusetts Board of Education, he created a public school system in Massachusetts that became the model for the nation. Started the first American public schools, using European schools (Prussian military schools) as models.
American Temperance Union
The flagship of the temperance movement in the 1800's. Opposed alcohol.
Irish, German immigration
Irish: arriving in immense waves in the 1800's, they were extremely poor peasants who later became the manpower for canal and railroad construction. German: also came because of economic distress, German immigration had a large impact on America, shaping many of its morals. Both groups of immigrants were heavy drinkers and supplied the labor force for the early industrial era.
An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
Women, their rights, areas of discrimination
In the 1800's women were not allowed to be involved in politics or own property, had little legal status and rarely held jobs.
Lucretia Mott (1803-1880)
An early feminist, she worked constantly with her husband in liberal causes, particularly slavery abolition and women's suffrage. Her home was a station on the Underground Railroad. With Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she helped organize the first women's rights convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A pioneer in the women's suffrage movement, she helped organize the first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. She later helped edit the militant feminist magazine Revolution from 1868 - 1870.
July, 1848 - Site of the first modern women's right convention. At the gathering, Elizabeth Cady Stanton read a Declaration of Sentiment listing the much discrimination against women, and adopted eleven resolutions, one of which called for women's suffrage.
"Cult of True Womanhood": piety, domesticity, purity and submissiveness
While many women were in favor of the women's movement, some were not. Some of these believed in preserving the values of "true womanhood": piety, domesticity, purity and submissiveness. These opponents of the women’s movement referred to their ideas as the "Cult of True Womanhood."
Supreme Court: Darmouth College v. Woodward 1819 - This decision declared private corporation charters to be contracts and immune form impairment by states' legislative action. It freed corporations from the states, which created them.
Supreme Court: McCulloch v. Maryland 1819 - This decision upheld the power of Congress to charter a bank as a government agency, and denied the state the power to tax that agency.
Supreme Court: Gibbons v. Ogden 1824 - This case ruled that only the federal government has authority over interstate commerce.
Phrase commonly used in the 1840's and 1850's. It expressed the inevitableness of continued expansion of the U.S. to the Pacific.
Stephen Austin (1793-1836)
In 1822, Austin founded the first settlement of Americans in Texas. In 1833 he was sent by the colonists to negotiate with the Mexican government for Texan independence and was imprisoned in Mexico until 1835, when he returned to Texas and became the commander of the settlers’ army in the Texas Revolution.
Texas War for Independence
After a few skirmishes with Mexican soldiers in 1835, Texas leaders met and organized a temporary government. Texas troops initially seized San Antonio, but lost it after the massacre of the outpost garrisoning the Alamo. In response, Texas issued a Declaration of Independence. Santa Ana tried to swiftly put down the rebellion, but Texan soldiers surprised him and his troops on April 21, 1836. They crushed his forces and captured him in the Battle of San Jacinto, and forced him to sign a treaty granting Texan independence. U.S. lent no aid.
As dictator of Mexico, he led the attack on the Alamo in 1836. Sam Houston at San Jacinto later defeated him.
A Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, the larger Mexican force killed all of the Texans.
Sam Houston (1793-1863)
Former Governor of Tennessee and an adopted member of the Cherokee Indian tribe, Houston settled in Texas after being sent there by Pres. Jackson to negotiate with the local Indians. Appointed commander of the Texas army in 1835, he led them to victory at San Jacinto, where they were outnumbered 2 to 1. He was President of the Republic of Texas (1836-1838 & 1841-1845) and advocated Texas joining the Union in 1845. He later served as U.S. Senator and Governor of Texas, but was removed from the governorship in 1861 for refusing to ratify Texas joining the Confederacy.
Republic of Texas
Created March, 1836 but not recognized until the next month after the battle of San Jacinto. Its second president attempted to establish a sound government and develop relations with England and France. However, rapidly rising public debt, internal conflicts and renewed threats from Mexico led Texas to join the U.S. in 1845.
Annexation of Texas, Joint Resolution under President Tyler
U.S. made Texas a state in 1845. Joint resolution - both houses of Congress supported annexation under Tyler, and he signed the bill shortly before leaving office.
54º40' or Fight!
An aggressive slogan adopted in the Oregon boundary dispute, a dispute over where the border between Canada and Oregon should be drawn. This was also Polk's slogan - the Democrats wanted the U.S. border drawn at the 54º40' latitude. Polk settled for the 49º latitude in 1846.
James K. Polk
President known for promoting Manifest Destiny.
Slidell mission to Mexico
Appointed minister to Mexico in 1845, John Slidell went to Mexico to pay for disputed Texas and California land. But the Mexican government was still angry about the annexation of Texas and refused to talk to him.
Rio Grande, Nueces River, disputed territory
Texas claimed its southern border was the Rio Grande; Mexico wanted the border drawn at the Nueces River, about 100 miles north of the Rio Grande. U.S. and Mexico agreed not to send troops into the disputed territory between the two rivers, but President Polk later reneged on the agreement.
General Zachary Taylor
Commander of the Army of Occupation on the Texas border. On President Polk’s orders, he took the Army into the disputed territory between the Nueces and Rio Grnade Rivers and built a fort on the north bank of the Rio Grande River. When the Mexican Army tried to capture the fort, Taylor’s forces engaged in a series of engagements that led to the Mexican War. His victories in the war and defeat of Santa Ana made him a national hero.
Mexican War: causes, results
Causes: annexation of Texas Results: Mexico loses & ceded large parts of the West, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the U.S.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provisions
This treaty required Mexico to cede the American Southwest, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the U.S. U.S. gave Mexico $15 million in exchange, so that it would not look like conquest.
Some of Mexico's territory was added to the U.S. after the Mexican War: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Utah, Nevada & Colorado. (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo)
1842 - Established Maine's northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states.
The territory comprised what are now the states of Oregon and Washington, and portions of what became British Columbia, Canada. This land was claimed by both the U.S. and Britain and was held jointly under the Convention of 1818.
The Oregon Treaty of 1846 established an U.S./Canadian (British) border along this parallel. The boundary along the 49th parallel extended from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean.
When President Polk submitted his Appropriations Bill of 1846 requesting Congress' approval of the $2 million indemnity to be paid to Mexico under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Pennsylvania Representative David Wilmot attached a rider which would have barred slavery from the territory acquired. The South hated the Wilmot Proviso and a new Appropriations Bill was introduced in 1847 without the Proviso. It provoked one of the first debates on slavery at the federal level, and the principles of the Proviso became the core of the Free Soil, and later the Republican, Party.
1853 - After the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, the U.S. realized that it had accidentally left portions of the southwestern stagecoach routes to California as part of Mexico. James Gadsden, the U.S. Minister to Mexico, was instructed by President Pierce to draw up a treaty that would provide for the purchase of the territory through which the stage lines ran, along which the U.S. hoped to also eventually build a southern continental railroad. This territory makes up the southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico.
Cyrus McCormick, mechanical reaper
McCormick built the reaping machine in 1831, and it make farming more efficient. Part of the industrial revolution, it allowed farmers to substantially increase the acreage that could be worked by a single family, and also made corporate farming possible.
Elias Howe (1819-1869)
invented the sewing machine in 1846, which made sewing faster and more efficient.
Samuel F.B. Morse, telegraph
Morse developed a working telegraph, which improved communications.
American Colonization Society
Formed in 1817, it purchased a tract of land in Liberia and returned free Blacks to Africa.
The militant effort to do away with slavery. It had its roots in the North in the 1700s. It became a major issue in the 1830s and dominated politics after 1840. Congress became a battleground between pro and anti-slavery forces from the 1830's to the Civil War.
Different parts of the country developing unique and separate cultures (as the North, South and West). This can lead to conflict.
William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879)
A militant abolitionist. Wrote The Liberator. Led to Southerners fearing Northern takeover.
The Grimke sisters
Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement.
Nat Turner's Insurrection
1831 - Slave uprising. As a result, slave states strengthened measures against slaves and became more united in their support of fugitive slave laws.
one of the best-known abolitionists of her day. She was the first black woman orator to speak out against slavery.
Frederick Douglass (1817-1895)
A self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, Douglas became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the