Subject Sample: The subject sample will consist of four groups of subjects consisting of six subjects per group for a total of twenty -four male subjects for study. Subjects will be 21 years of age or greater. The four groups are as follows:
A.Group A subjects will have experienced extensive genital mutilation that has required reconstructive surgery. Attempts will be made to obtain subjects with genital amputation and where reconstructive surgery has been performed to change the sex gender from male to female. This group represents the most extreme condition of genital mutilation.
B.Group B subjects will consist of those males who have been strongly emotionally and psychologically affected by circumcision to the extent that they have sought corrective procedures to restore the penile foreskin.
C.Group C subjects will consist of those males who have not been emotionally or psychologically impacted by being circumcised. These males will be characterized as being psychologically indifferent to the fact of their circumcised state.
D.Group D subjects will be a non-circumcised control group that will be drawn from La Leche League type families. This group will represent a "super-nurturant" control group that will reflect the optimal developmental conditions for optimal brain development. The selection criteria for this group are listed below.