Us history Top 200ish – 1215 to 1870’s Definitions, Examples, & Meanings Study Guide for 2012 staar. Prepared by Fort Burrows 1

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All parts on a vehicle or machine that can be used for any other machine of the same type and model. For example, if the barrel of a gun was damaged, instead of taking apart the entire gun and creating a new barrel to fit the gun, they would already have a box full of barrels that would easily fit on the gun.

Group 10 – c. David – Tasia

84. Hudson



The Hudson River School was America's first true artistic group. Its name was invented to identify a group of New York City-based landscape painters that developed about 1850 under the influence of the English emigrant Thomas Cole. They painted a landscape of the Hudson River Valley.

85. John



(1785-1851) Born in Haiti, John J. Audubon lived in France and in various states in the United States throughout his lifetime. He was a gifted artist who preferred observing and painting birds and other wildlife. He began The Birds of America in 1820 and worked diligently to acquire patrons for the project. Published between 1827 and 1838, it contained life-size color prints of 489 species and remains the most comprehensive presentation of birds in America. Though he relied on his own observations for much of the work, he also used specimens provided by other naturalists. He generally used dead birds as models, wired into positions to suit his composition. Following completion of The Birds of America, he began work on North American Mammals, published between 1846 and 1854. It was completed by his sons following his death. One of Audubon's followers, George Bird Grinnell, founded the first Audubon Society in 1886, dedicated to increasing awareness of and appreciation for nature. 

86. Transcendentalism

A 19th century idealistic philosophical and social movement that taught that divinity pervades all nature and humanity. A small group of New England writers and thinkers believed that the most important truths in life transcended, or went beyond, human reason.

87. Northwest


The act of Congress in 1787 providing for the government of the Northwest territory and setting forth the steps by which its subdivisions can become states.

88. Civil Liberties

One’s freedom to exercise one’s rights as guaranteed under laws of the country.

89. Manifest


It is a belief in the 1800s that Americans had the right and the duty to spread across the continent all the way to the Pacific Ocean.

90. Florida



It was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that gave Florida to United Sates and set out a boundary between United States and Mexico. It is also known as the Adams-Onis Treaty.

91. Texas Annex


The annexation or seizure of Republic of Texas of United Sates of America as the twenty – eighth state which lead to the Mexican – American War. It occurred in 1845.

92. Mexican

Cession 1848

The Mexican Cession occurred in the time 1848. United Sates signed a treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and acquired California and New Mexico.

Group 11 – c. Fish – Davis

93. Gadsden Purchase 1853

America bought a strip of land in lower New Mexico and Arizona for 10 million dollars. We completed Manifest Destiny

94. US/Mexican


1. Causes - Manifest Destiny

2. Events – Battles of Buena Vista and Palo Alto

3. Effects - USA gains Mexico’s northern lands for just $15 million dollars.

95. Abolitionist

Person against slavery. Many of these people were in the North.

96. William

Lloyd Garrison

Most outspoken white abolitionist. Launched The Liberator, most influential anti-slavery newspaper.

97. Frederick


(ca. 1817-1895) Frederick Douglass was a leading African-American abolitionist in the nineteenth century who captivated his audiences with his strong presence. Born a slave in Tuckahoe, Maryland, Douglass escaped in 1838 to New Bedford, Massachusetts. He subscribed to The Liberator, the publication of abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison, and began lecturing for Garrison on the abolitionist movement in 1841. Douglass was an accomplished orator and writer, both of which developed from his involvement with abolition. His most famous book is his autobiography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave, published in 1845. He purchased his freedom in 1847, and continued to speak to issues of civil rights and human freedom until his death. 

98. Uncle



Controversial book by Harriet Beecher Stowe. She wrote about the horrors of slave life, and poured oil over the fire of Abolitionist movements across the United States, and is looked back to as a big reason that the civil war started.

99. John

Browns’ Raid

John, an Abolitionist, wanted to seize guns at a US armory then free slaves from nearby plantations.

He was lynched. His plot failed, but his death angered and inspired abolitionists all across America.

Group 12 – c. Stephen – Madison – AP

100. Elizabeth

Cady Stanton

(1815-1902) Author of the Declaration of the artist of Women, Elizabeth Cady was born in western New York state, educated at a female seminary, and spent her life seeking equal rights for women. She married Henry Stanton in 1840, and they had seven children. She met Lucretia Mott in England in 1840 and eight years later they organized the first convention of the women's movement, the Seneca Falls Women's Rights Convention. Stanton wrote the Declaration of Rights at this convention and pushed the assembly to adopt a resolution calling for the extension of the right to vote to women. She was the primary thinker in the women's movement while Susan B. Anthony was the organizer. 

101. Susan B


(1820-1906) Susan B. Anthony was a leading force in the women's suffrage movement for 50 years. Born in Massachusetts to a Quaker family, she taught school and became convinced that society needed to be reformed and freed from slavery and alcoholism (temperance movement). She was president of the Canajoharie Daughters of Temperance in the 1840s. She met Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1851 at an antislavery rally. They founded the ‘National American Woman Suffrage Association’ and the ‘American Equal Rights Association’. They organized the Women's State Temperance Society of New York. Not until 1853 did Anthony support the cause of women's suffrage and equal rights, but she remained committed to the cause for the remainder of her life, contributing significantly to the effort to attain equal rights for women. She was arrested, convicted and fined for voting in New York. The 19th Amendment (women’s voting) is referred to as the ‘Susan B Anthony Amendment’ in her honor.

102. Frances


(1839-1898) An American educator, temperance reformer, and women's suffragist, her influence was instrumental in the passage of the Eighteenth (Prohibition) and Nineteenth (Women Suffrage) Amendments to the United States Constitution.

103. Temperance

the issue of a high consumption level of alcohol in the 1820s. It continued to be problem in our society until 1851 when Maine banned the selling of alcohol. This ban was called the Temperance Movement. It saved many U.S families from splitting up and lowered the amount of child abuse.

104. Educational


the improving schools and educational. The government set up a tax that would go towards education and school districts. Massachusetts extended the school year and paid teachers more. By the 1850s most northern states followed and colleges were set up to teach the teachers.

105. Labor


the idea to get rid of hard labor and end slavery. A long day of hard work was not fair for African Americans. Slavery and hard labor was to end because all men are equal.

106. Prison


the fixing of prisons that treated prisoners who were mainly debtors badly. Dorothea Dix visited the prisons and saw many prisoners ill. She made it son debtors were treated more fairly with shorter time in prison and when ill they were treated like patients.

107. Civil War


13th - This amendment completely abolished slavery.

14th - This amendment guaranteed citizenship to former slaves in the U.S

15th - This amendment declared states cannot deny a citizens vote on the basis of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. {Guaranteed African Americans the right to Vote.

Group 13 – c. Paris – As As – Brendan

108. Freedmen’s


A government agency formed to help out the newly freed slaves during Reconstruction. This agency provided many things to help this very large population of Americans. It made food available. It also helped train and then helped find jobs for the African Americans, also poor whites. It provided medical care. One of the bureau’s most important set up was for school. They also made colleges for African Americans such as Howard, and Fink.

109. Enforcement


Act was from 1870-71 and it protected all the rights of African Americans. It ratified the 14th amendment as part of reconstruction. Also free men could be a full citizen. The Enforcement act protected the black man from violence when voting.

110. Segregation

a legal separation of races. 1877 it became a law in the south. It separated blacks and whites in everything. It was one of the Jim Crow laws. African Americans tried to challenge segregation, but they were overruled. Later the Constitution recognized the blacks as citizens.

111. Colonialism

1. Gold (economics) – migrated to learn how to manage limited resources to satisfy their needs, constantly looked for treasures (gold) for their country and themselves

2. GOD (religion) – migrated to practice their religion freely, to spread the Catholic religion to all others

3. Glory (political or social reasons) – to establish more freedoms and more equality in their Government, to start a new life, adventure, to obtain land

112. Religious


term for religious movement from one church to another. Most commonly in this time from catholic to protestant, depending on the region, and the time period.

113. Religious


when someone is discriminated against because of religious beliefs and customs. for instance the Mormons and protestants were discriminated against.

114. London Company

(Virginia Company)

English joint stock company chartered by king James 1, responsible for the landings at both Jamestown, and Plymouth

Group 14 – c. Cory – Noah – Manny

115. Indentured


Person who agreed to work for a fixed period of time in exchange for a passage to the colonies.

116. Religious

Reasons to


to US

1. Puritans - Came to America to reform the church of England

2. Pilgrims - Did not want to believe in the same things as the king and queen of England, wanted to get away from religious pressure to support the ‘state’ church

3. Quakers - Came in search of land and religious freedom

4. Catholics – Came for religious freedom and a new government

117. New England


Northern part of the 13 colonies. Based off of manufacturing and ship building. Could not farm because of poor soil.

118. Middle


In the middle of the 13 colonies. Mainly farming and manufacturing. Less manufacturing, more farming because of rich soil. Skilled Artisans and Craftsmen

119. Southern


Southern in the 13 colonies. Based off of farming. Mainly cotton and indigo. Slaves were in the southern colonies and mastered by plantation owners.

120. Enlightenment

Movement in Europe in the 1600s and 1700s that emphasized the people to use reason and logic.

Group 15 – c. Vuch – Poncho – Allysa

121. Charles



(1689-1755) A French political and social philosopher, Baron de Montesquieu defined the principle of separation of powers, calling for a system of checks and balances in government, in The Spirit of Laws (1734). His ideas influenced the founding fathers, notably Thomas Jefferson who developed them further in his Notes on the State of Virginia (1784). 

122. John


(1632-1704) John Locke's writings on the nature of government influenced the founding fathers of the United States. He was an English philosopher whose political theories were best summarized in his doctrine of natural rights which outlined the fundamental rights all humans should enjoy: life, liberty, and property. Locke's most significant work was his Second Treatise of Government (1690) in which he rejected the divine right of kings to rule, and argued for constitutional government to limit the power of the monarch thus preserving the natural rights of citizens. Locke invoked Hobbes' social contract theory that humans, being "by nature, free, equal, and independent," choose to live with others and create governments to protect their rights. The social contracts citizens form with the government binds them to act in support of the common good of society, and for government to do the same. Thus government develops at the consent of the governed and can be dissolved if the citizens believe that their government fails to act in their best interests. The committee which drafted the Declaration of Independence, led by Thomas Jefferson, adapted Locke's concept of natural rights and social contract as the philosophical rationale for breaking with England. 

123. Magna


It was a document created in 1215 by the English people as a law. King John (the king of United Kingdom) was the main author of the law. The Law was written to create for the purpose of limiting the powers of the monarch and preserving the basic legal rights of all free men in England.

124. English

Bill of


Was a law that mainly had to do with getting rid of the taxes that the British were giving to America. The Americans were very frustrated and they wanted to rebel since it was their land. They came up with a new bill that would stop this idea that the British had.

125. Mayflower


Was the first governing document in Plymouth Colony by the colonists, who are later on known in history as the Pilgrims. Almost half of the colonists were part of a group seeking the freedom to practice Christianity according to their own determination and not the will of the Angelic Church Faith. The Pilgrims sailed on the sea on a ship called “Mayflower”.

126. House of


The House of Burgesses was the first representative group to form in the American colonies. They first met in Jamestown, Virginia; July 30, 1619. They could make laws, which could be vetoed by the governor or the directors of the Virginia Company

127. FOC Fundamental

Orders of


It is considered the first written constitution (plan of government) in British North America. When Connecticut representatives met up to decide how the rights to livestock would remain and be withheld written on Jan 14, 1636 by Thomas Hooker

128. William


(1644-1718) William Penn established a colony in Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers and a place where they could create a government based on their own standards. Born in London into a merchant family, Penn joined the Quakers, also known as the Religious Society of Friends, in 1666. The Friends believed in direct guidance from the Holy Spirit, did not recognize the authority of an ordained ministry, believed in simple dress, and opposed war. Penn became a leading Quaker in England, preaching at meetings, publishing religious tracts, and supporting toleration of those who dissented from the teachings of the Church of England. He secured a land grant from the King of England in 1681, and the King called the area "Pennsylvania" or Penn's Woodland. Penn aggressively advertised his land grant and attempted to treat Native Americans and squatters from other colonies residing in the grant fairly. He rarely visited the colony and lived there only a few years which caused residents of the colony to under appreciate his role in the colony's development. He supported freedom of worship, welcomed immigrants, and did not require residents to serve in the militia. 

129. War



Consisted of the two warring sides. The United States and the British. There were many reasons why the Americans went to war with the British, but the most significant ones were the reason of the trading restrictions between them, the British supplying the Native Indians with weapons and horses, and the American merchants being drafted into the Royal Navy.

Group 16 – c. Preston – Veena – Anderson





(1857) Also known as the Dred Scott Decision. The Supreme Court decision Dred Scott v. Sandford was issued on March 6, 1857. Delivered by Chief Justice Roger Taney, this opinion declared that slaves were not citizens of the United States and could not sue in Federal courts. In addition, this decision declared that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional and that Congress did not have the authority to prohibit slavery in the territories. The Dred Scott decision was overturned by the 13th and 14th Amendments to the Constitution.

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880 -> Us history Fort Burrows Review Chapter 12 w/Yellow Answers
880 -> 10. 5 The War of 1812 Main Idea
880 -> Conquistador – ‘conquerors’ tribute – ‘payment of food & valuables’
880 -> Main Idea: Spain’s conquest, exploration, and colonization of the Americas brought wealth to some and tragedy to others
880 -> The American Revolution 1775 1783 1 Fighting Begins in the North read pgs 166-172
880 -> Vocabulary: Battle of Bull Run – first major battle of the Civil War, fought in Virginia in 1861

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