READ pgs 328 - 336 The Industrial Revolution of the 1800s affected society in much the same way as the technological revolution of the 1900s did. With bewildering speed, the Industrial Revolution changed the world from a society of farmers to a society dominated by manufacturers. In the same way, the technological changes of the late 1900s converted an economy dominated by manufacturing to an information-based economy. In both areas, changes were rapid and sweeping. All levels of society were affected. Looking back at the Industrial Revolution can help us understand changes that are altering life in America today. Time Line: 1793 - Samuel Slater builds a textile mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island; the first
successful textile mill in the US 1790’s - the Lancaster Road improves travel between Philadelphia and Central
Pennsylvania Early 1800’s - development of the steam powered boat creates a new age of steamboat
travel on major rivers of the US 1817 - Mississippi becomes the 20th state in the US 1818 - the National Road provides an alternative to travel over rocky,
muddy, older roads 1821 - Mexico wins independence from Spain 1830’s - Young women workers in the Lowell textile mills publish their
During the first half of the 1800’s, the Industrial Revolution caused
dramatic changes in the way Americans worked and lived.
Vocabulary: Industrial Revolution – gradual process by which machines replaced hand tools; steam and other new sources of power replaced human and animal power
spinning jenny - machine developed by James Hargreaves in 1764, that could spin
several threads at once capital – money raised for a business venture capitalist – person who invests in a business in order to make a profit factory system – method of producing goods that brought workers and machinery
together in one place interchangeable parts – identical, machined-made parts for a tool or instrument Lowell girl –young woman who worked in the Lowell Mills in Massachusetts
urbanization – process of a population shifting from farms to cities Setting the Scene: At dawn, the factory bell woke 11-year-old Lucy Larcom. Rising quickly, she ate her breakfast and hurried to her job at a spinning mill in Lowell, Massachusetts. Years later, Larcom described her workplace: “The buzzing and hissing and whizzing of pulleys and rollers and spindles
and flyers around me often grew tiresome…. I could look across the room
and see girls moving backward and forward among the spinning
frames, sometimes stooping, sometimes reaching up their arms, as their
work required.” –Lucy Larcom, Among Lowell Mill-Girls: A Reminiscence, 1881
In the early 1800s, busy factories and whirring machinery had become part of a revolution that was reaching the United States. Unlike the American Revolution, this one had no battles or fixed dates. The new revolution - the Industrial Revolution - was a long, slow process that completely changed the way in which goods were produced. The Industrial Revolution (IR) Begins
Before the 1800s, most Americans were farmers and produced goods by hand
As a result of the IR, machines replaced hand tools
New sources of power, such as steam, replaced human and animal power
The economy began a gradual shift from farming toward manufacturing
The IR started in Britain in the mid-1700s
British inventors developed new machines that transformed the textileindustry
In 1764, Hargreaves developed the spinning jenny that could spin several threads at once instead of spinning one at a time
Cartwright built a loom powered by water that allowed a worker to produce a great deal more cloth in a day
The Factory System
New inventions led to a new system of producing goods
Before the IR, most spinning and weaving was done in the home
Large machines had to be housed in large mills and near rivers for power
In 1800, 6% of population lived in urban areas but grew to 15% by 1850
It took until 1920 for more people to live in cities than on farms
¿¿ How did the Industrial Revolution affect urbanization ? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.
Growing cities had many problems like overcrowding
Dirt and gravel roads turned into mudholes when it rained
Cities had no sewers and people threw garbage in the street
Disease spread quickly – influenza and cholera killed hundreds
Cities had attractions like theaters, museums and circuses
People could shop in fine stores that sold latest fashions from Europe
Women enjoyed hat shops, china shops, shoe and “fancy-goods” stores
1. Which of the following is the best example of the impact of geography on the
Industrial Revolution ?
the location of the first American textile mill
the invention of interchangeable parts
the use of child labor
the combination of spinning and weaving in a single factory
2. Which of the following was not true of American cities during the early years of the
3. What was the Industrial Revolution, and how did it take hold in the US ?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. 4. Why was Lowell, Massachusetts, called a ‘model’ factory town?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. 5. What was daily life like in early factories ?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. 6. What impact did the Industrial Revolution have on American cities ?