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US HISTORY EOC REVIEW
GEORGE WASHINGTON-Federalist (1789-1797):
Established 4 cabinet departments to help run the new government (Department of State, War, Treasury, and Office of Attorney General.
* Secretary of State –Thomas Jefferson, Sec. of War-Henry Knox, Sec. of Treasury- Alexander Hamilton, Attorney-General- Edmund Randolph.
* 1791- The Bill of Rights added to the Constitution – James Madison
B. President Washington’sForeign Policy- the young nation should not get involved in foreign wars (NEUTRALITY)
Britain & France went to war (1793) with each other, President Washington declared America’s neutrality (Proclamation ofNeutrality (1793).
1.Jay’s Treaty (1794)- Britain was stopping US cargo ships bound for France; to avoid war, Washington sent John Jay to Britain to seek a solution.
* Jay was forced to agree that the British had a right seize cargo bound for French ports.
* Jay did not get compensation for American merchants whose cargo had already been seized.
* Treaty angered many Americans
*** Significance:temporarily PREVENTED A WAR between America & Britain!
2. Pinckney’s Treaty (1795)- When America signed Jay’s Treaty, Spain worried US & Britain might join forces and take Spain’s North American territory. President Washington sent Thomas Pinckney to negotiate with Spain.
* Treaty gave US the right to navigate the Mississippi River and deposit goods at New Orleans.
* Judiciary Act 1789- created appeals courts to help US Supreme Court hear cases.
C. 1ST two political parties (Federalists & Democrat-Republicans)
** Arguments between Jefferson & Hamilton over Hamilton’s Economic Plan led to creation of first two political parties.
Opposition: to assumption plan & national bank –unconstitutional.
** KNOW THAT THE DEBATE OVER HAMILTON’S FINANCIAL PLAN LED TO CREATION OF AMERICA’S FIRST TWO POLITICAL PARTIES.
1. Federalists- strong national government, democracy “dangerous”- wealthy/educated should rule, trade & manufacturing key to our wealth.
* Loose constructionist- favored a loose interpretation of the Constitution; used “necessary & proper clause” to justify creation of stronger government; *Leader – Alexander Hamilton.
2. Democrat-Republicans- strength of nation in farmers, believed that the wealthy corrupted government, favored more power to state governments.
* Strict Constructionist- favored strict interpretation of Constitution; government may only do something if Constitution specifically says it can.
* Leaders- Thomas Jefferson & James Madison
D. President Washington’s Farewell Address: know the three warnings: avoidsectionalism/regionalism, avoid political parties, and avoid involvement in foreign entanglements (wars).
E. Washington set the precedent (tradition) for a president to serve only two terms.
1793-Eli Whitneyinvented the cotton gin- made cotton production more profitable and increased the demand for slaves in the South; interchangeable parts- led to 1stindustrial revolution
President JOHN ADAMS-Federalist (1797-1801)
1796 Election- Federalist John Adams elected President & Democrat-Republican Jefferson became Vice President- showed weaknesses of Electoral College
Foreign Policy Issues: The French were enraged by America’s agreement with Britain (JAY’S TREATY) so they began stopping American cargo ships & seizing cargo bound for Britain.
*Federalists called for war with France.
A.The X, Y, Z Affair- President Adams sent 3 US ambassadors to France to negotiate with the French about seizure of US cargo; 3 French ambassadors (“X,Y, AND Z”) demanded bribes of $250,000 before they would allow US ambassadors to speak with French officials.
*Americans call for war with France.
B. The Quasi War (with France)- (1798) Congress voted to intercept armed French ships and suspend US trade with France; an undeclared war.
* Quasi War angered Democrat-Republicans who intensified criticism of President Adams & Federalists.
C. Convention of 1800- (Agreement between the US & Napoleon) US gave up all financial claims against France- France released the US from a Revolutionary War treaty with France (Treaty of 1778).
D. Alien and Sedition Acts (know components of this law)- Federalist law aimed to hurt Democrat-Republican party whose supporters tended to be immigrants.
* Alien Act-prevented immigrants from becoming US citizens for 14 years; this hurt Democrat-Republicans because immigrants usually joined Democrat-Republican Party in big numbers.
* Sedition Act- law passed by the Federalists in Congress and signed by John Adams; made it illegal to say anything that might be “scandalous, false or that might incite “rebellion”; meant to stop all criticism of Federalist Party & Adams.
** Purpose: SHUTDOWN ANY OPPOSITION TO FEDERALISTS AND JOHN ADAMS & WEAKEN THE DEMOCRAT-REPUBLICAN PARTY.
** The Alien & Seditions Acts enraged many citizens- Republican controlled legislatures in Kentucky & Virginia passed resolutions written secretly by Jefferson & Madison.
E. Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions (Resolves)
* Written secretly by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison; was written because of the outrage over the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Virginia Resolution- Jefferson & Madison argue that a state may interpose between the federal government and the people to stop an action (INTERPOSITION).
Kentucky Resolution- argued that if the federal government passed an unconstitutional law, the states can nullify (declare it invalid) THEORY OF NULLIFICATION.
Thomas Jefferson Presidency-Republican (1801-1809)
Election of 1800 (Federalist John Adams v. Republican Thomas Jefferson)
* Tie between Jefferson & Aaron Burr—determined by the House of Representatives.
*12thAmendment- changed the Electoral College system.
* Thomas Jefferson named winner.
* “Revolution of 1800” ; first time in US history that presidential power is passed from one party to another- peaceful transfer of power is the tradition.
* “Midnight Judges” – President John Adams spent his last days in office up until his last night in office giving federal judgeship jobs to Federalists; led to case Marbury v. Madison.
Marbury v. Madison (1803): William Marbury demands that Supreme Court force President Thomas Jefferson & Sec. of State James Madison give him his judge job; Court rules that an act of Congress is unconstitutional for the first time = “judicial review”.
Louisiana Purchase (nearly doubled size of US) - **Jefferson bought land in North America from France (Napoleon) even though he did not believe that the Constitution gave him the power to do so.
Lewis & Clark Expedition (“Corps of Discovery”) –sent by Jefferson & Congress to explore Louisiana Purchase territory; explored trans-Mississippi west; crossed Rockies and entered Oregon; traced Columbia River to Pacific Ocean.
Led by Meriwether Lewis & William Clark
Essex Junto – Massachusetts Federalists plotted to take New England states out of the Union because they feared that the Louisiana Purchase will made the South & West more powerful than North East.
Embargo Act of 1807- British & French were at war and were seizing US cargo ships; the British were kidnapping US sailors (IMPRESSMENTS); President Jefferson wanted to avoid war so Congress passed law halting all trade between US & Europe.
Embargo Act of 1807- US halted all trade with Europe; embargo hurt US manufacturers much more than it hurt Europe- Congress repealed the law in 1809.
Macon’s Bill #2
Presidency of James Madison-Republican (1809-1817)
The War of 1812 (US vs. Britain) Round II
Causes: the British were still seizing American cargo ships; the British were kidnapping US cargo ship sailors (IMPRESSMENTS), British were inciting Indians to attack American settlers (Tecumseh).
War Hawks – Congressmen from South & West who tended to be Democrat-Republicans who resented Britain; wanted war BECAUSE: Britain’s cargo seizure hurt farmers & British were stirring up Native Americans against settlers in the western & southern frontier.
Major Battles/Event of the War:
During the war, the British invaded and burned the White House.
During the bombardment of Fort McHenry-Francis Scott Key wrote the Star Spangled Banner.
US success- US navy (led by Oliver Perry) on the Great Lakes.
Battle of New Orleans- actually fought after a peace treaty had been signed in Belgium; Andrew Jackson led American victory against a superior British force; made Jackson a hero in the US.
Hartford Convention- New England Federalists met to show opposition to the War of 1812; led to the eventual decline of Federalist Party in America== DEATH OF THE FEDERALIST PARTY!
* Our victory in the War and the Hartford Protest made Federalist Party look unpatriotic.
Treaty of Ghent – peace treaty signed in Belgium; ENDED THE WAR of 1812.
Effects of the war: last war US & Britain fight against each other, built US nationalism
1817-Rush-Bagot Treaty- fixed border between US & Canada; demilitarized the Great Lakes.
Convention 1818- US & Britain agree to jointly occupy Oregon territory for 10 years (end up being 20 years).
President James Monroe-Republican (1817-1825)
Period was known as “Era of Good Feelings”-mainly because there was only one major political party (there was very little political dispute).
Period in which there was an emphasis on national pride and building our national economy and infrastructure.
A.Henry Clay’s “American System”- Henry Clay wanted to build up the American economy and infrastructure; his plan called for 3 things: a national bank, internal improvements (roads, canals etc.), and tariffs that would protect American manufacturers.
1819- Adams-Onis Treaty (Spain cedes all of Florida to US, western US border of Louisiana Purchase is decided.)
B.The Missouri Compromise (1820) - Maine in as a free state-Missouri in as a slave state, compromise would prevent slavery north of Missouri’s southern border along the 36-30 parallel line.
* Temporarily maintained the balance in the Senate between free & slave states.
** developed by Henry Clay.
C. 1823- The Monroe Doctrine – President James Monroe declared that the America’s were off limits to further European colonization= South America will be US sphere of influence.
Election of 1824- “Battle of the Favorite Sons”-Andrew Jackson & Henry Clay were from the west and Clay ran on his “American System” idea, John Q. Adams represented the New England area, William Crawford represented the South.
D. The “Corrupt Bargain”- Andrew Jackson won most of the popular vote-but no candidate won majority in Electoral College; the vote was decided in the House of Reps. Were Henry Clay was speaker and threw his support behind John Q. Adams.
* Once in office, Adams made Henry Clay Sec. of State. Jackson supporters claimed a “corrupt bargain had been made.
Spoils System-practice of giving government jobs to friends/loyal supporters; led to abuses and corruption. Jackson fired large numbers of government workers and installed his own supporters in these positions.
White Male Suffrage –expanded: Before 1820- there was a property requirement to vote (means only property holding whites can vote).
After 1820’s- states lowered or eliminated property ownership requirements to vote =
More white males allowed to vote (blacks, Native Americans, & women still could not vote).
- Formation of the Whig Party-to oppose Jackson
The Bank War- Jackson and most westerners & southerners disliked the national bank of the US; Jackson set out to destroy the national bank.
* “Pet Banks” – Jackson took federal government money out of the national bank and placed the money in small state owned banks (pet banks) around the country- eventually kills the National Bank.
D. The Nullification Crisis- Cause: Congress raised the tariff which would hurt southern and westerners.
Tariff of 1828 (Abominations)- name of the tariff that raised tariffs.
John C. Calhoun (SC) – then Vice President, advocated that South Carolina and other states had the right to declare a federal law unconstitutional (nullification); NULLIFICATION Crisis-Calhoun and other southerners believe states have right to “nullify” unfair federal laws; South Carolina threatened to leave the Union if Tariff of 1828 was not cancelled.
Jackson & The Force Bill- Congress gave Jackson power to use force to keep South Carolina in Union and enforce tariff.
Henry Clay compromise ends nullification crisis by lowering the tariff over a few years.
Jackson &Van Buren (1837-1841) and Native Americans
1830 Indian Removal Act- Congress provided money for the removal of Indians to western reservation in Oklahoma.
Worcester v. Georgia – Supreme Court rules that Georgia must respect Indian property rights; Jackson’s reply “If Marshall wants to protect their rights, let him do it”.
President Van Buren- Trail of Tears 1838- Cherokee forcibly removed from lands in NC, Tenn, Ga. To reservation in Oklahoma (@ 4,000 Cherokee die along the way).
Supreme Court Cases (1803-1824)- Expanded the power of the federal government.
Marbury v. Madison (1803)- est. judicial review-gave Supreme Court the power to review and declare state and federal law unconstitutional.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)- state governments can not interfere with agency of federal government.
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) – federal government may regulate interstate commerce
Cases strengthened power of federal government over states.
Early 1800’s Industrial Revolution & Transportation Revolution
The Hudson River Art Movement: 1807-1890’s; Artists: Thomas Cole & Asher Durand; artists painted America’s landscape- celebrated America’s natural resources.
Nathaniel Hawthorne- wrote the Scarlet Letter; Hermann Melville- Moby Dick
1806 National Road- Potomac River to W. Virginia (only great fed. Program of time).
1807- Robert Fulton & Robert Livingston- Clermont (steamboat)
1825- Erie Canal- 363 miles; Hudson River to Lake Erie
1830- Peter Copper- Tom Thumb- steam driven locomotive
Industry: Eli Whitney (interchangeable parts), Samuel Morse (telegraph & Morse code)
** Know Henry Clay’s “American System”- he wanted a National bank, a tax on imports to protect US businesses, and a national system of roads.
rise of large cities- Irish immigrants settle in cities= growth!
rise of labor unions- workers begin to demand more pay etc.
5 million (Irish & German)
Irish settled industrial North East; Germans settled in Midwest.
Nativism (Anti-immigrant, Anti-Catholic); native born Americans resented immigrants.
Reform 1828- 1845
Second Great Awakening – all people attain grace through faith
Charles Grandison Finney- Christian ideas should reform society
Joseph Smith- Book of Mormon; Brigham Young- Mormons to Utah
Literature: Henry David Thoreau- essay called “Civil Disobedience”- citizens have a duty to break unjust laws (used later by Ghandi & Martin Luther King)/ Ralph Waldo Emerson (Transcendentalism)
James Fennimore Cooper- Last of the Mohicans (the First “American” novel)
Reform: Temperance Movement –called for moderation in alcohol use; Dorothea Dix called for reform in prisons and mental institutions ; Horace Mann- reformer of Education; called for mandatory school attendance and teacher training schools.
Seneca Falls Convention (1848): led by Lucretia Mott & Elizabeth Cady Stanton; at this meeting Mott & Stanton demanded women’s suffrage ( right to vote)- beginning of women’s movement in America; issued Declaration of Sentiments (“all men & women are equal”)
Hudson River School of Art- American painters who painted scenes that emphasized America’s natural beauty.
Abolition: Gradualism vs. Abolition & Colonization
William Lloyd Garrison published (The Liberator); a newspaper that advocated abolition
Frederick Douglas-African-American former slave; self-educated, wrote his own autobiography, spoke for abolition.
The Grimke Sisters (Angelina and Sarah) – whites who had lived on a farm that had slaves; saw evils of slavery first hand- became outspoken critics of slavery (abolitionists).
1835-1836- War for Texas Independence- know Battle of Alamo; Battle of San Jacinto (Texans defeat Mexicans & Santa Ana surrendered)
1836- “gag rule” in House of Reps.-shelved all debate on slavery issue
Expansion & Sectionalism- President John Tyler (1841-1845), James K. Polk (1845-1849), Zachary Taylor (1849-1850)
Manifest Destiny- idea that God had given the continent to whites to conquer; many people used this thinking to justify taking land from Native Americans and others.
Pre-emption Act 1830- protected squatters by guaranteeing them the right to claim land before it was surveyed and right to buy up to 160 acres at $1.25/acre; government encouraged settlers to move west.
Squatters- people who settled on land they did not own in the west.
* Jethro Wood-developed an iron bladed plow to cut the sod of the Great Plains.
John Deere- invented a steel bladed plow; more durable than iron.
Cyrus McCormick- invented a wheat harvester which increased wheat productivity.
John Sutter (California)- Sutter’s Fort (1st stopping point for Americans in California).
Mountain Men (Kit Carson, John Bridger) established east-west trails (Oregon Trail).
Empresarios in Texas (Stephen Austin)
Mexican/American War : ISSUE Annexation of Texas, purchase of California, border with Mexico.
James K. Polk :1844 election ; pledged to annex Texas, buy California, “54,40 or Fight”
1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo- ends Mexican-American War; US gains 500,000 sq. miles
Wilmot Proviso- Proposed that in land won from Mexico- no slavery would exist: did not pass but showed tensions over slavery. / Popular Sovereignty- idea proposed that people who settle the territories won from Mexico will determine whether slavery would exist or not.
Free Soil Party- party that proposed that territories be kept as free soil to preserve opportunities for white workers.
1849 Gold Rush-California (California enters the Union)
1850 Compromise- (Henry Clay): California in as Free State; rest of Mexican cession no restrictions on slavery, new fugitive slave act, Slave trade outlawed in DC but not slavery.
1850 Fugitive Slave Act- required Northerners to help capture runaway slaves or face fines or jail; angered Northerners against the South & slavery more.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin- book by Harriet Beecher Stowe; caused many Northerners to side with abolitionists- to fight to end slavery.
1849 “Civil Disobedience” (Henry David Thoreau) – disobey unjust laws on moral grounds-influenced Martin Luther King and Gandhi.
The Underground Railroad- abolitionists set up safe houses and helped blacks escape from slavery to freedom in the north (Harriet Tubman-one of the most famous “conductors”).
President Millard Fillmore (1850-1853) –President Franklin Pierce (1853-1857)
Gadsden Purchase (1853)- US paid $10 million for 30,000 acres (S. Arizona, New Mexico)
* KANSAS/Nebraska Act(1854)-Stephen Douglas; divided the territories west of Missouri and Iowa into two territories (Kansas- slave territory & Nebraska-free territory) broke promise of Missouri Compromise.
Bleeding Kansas- pro-slavery & antislavery settlers moved quickly to Kansas; fighting broke out 1855.
Dred Scot- Scot vs. Sanford (1857)- Supreme Court ruled that African-Americans could not sue in court, Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional (US government cannot stop slavery in the territories).
President Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865)
* Uncle Tom’s Cabin- by Harriet Beecher Stowe; contributed to the war by making Northerners more antislavery and less tolerant of Southerners way of life.
John Brown Raid on Harper’s Ferry; abolitionists John Brown attempted to start a slave rebellion by taking a federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry Virginia.
1860 election (Abraham Lincoln elected president)- SC secedes from the Union
Fort Sumter: South Carolina bombards federal fort to surrender
Major battles and strategies of the American Civil War
South-War of attrition- cause casualties for the North until they allowed the South to secede; North-Anaconda Plan- blockade southern ports to cut off supplies.