University of toronto faculty of Arts and Science april/may examinations 2002 eco 303Y1 y the Economic History of Modern Europe, to 1914 No Aids Allowed Duration 3 Hours Answer one question from the four questions offered in each of the following three



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1 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO

Faculty of Arts and Science
APRIL/MAY EXAMINATIONS 2002
ECO 303Y1 Y
The Economic History of Modern Europe, to 1914

No Aids Allowed Duration - 3 Hours
Answer ONE question from the FOUR questions offered in EACH of the following THREE parts, for a total of THREE questions, all of which are of EQUAL VALUE. Double-space your answers: write legibly on one side of the page only; and number or identify your questions properly. DO NOT give similar answers to the questions selected; and thus DO NOT select questions with similar themes. But you may answer questions related to your term essays.
PART ONE: answer one of the following four questions.


  1. Analyse the interrelationships between demographic changes and economic development in Great Britain from the mid 17th to mid 19th centuries, with a focus on the ‘industrial revolution’ era. To what extent did changes in population contribute to or influence British economic development; to what extent were demographic changes influenced or promoted by economic changes; and to what extent were demographic changes influenced by other social factors, such as: the European Marriage Pattern; science and medicine; governments?




  1. Analyse the role of national conflict and warfare in determining the patterns of western Europe economic development from the late 17th to early 19th centuries, focusing in particular upon Great Britain, the Netherlands, and France.




  1. Compare and contrast the development of the commercial, financial, and industrial economies in the Netherlands and in England/Great Britain from the 1660s to the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815), in answering the following questions:

  1. to what extent did the economic hegemony acquired by the Dutch during the later 17th and early 18th centuries hinder British economic development?

  2. to what extent did the Dutch, or British competition with the Dutch, promote British economic development and the arrival of the modern ‘industrial revolution’?

  3. to what extent – how, when, where, and why – did the British contribute to the economic decline of the Netherlands in the 18th century?

  4. to what extent was the Dutch ‘economic decline’ the result of endogenous causes or of other exogenous causes?

4. In the context of the current ‘proto-industrialization’ debate, discuss the rural origins of modern industry – and thus why so many industries had a rural location in early-modern Europe, but became urbanized with the modern ‘industrial revolution’, particularly the textile and metallurgical industries. Was such rural ‘proto-industrialization the first phase of the modern industrialization process’?


PART TWO: answer one of the following four questions.


  1. Compare and contrast the socio-economic consequences of the so-called ‘agricultural’ and ‘industrial revolutions’ in Great Britain, from c. 1760 to c.1850; and the extent to which the latter was

dependent upon the former, particularly in securing its labour supply. In your answer, explain who were the ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ in these two economic ‘revolutions’, and why, in terms of real incomes, living standards, and living conditions.


  1. Compare and contrast the economic development of Great Britain and France, from c. 1760 to c. 1914, in terms of the interrelationships between and among demographic, agrarian, and industrial changes. To what extent were the differences in industrialization of these two countries the consequences of an historic ‘path dependency’ involving their agrarian and demographic systems?

3. Did continental economic development and industrialization depend upon peasant ‘land reforms’? Discuss the economic and social consequences, and their differences, in state-sponsored land reforms in two of the following countries, from 1789 to 1914: France, Germany, Poland, and Russia.


4. Discuss the roles of transport innovations and of the development of transportation facilities, for both domestic and international trade, in the economic development of at least two of the following countries during the 19th and early 20th centuries: Great Britain, France, Germany, and Russia. To what extent were the provision of such transportation facilities, in the countries chosen, dependent upon state intervention or state co-operation?
PART THREE: Answer one of the following four questions:
1. How important were natural-resource endowments in permitting the industrialization of first Great Britain and then of other European countries from the 18th to the early 20th centuries? How did some countries successfully utilize their resource advantages, in competition with other countries; and how did some seek to compensate for their disadvantages in, or lack of, natural resources? In your answer discuss the experiences of Great Britain and of at least two continental countries: the Netherlands, France, Germany, Russia.


  1. Compare and contrast the role of ‘entrepreneurship’ and business organization in the economic development of Great Britain, France, and Germany, from c.1860 to 1914. Is there any justification to the contention that the British economy came to suffer from ‘industrial retardation’ and relative economic decline, particularly in terms of international competition, from the 1870s?




  1. According to Alexander Gerschenkron, ‘industrialization processes, when launched in a backward country, [often] showed considerable differences as compared with more advanced countries’. Discuss the relevance and validity of his particular thesis on the roles that the state and state-allied financial institutions were necessarily called upon to play in order to permit and promote the industrialization of ‘late-starters’, from c.1850 to 1914. In your answer compare the role of the state and financial institutions in particular, as a positive or negative force for economic growth, in one or more of the so-called ‘late starters’ with that of the paradigm ‘first nation’ to achieve an industrial revolution, namely Great Britain.




  1. Discuss the international economics of the so-called ‘Age of New Imperialism’, with a focus on Great Britain, as the major overseas imperial power. What relationships if any, may be found between this ‘New Imperialism’ and some of the following related issues, during the period 1870 to 1914: British Free Trade, the international Gold Standard, and the ‘return to protectionism’; British financial supremacy and the export of capital; and the debate about ‘industrial retardation’ in Great Britain?

Optional: discuss how Marxist writers have differed from traditional western historians in interpreting the economics of the age of ‘New Imperialism’.

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