Us history Top 200ish – 1215 to 1870’s Definitions, Examples, & Meanings Study Guide for 2012 staar. Prepared by Fort Burrows 1

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171. Valley Forge

Valley Forge was a makeshift camp during the winter of 1777-1778. The conditions were terrible. Many of the soldiers suffered from frostbite and disease because there wasn’t enough blankets and clothing. Once people heard about this, they sent food, medicine, clothes, and ammunition. This was the bleakest hour of the war. Once they were done with Valley Forge, the patriots were more hopeful

172. Yorktown

The battle of Yorktown was the last battle of the American Revolution. Washington tricked Cornwallis in this battle. Cornwallis decided to rest in Yorktown but Washington came with his men to attack them. The British surrendered because they were running low on supplies. We ended up winning the Battle of Yorktown and the American Revolution. This battle is important because it was the last battle and victory in the American Revolution.

173. Minutemen

Minutemen are volunteers trained regularly. Minuteman got their names because they kept their muskets at hand. They were prepared to fight at a minute's notice. In Boston, minuteman collected weapons and gunpowder. In 1775, minuteman had a large sore of arms in Concord (a village about 18 miles from Boston).

174. Trans-



Transcontinental Railroad is a railroad that crosses a continental land mass in 1869. It is now possible for settlers to travel by train all the way from the Atlantic Cost to the Pacific's. The more settlers move westward, the more disastrous for the Native American. They lost lands, their farms, and buffalo herds. Soldiers and hunters wiped out huge buffalo herds for their own wasteful uses unlike the Natives.

175. Property


Property Rights are laws created by governments to give people the right to own property such as land and furniture. This was created so that we can own certain items without having someone else say that it is theirs when it rightfully yours. This right protects you from having other parties be unjust or unlawful to your property. Property Rights is the right to keep people off your land if you do not want them on it. It was created between 1787 and 1791. It is good we have property rights so we can keep what is ours under our own care and not have someone take it for theirs the next day.

176. 1st Amendment

This amendment was had said that there to have respect for an establishment of a religion, also it gave free exercise and freedom of speech. This amendment gave a lot of new privileges to us. This also states that we have freedom to have a peaceful assembly and not a rowdy riot. This is a great amendment so we don’t get out of hand. This is a very important amendment that has been very useful in our society. Now there are many different religions in the U.S. It Ratified on December 15, 1791.

177. 2nd Amendment

This amendment was the right to keep and bear arms. If we did not have this amendment we wouldn’t be allowed to keep guns. This is important because this is also a way for protection and hunting. People wanted to be able to protect and stay safe back when Britain was a threat so we needed this to allow are self’s to be safe. This can help so they can have more security in the Free State. This was ratified on December 15, 1791.

178. 5th Amendment

This amendment states that whoever does bad gets a fair trial. This says nobody that the person being trialed doesn’t have anything wrong until he gets a fair case at trail or court. This amendment is so they you can’t be just thrown in jail or sentenced to death without a fair trial in court. This amendment makes it possible for us to have a trial by jury. So that we can’t just be thrown in jail and have done nothing. This amendment was ratified on December 25, 1791.

Group 22 – c. Aisha – Mr. Taylor – Bryece

179. Water



Water power was the main mover of the Industrial Revolution. Waterwheels used the power of water running downstream in a river to turn machinery. Mills mechanized a number of very deadly tasks. Waterwheels powered grist mills for grinding grain into flour, saw mills for carving lumber out of logs, fuelling mills for finishing cloth, and twisting mills for winding silk thread. Neither animals nor people could match power of water.  The reliance upon water power to run the machinery of the new factories meant that factories had to be built upon a river. Since land near the rivers was limited, the land was very valuable and sometimes very expensive. The ability to capture more power from downhill rivers allowed mills to thrive and further encourage the development of water-powered technologies.

180. John


(1755-1835) As a justice in the U. S. Supreme Court, Marshall established the authority of the court in defining the limits of the U.S. Constitution and the authority of the executive branch. He served in the Virginia legislature and was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as a Federalist. He was appointed chief justice by President John Adams and served from 1801-1835. During his tenure he shaped federal law and government. Most important was the Marbury v. Madison decision (1803) in which he ruled that the federal courts had the power to determine whether or not congressional legislation was constitutional. 

181. Henry



(1817-1862) Thoreau was a leading American essayist, poet, practical philosopher, and transcendentalist. Transcendentalism, one of the most significant literary movements of nineteenth-century America, was based in idealism, the goodness of humankind and the harmony of creation. Thoreau was inspired by leading transcendentalist Ralph Waldo Emerson. The cabin Thoreau built on Walden Pond, and lived in for two years, was on property Emerson owned. He supported abolitionism, lecturing and writing against slavery.  Henry David Thoreau was born in 1817 in Concord, Massachusetts. He went to Harvard and graduated in 1837. At first Thoreau became a schoolteacher and tutor. Then he decided to fulfill his dream as a poet of nature. In 1846, when Thoreau went into town to have a pair of shoes repaired, he was arrested for refusing to pay a poll tax meant to support America's war in Mexico. He spent a night in jail. His most famous essay, Civil Disobedience, is based on that. The journal he kept during his first stages as a writer became his most famous book, Walden, Or Life in the Woods, in which he wrote his ideas on how an individual should live to nature. By the 1850s he had become greatly concerned over slavery, and he wrote passionately about it. Thoreau died of tuberculosis in 1862, at the age of 44. Although he never earned a lot from his writings, now his works fills 20 volumes

182. Founding


The Founding Fathers of the United States of America were political leaders who participated in the American Revolution by creating the United States Declaration of Independence. They established the United States Constitution. Within the large group known as the "Founding Fathers", there are two key groups: the ones that signed the “Declaration of Independence" in 1776 and the Framers of the Constitution who proposed the Constitution of the United States. Another group is also the one that signed the Articles of Confederation

The most well-known out of them all were Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Paine, John Jay, and Patrick Henry

183. Self-


 Self-government is when a group of people govern themselves by electing the people who will be their representative and create legislature. The HOB was the beginning of a representative government in the colonies. The colonies of Massachusetts and Rhode island were examples of self-government.

184. Thomas


(1586-1647) “Founder of the State of Connecticut, Father of American Democracy." Thomas Hooker led about one hundred people away to begin a new settlement, which is now called Hartford, Connecticut. Later three settlements merged to form the Connecticut Colony. This colony put Hooker's principles into practice when it adopted the Fundamental Orders sometimes called the first written constitution.

185. Naturalized


A naturalized citizenship is given to a person who has been born in another country or otherwise raised as a foreigner, but has been granted U.S. citizenship and the rights and privileges of being a citizen. The process by a person attains citizenship is called naturalization

186. Transportation

Transportation is the action of transporting someone or something or the process of being transported. Over history transportation has changed immensely. From steamboats, canals, trains, wagons, and eventually to the modern time automobiles.

187. Transatlantic

Slave Trade

In the early 16th century after many of the Indians were dying cause of diseases, they tried to bring over Africans who had been exposed to the same diseases as Europeans and wouldn’t die from them. The condition for the slaves was horrible because they had to work hard, and obey their masters. It consisted mostly of the West Indies, Britain, and United States. Britain was the main trader in the 18th century and eventually in 1806 they outlawed the trade, and the United States ended it eventually as well. The slave trade ended hundred percent in the 1850’s after the American Civil war.

Group 23 – c. Van – Kaila – Kaushik




We are Americans and we don't want someone to just take away or rights without a big process. Rights that cannot be taken away without a warning of due process are known as Unalienable Rights. The Unalienable Rights were included were noted in a preamble in the Natural Rights Section in the Declaration of Independence. It said that all men are created equal and our Creator gave us these Unalienable Rights. The rights protected us from things like the Police checking our homes without asking us.

189. Judicial


Judicial review is a Doctrine that increased the powers of the Supreme Court. It is also a vocabulary word that we 8th graders learned. Some cases that led to this review are the McCulloch vs. Maryland case and the Gibbons vs. Ogden. Both of these cases increased the Supreme Court's power over the States Rights. The review also stated that the Supreme Court has the power to decide whether a law passes by congress is unconstitutional.




The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 essays that were written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay. They wrote these essays to defend the position of the constitution, but they also helped us to think about what is better for the United States of America. All of these authors are federalists who want the constitution to be a part of America. They explained briefly about what the constitution is and how it will benefit America.




A pamphlet that was written by Thomas Paine in 1776. In this time period, we American's are in the process of thinking whether we need independence or not from Great Britain. Thomas Paine made the process really quick by letting us know in this article what the British is doing to us. He told us to wake up and see what's going on. He encouraged Americans against Great Britain and said that the King is treating us different from the people in England.

192. Great


The Great Awakening is an emotional religious moment that took place between the 1730-1740's. There lived a young preacher who started this moment named Jonathon Edwards. The impact of this religious moment swept through the colonies quicker than clock. We, the people who supported this moment, broke away from our old churches and formed new ones. Our opponents are strongly against the Great Awakening thinking that the moment was very fervent and more colonists would join it. With the Great Awakening on move, people started to think abnormally about political rights.

193. Geographic

Features of:

1. Thirteen Colonies - The Thirteen Colonies is on the east coast of North America founded by the people of Britain that wanted freedom of religion. The Queens and Kings of Britain were very sensitive about the Catholic religion that was going on in their country. If you didn’t believe that being a Catholic was your way of life then you go to the Americas. Some examples were Massachusetts, the colony that was founded by Quakers which were Protestants that thought all people were created equal in God’s eyes. This started to create many revolts of the people and of other countries as well.
2. Appalachian Mountains - This was a mountain range was north of Georgia, south if the great lakes, east of thirteen colonies, and west of the Louisiana Purchase. It was a part of the Proclamation line of 1763 that stated the colonist could not go further of this mountain range. The colonist started revolting because the taxes that they were paying were going to the soldiers to keeping them inside the boundary lines. The colonists also stated getting furious because they thought that the king didn’t trust them to go that far, because of the revolting. This was one of the reasons the American Revolution started.
3. Louisiana Purchase - This is the land that ran diagonally from Montana to Louisiana and the furthest parts were the western border of Illinois and the middle of Colorado. This land was founded by the French but by the 1800’s was the United States. It started when French people started to revolt and did it very violently by chopping off the king’s and queen’s heads. When Jefferson sent three men to France to negotiate a deal to see if they could navigate through the state Louisiana, but surprisingly Napoleon offered them the Louisiana Purchase, so the he could have money for the expenses of the army. Now that Jefferson has the land he sends 2 men to explore it. That started the Lewis and Clarke expedition.
4. Rocky Mountains - This is a mountain range the starts in the northern part of Alaska and ends in the northern part of New Mexico. As you can see It was very long so there was no way to get by it if you wanted to complete Manifest Destiny. This mountain range was a big obstacle, because at that elevation it can be cold and have bad weather conditions like blizzards. When the settlers wanted to get to California for the gold rush life or death was one of the things you had to risk

Group 24 – c. Mason – Colton – Lauren

194. Battle of


Battle of the Civil War where he Union (led by Ulysses S. Grant) fought in 1863 against the Confederacy (led by John C. Pemberton). The union won. This was the final major military action in Vicksburg campaign of the American Civil war.

195. James


(1758-1831) Involved in politics most of his life, James Monroe established one of the basic principles of American foreign policy with his Monroe Doctrine. Born in Virginia to a family of Scottish origin, Monroe fought and was wounded in the American Revolution. His political career began when he was elected to the Virginia legislature in 1782, and continued for more than 40 years. He participated in the Congress of the Articles of Confederation in 1783. As a member of the Virginia convention of 1788, he opposed ratification of the U.S. Constitution fearing that it made the federal government too strong and that this would negatively affect state's rights. He served as Minister to France from 1794-6 and assisted with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. He was elected president and served two relatively peaceful terms balancing sectional tensions between 1817-25. During his administration he signed the Missouri Compromise in 1820 and issued the Monroe Doctrine in 1823. In the doctrine, Monroe declared that the European powers should not colonize or interfere in the affairs of nations in the Western Hemisphere. 

196. Monroe


Was a doctrine signed by president James Monroe to help defend Latin America’s independence from Spain. This doctrine told the Europeans to back off from Latin America.

197. Washington’s



The speech president George Washington made when he left office. In this speech, he set a precedent for the US to avoid foreign affairs.

198. Marquis



(1757-1834) Marquis de Lafayette was a French aristocrat who played a leading role in two revolutions in France and in the American Revolution. He respected the concepts of liberty and freedom and constitutional government. Between 1776 and 1779 he fought in the American Revolution, commanding forces as a major-general in the colonial army. He returned to France in 1785 convinced of the value of governmental reform. In 1789, as a member of the Second Estate, the nobility in France, he drafted a version of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens, which served as the preamble to the French Constitution of 1791. In it, he declared that all men were created equal but that some were meant to govern, and they had a responsibility to protect the common good. His proposed government was divided into executive, legislative, and judicial branches. In 1789 at the start of a revolution, King Louis XVI appointed Lafayette to command the National Guard of Paris. In effect, Lafayette ruled Paris. He worked with the National Assembly of France to complete the Constitution of 1791. Lafayette opposed Napoleon's government and rejoined French politics following the Battle of Waterloo and the exile of the emperor. He toured the United States with his son Georges Washington de Lafayette for a year, 1824-5. He returned to lead the French National Guard in the Revolution of 1830 after which he retired from public life, "a hero of two worlds." 

199. Three-Fifths


An issue resolved between the Northern and Southern states at the constitutional convention. Southerners wanted to include slaves in the state’s population (because they had so many and would have more representatives in the HOR) but NOT in tax assessments. The Northerners did NOT want slaves to be counted for the population (the southerners would have less representatives in the HOR) but DID want them to be counted for tax assessments. The delegates compromised that 3/5 of the slaves in any state would count for BOTH tax assessments AND population.

200. Great


An issue settled at the constitutional convention between James Monroe and William Patterson (The New Jersey Plan and the Virginia Plan). The Virginia Plan favored the larger states, while the New Jersey Plan favored the smaller states. Since both plans called for 3 branches of legislature, the compromise included that. The Great Compromise said that there should be a House Of Representatives (determined by population) AND a senate (2 per state). This made sure the government favored both the larger AND the smaller states.




Meeting held to revise the Articles of confederation in which 55 delegates attended. Each state sent representatives except Rhode Island. This was where the Great Compromise and Three-Fifths Compromise were settled.

202. Jacksonian


Time during Andrew Jackson’s presidency. During this time, the phrases “spoils system” and “kitchen cabinet” were created and used. Also during Jackson’s presidency, the Bank of the United States was closed.

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880 -> Conquistador – ‘conquerors’ tribute – ‘payment of food & valuables’
880 -> Main Idea: Spain’s conquest, exploration, and colonization of the Americas brought wealth to some and tragedy to others
880 -> The American Revolution 1775 1783 1 Fighting Begins in the North read pgs 166-172
880 -> Vocabulary: Battle of Bull Run – first major battle of the Civil War, fought in Virginia in 1861

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