Us history Top 200ish – 1215 to 1870’s Definitions, Examples, & Meanings Study Guide for 2012 staar. Prepared by Fort Burrows 1

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49. John


(1735-1826) The 2nd President of the United States, Adams was born in Massachusetts, 1735, and was educated at Harvard as a lawyer. He defended the British soldiers after the Boston Massacre. He was a representative to the First and Second Continental Congresses. He led the debate which ratified the Declaration of Independence, served as ambassador to England, and served 8 years as vice president to Washington before his election as president. He managed to make more enemies than friends, promoting legislation which was not favored by political faction, the federalists or the anti-federalists. His support of the Alien and Sedition Acts angered many citizens. He appointed Chief Justice John Marshall to the Supreme Court. He also appointed several Federalists to fill new judgeships, known as the ‘Midnight Appointments’, which led to the Marbury v. Madison case. He was defeated by Thomas Jefferson in 1800 and retired from public life. Both he and Jefferson died on July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. 

50. William


Leading English abolitionist. He headed the parliamentary campaign against the British slave trade, leading to the passage of the Slave Trade Act of 1807.

51. John

Peter Muhlenberg

An American clergyman and Continental Army soldier during the Revolutionary War. He was also a political figure in the newly-independent United States – serving in both the U.S. House of Representatives and U.S. Senate.

52. Roger


He was an early American lawyer and politician. He served on the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence, and was also a representative and senator in the new republic. He was the only person to sign all four great state papers of the U.S.: the Continental Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution.

53. Charles


A wealthy Maryland planter and early advocate of independence from Great Britain, he served as a delegate to the Continental Congress and later as United States Senator for Maryland. He was the only Catholic and the longest-lived (and last surviving) signatory of the Declaration of Independence, dying at the age of 95.

54. Jonathan Trumball, Sr.

One of the few Americans who served as governor in both a pre-Revolutionary colony and a post-Revolutionary state (Connecticut). During the American Revolution he was the only colonial governor who supported the American side.

55. John B.


A career military officer who served in the armies of three nations - as a U.S. Army officer in the Mexican-American War, a Confederate general during the Civil War, and a general in the Imperial Mexican Army. He was most noted for his actions in delaying Federal troops during the 1862 Peninsula Campaign through elaborate ruses that gave an impression that Confederates had more forces than in actuality, and for successfully defending Galveston, Texas, against the Union Army and Navy early in 1863.

Group 7 – c. IsE – Tori – SoSo

56. Patrick


(1736-1799) Born in Virginia, Patrick Henry taught himself law and developed a promising career. He entered the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1765, and quickly influenced the colonial resistance to British taxation without representation. He was a member of the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia in 1774. In March 1775, in an impassioned speech to the Virginia House of Burgesses, he stated: "Is life so dear or peace so sweet as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take, but as for me, Give Me Liberty Or Give Me Death!" He was active in Virginia politics, serving as the first governor of the new commonwealth. He did not participate in the Constitutional Convention, and he opposed ratification because of the potential limitations to the rights of states. 

57. Wentworth


(1746 - 1817) First black man to be a property owner in New Hampshire; he was educated and became school master in his hometown; later he was voted in as a public official (another first) 1761; Cheswell was a Patriot for the Revolutionary cause and he

was involved in his community government. In addition to his civic service, Wentworth was also a patriot leader. In fact, the town selected him as the messenger for the Committee of Safety – the central nervous system of the American Revolution that carried intelligence and messages back and forth between strategic operational centers. Serving in that position, Wentworth undertook the same task as Paul Revere, making an all-night ride to warn citizens of imminent British invasion.

58. George


(1732-1799) George Washington became the first President of the United States elected following procedures outlined in the newly ratified Constitution. He served two terms between 1789 and 1797. A resident of Virginia, he was a surveyor, a planter, a soldier in the French and Indian War, a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses, Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution, and the chairman of the Constitutional Convention in 1787. His prestige as a southern planter, his strong character, and his heroic military accomplishments ensured his recognition, and the Electoral College unanimously supported him for president in 1789. During his two terms he started regular meetings of his cabinet and supported Alexander Hamilton's plans to deal with war debts and create a currency system for the new nation. Washington was a Federalist, believing in a strong central government and the responsibility of the wealthy to ensure the wellbeing of all, but he remained open to the opinions of others, especially fellow Virginian Thomas Jefferson. During his second term, an opposition political party solidified as the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans. In 1793 he sought to avoid another war with European powers, Britain and France, by issuing the Neutrality Proclamation, a move which incensed pro-French Jeffersonians but heartened Federalists. This stands as one of Washington's greatest accomplishments because it allowed the fledgling United States to build a solid system of government, expand westward, and develop a merchant marine to engage in trade without becoming embroiled in another European war. His plantation home was Mount Vernon. He is known as the "Father of Our Country" and his likeness is one of four presidents carved into the monument at Mount Rushmore, South Dakota.

Presidents' Day, a federal holiday, occurs on the third Monday in February, near his birthday, February 22.

59. John



(1747-1792) John Paul Jones is considered the founder of the U.S. Navy. Born John Paul in Scotland, he was apprenticed to a merchant trading in the West Indies and American Colonies. He changed his name to Jones following the murder of a crew member on his merchant vessel in 1773. He was daring and volatile, and led raids on British vessels during the American Revolution. In 1779 he commanded the Bonhomme Richard and engaged the British vessel the Serapis in battle. When the Serapis captain asked Jones if he was prepared to surrender, Jones replied, "I have not yet begun to fight." True to his word, Jones and crew defeated the British, an event which marked the high point of his career. 

60. Mercy



(1728-1814) Mercy became a Patriot writer and first woman historian of the American Revolution. She wrote plays, poems and lots of other writings that supported independence. She used her writing to display her ideas. Her ideas and writings convinced many people in Massachusetts to become Patriots. Of all the people writing to support the patriotic cause, Mercy Otis Warren was the only woman who published plays, books, and poetry.

61. James


(1751-1836) Born in Virginia, James Madison played a role in most of the significant political events over a 40-year period from 1776, when he began his political career, to 1817, when he completed his second term as the fourth president of the United States. He participated in the Continental Congress, and because of his leadership role in writing and ratifying the U.S. Constitution, is considered the "Father of the Constitution." He was one of three authors of The Federalist papers. He supported a strong central government, a political theory that coalesced as the platform of the Federalist party. This party and its opposition, the Federalists, formed the basis of a bipartisan political system which continues today. He wrote the first 12 amendments to the Constitution, ten of which were ratified as the Bill of Rights. One of the two not ratified, regarding congressional pay raises, was later ratified as the 27th Amendment in May 1992. Elected president in 1808, he presided through the War of 1812 and fled Washington, D.C. in August 1814, when the British invaded and set the public buildings, the Capitol, and the White House afire. 

62. James


(1760-1830) James Armistead [Lafayette] was an African American spy during the American Revolution. After getting consent of his master, William Armistead, he volunteered in 1781 to join the army under General Lafayette. He was stationed as a spy, acting as a slave in Lord Cornwallis' camp. He relayed much information about the British plans for troop deployment and about their arms. His intelligence reports espionage were instrumental in helping to defeat the British at the surrender at Yorktown. 

63. Thomas


(1737-1809) Born in England, Thomas Paine contributed to the spirit of revolution in America and France through his influential writings. He moved to the American colonies in 1774 and edited the Pennsylvania Magazine in Philadelphia. In January 1776 he wrote Common Sense, a pamphlet which attacked the monarchical system, supported independence, and outlined a new form of government. He became the leading propagandist of the American Revolution, publishing his Crisis papers. Unable to make a living in the United States following the Revolution, he moved to France. He did not get involved with the French Revolution until he read Edmund Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790). Then Paine wrote The Rights of Man, in two parts (1791-2), in which he urged a radical departure from traditional rule and adoption of a government by the consent of citizens. He was imprisoned in France during the revolution. During that time, he wrote The Age of Reason (1792) which attacked organized Christian religions, refuted biblical passages, and supported deism. His writings at once spoke to and alienated people of all classes in England, France, and America.  




(1743-1826) The third president, Thomas Jefferson was a founding father and principal author of the Declaration of Independence which rationalized the break with Britain. He also approved the Louisiana Purchase which nearly doubled the area controlled by the United States. Jefferson was born into the Virginia planter class, attended private schools and entered the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1769. By 1774 he owned 10,000 acres and more than 200 slaves. That same year he wrote the first of many influential political pamphlets. He became an early and effective leader in the American Revolution. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia and in 1776 he was a member of the committee which wrote the Declaration of Independence. He drafted a plan to organize the territories of the expanding United States, a system based on rectangular surveys. His plan to bar slavery from the territories was incorporated into the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, but Jefferson owned slaves until he died. In 1785 he replaced Benjamin Franklin as minister to France and was in France when the U.S. Constitution was drafted. Jefferson served as secretary of state under President George Washington. By 1793, he and James Madison organized opposition to the Federalist's plan for national economic development and foreign entanglements with England. The Republicans emerged to provide an outlet for citizens to oppose office holders they disagreed with, and to elect replacements which shared their own concerns. Thus the first political system developed. The Republicans favored state's rights in government in opposition to the strong central government favored by Federalists. Jefferson expressed his concerns about this in the Kentucky Resolutions, written in 1798. Jefferson ran for president in 1796, but earned only enough votes to serve as vice-president to Federalist John Adams. In 1800 Jefferson was elected president and served two terms. He maintained peace and encouraged westward expansion during the first term, completing the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 from Napoleon. Foreign affairs clouded his second term as France and England both refused to recognize that the United States was neutral. Jefferson imposed the unpopular Embargo Act of 1807 which paralyzed trade for over one year. It was repealed by Congress days before James Madison assumed the presidency. Jefferson and John Adams both died on July 4, 1826, the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. 

65. Benjamin


(1706-1790) Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston in 1706, the fifteenth child of a candle maker. He became a well-known printer in Philadelphia and an active leader in the city. He published Poor Richard's Almanac between 1732 and 1758 and his Autobiography in 1818. Through these he gained literary distinction. In the Almanac he shared bits of wisdom with readers and pithy sayings which helped shape the American character. He founded the first privately supported circulating library in America, in Philadelphia. Franklin was a member of the committee which wrote the Declaration of Independence but spent most of the period of the American Revolution in France. He represented the colonies as the American envoy starting in 1776 and remained until 1785. He negotiated the alliance with France and then the Treaty of Paris which ended the war. He also participated in the U.S. Constitutional Convention in 1787, and earned distinction as the oldest delegate in attendance. Franklin's many talents earned him a reputation as "the first civilized American." In addition to his political activities, he supported education and was considered a gifted scientist without peer in the colonies. He proved that lightning was a form of electricity, a discovery that earned him international fame. He also invented bifocal glasses, lightning rods, and the Franklin stove. 

2nd Period Group 8 – c. Julio – Harshita – Chisum

66. Bernardo

de Galvez

(1746-1786) Before Spain officially declared support for the rebelling colonies of Britain, Gálvez was assisting the revolution. He corresponded directly with Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, and Charles Henry Lee and sealed off the port of New Orleans so that British ships could not utilize the Mississippi River. He also welcomed any American patriots at his ports and river. The river, under French and Spanish administration, served as a constant source of money, ammunition and weapons to the American forces under George Washington and George Rogers Clark. By 1777, more than $70,000 had reached American troops.

Spanish military leader and the general of Spanish forces in New Spain, he served as governor of Louisiana and Cuba and as viceroy of New Spain. He aided the Thirteen Colonies in their quest for independence and led the Spanish armies against Britain in the Revolutionary War, defeated the British at Pensacola and re-conquered Florida for Spain.

1779, led the first cattle drive, 10,000 cattle, from Texas to the Revolutionary Army.

67. Haym


(1740-1785) Salomon was a Polish Jew who immigrated to New York during the period of the American Revolution and who played an important role in financing the Revolution. When the war began, he joined the Sons of Liberty and became a prime financier of the Continental Army. Salomon was operating as a financial broker in New York City. He seems to have been drawn early to the Patriot side and was arrested by the British as a spy in 1776. He was pardoned and used by the British as an interpreter with their German troops. Salomon, however, continued to help prisoners of the British escape and encouraged German soldiers to desert. After the war, he managed, time-after-time,

to raise the money to bail out the debt-ridden government of the newly established nation.

68. George


(1725-1792) Born on the family plantation in Virginia, Mason did not seek glory in public service, but his writings influenced those working to develop a new government. He believed in the need to restrict governmental power and supported protection of human rights. His Virginia Declaration of Rights was a model for other bills of rights in the United States and in France where the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was adopted in 1789. Mason concentrated his political activities to the state of Virginia until 1787. Then he served as a delegate from Virginia to the U.S. Constitutional Convention. He delivered 139 important speeches at the convention, making him one of the most influential of the founding fathers. But he became disgusted as other delegates chose to exclude a bill of rights from the document. He refused to sign the Constitution at the end of the convention and he did not support its ratification. The passage of the Bill of Rights and the adoption of the 10th Amendment, which supported the powers of the states, relieved most of his concerns. He led those pressing for the addition of States rights and individual rights to the U.S. Constitution as a balance to the increased federal powers. His efforts succeeded in convincing the Federalists to add the first ten amendments and for that reason he is often referred to as the “Father of the Bill of Rights”.

69. Andrew


(1767-1845) Andrew Jackson, known as "Old Hickory," contributed to the democratic spirit in America, becoming the symbol of the common man's rise from meager origins to positions of prominence. Born in South Carolina of Irish parents, Jackson was orphaned by age 14. He became a lawyer after apprenticing in a North Carolina firm and traveled to Tennessee in 1788 to earn a living. He rose to national prominence during the War of 1812 as a military leader who challenged the Creek Indians in Alabama, and who fended off the British in the Battle of New Orleans. He ran for the presidency in 1824 but was not elected. By 1828, however, a political revolution had occurred and the electorate more than doubled. In an infectious democratic spirit, Jackson was elected in a landslide. Since the American Revolution, Congress had dominated the federal government, but Jackson favored a powerful presidency. His style of government based in popular support became known as Jacksonian Democracy. He increased the control of the executive branch of government thereby starting a trend toward centralized government. His negotiations of foreign policy generally pleased Europeans, but many in the United States criticized the President for the power he assumed. His Indian Removal Act of 1830 forced the relocation of Native Americans from Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, and Mississippi to open these lands for white settlement. More than 100,000 Indians moved over a ten-year period in a process known as the "Trail of Tears." Jackson appointed political allies to positions in his government; a process called the "spoils system," and vetoed more bills in his two terms as president than previous presidents combined.

70. Era of



This marked a period in the political history of the United States that reflected a sense of national purpose and a desire for unity among Americans. Although this period has often been called the Era Of Good Feelings due to its one-party dominance, in fact, Democratic-Republicans were deeply divided internally and a new political system was about to be created from the old Republican-Federalist competition that had been known as the First Party System.

71. Election


There were four candidates, all in the republican party. John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, Andrew Jackson, and William Crawford. Henry Clay and William Crawford were knocked out of the election. John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson were the remainders. Clay being speaker of the HOR, pushed for Adams. Adams won the election, but Jackson suspected bribery and stated it unfair.

72. Election


As Adams runs for re-election he has a harder campaign. Andrew Jackson was his only competition. The campaign was not focused on issues, but only their personal life. After this bickering Jackson easily won. The common people cheered for finally they would be heard by the government.

73. Fugitive


The right to purse and recapture fugitive slaves using any means necessary. A Fugitive Slave is a run-away. The Fugitive Slave Act was enacted to catch and return slaves that tried to escape enslavement.

74. Trail



The trail that the Native Americans had to go on. The Native Americans were forced to but a combined army, militia, and volunteer force. Many Native Americans died. The 5 different groups went. Cherokee, Choctaw, Muscogee (a.k.a. Creek), Chickasaw, and Seminole. Indian to Indian territory (modern day Oklahoma.) Many of the Native Americans called it the Trail of Tears and Death. There were approximately 11 trails, ranged from 200 to 900 miles, walking barefooted. President Jackson ordered this.

75. Indian



In 1830, this law stating that all Native Americans would be moved from the East of the Mississippi River across to the West side. Indian Territory (modern day Oklahoma). President Andrew Jackson was a very strong supporter of this Act. The whites wanted the fertile soil for growing cotton.

Group 9 – c. Lisa – Brandon – Drew

76. Seminole

Wars - 3

1st1817-1818 In the first war, US authorities had to recapture runaway slaves that lived with the Seminole Indians. In 1818, General Andrew Jackson was dispatched with a large army of 3,000 people to punish the Seminoles. Jackson invaded the Florida area and fought with the Seminoles and African Americans.

2nd1835-1845 The northerners started to move onto Seminole territory. The government asked the Seminoles to move but they refused so they created the Treaty of Moultrie Creek. The treaty required the Seminoles to move South. The Seminoles moved onto a reservation, but it did not satisfy their needs. President Jackson persuaded Congress to pass the Indian Removal Act. The Seminoles did not want to move, but the chiefs agreed to go check out the new land. When they get there, they were persuaded to sign a treaty saying they would move. When the chiefs got back though, they claimed that they had been tricked. Finally, Osceola led a surprise attack on the Americans, which ended with him dying in prison. The second Seminole War ended with many Seminoles dying off, and the others sent to reservations in the west.
3rd1855-1858 This war was also known as the Billy Bowlegs war because the Seminoles main leader was Billy Bowlegs. Once again, the war was over land distribution, and the result ended with the Seminoles losing. By the end of the war, the Seminoles had less than 200 people remaining in Florida. Another treaty was made at the end stating that if the Creeks and Seminoles would move west, but they would be given their own government. The treaty did not put an end to the fight between Seminoles and white men, and the Seminoles did not get their independent government as the treaty promised.

77. Free



The system where businesses and individuals can make their own economic choices. The production and distribution are completely up to the businesses.

78. Industrialization

When overall production changes from farming production to manufacturing production. Industrialization starts the use of machines and makes things easier to make or create.

79. Urbanization

The transition from farms and towns to cities. It can also be when there is a quick migration of people from small desolate areas to flourishing cities.

80. Cottage


When things are created and produced within a home industry instead of a business. The products are often unique and not created in large numbers.

81. Steamboat

In 1807, Robert Fulton was inspired to created/build a boat that would be propelled by steam. Revolutionary idea, steam powered boat. To operate it, you would need to constantly have wood and water. The wood heated the water in large boilers. The boiling water turned to steam, which moved the pistons up and down. The pistons were attached to as drive shaft which was attached to a paddle wheel. The turning paddle wheel caused the boat to move. This boat made water travel faster and easier. Also, the COST of shipping was greatly reduced, making the final cost of products be lower.

82. Cotton Gin

Separates the seeds and seed hulls from the cotton fibers. The cotton gin revolutionized cotton making because it made picking out cotton easier, faster, and cleaner.

83. Interchangeable

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880 -> Main Idea: Spain’s conquest, exploration, and colonization of the Americas brought wealth to some and tragedy to others
880 -> The American Revolution 1775 1783 1 Fighting Begins in the North read pgs 166-172
880 -> Vocabulary: Battle of Bull Run – first major battle of the Civil War, fought in Virginia in 1861

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