University of Nottingham School of American & Canadian Studies/Institute of Film & Television Studies Module Title: The Emergence of Mass Culture Module Code: Q42302 Credits: 20 Level: 2 Year: 2009-10 Semester: 1 Tutor: John Fagg

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University of Nottingham

School of American & Canadian Studies/Institute of Film & Television Studies
Module Title: The Emergence of Mass Culture

Module Code: Q42302

Credits: 20

Level: 2

Year: 2009-10

Semester: 1

Tutor: John Fagg

0115 9514852

Office Hours: Tuesday 2-3 and Thursday 4-5

Description of Module: Mass culture and mass media in various forms are dominant, shaping forces in contemporary society: this module will explore their origins in nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century America. While the focus of the module will be the period 1880-1930, we will begin with a discussion of aspects of antebellum culture – including PT Barnum’s various enterprises, minstrel shows and the penny press – that introduce many of the cultural practices – and many of the key issues – that come to shape American mass culture.

Turning to the period 1880-1930, we will address a number of areas that historians have identified as origins for the fully developed mass culture of the twentieth century. These include the evolution of theatres and amusements towards the early moving picture shows; large scale tourist attractions such as Coney Island and the Chicago World’s Fair (which hosted 14 million visitors in 1893); the growth of advertising as a professionalised, national enterprise; and the contiguous emergence of department stores, brand names and high circulation “national” magazines such as the Ladies Home Journal and the Saturday Evening Post. In order to understand the impact of these developments, we will address the contested debate about the relationship between mass culture and its audiences. To supplement the cultural histories from which much of the module’s material required reading is drawn, we will explore paintings by the Ashcan School and other artists who sort to record the new entertainment cultures of NYC, as well as reading L. Frank Baum’s The Wizard of Oz – a bestselling children’s book which is at once an example and an exploration of mass culture – and E.L. Doctorow’s Ragtime – a novel that offers a postmodern perspective on many of the cultural and historical developments discussed over the course of the module. The module recognises that “mass culture” is itself a politically loaded and highly contested term, and so will seek to address the implications of distinctions between “mass,” “popular,” “commercial” and “low” culture.

Aims & Objectives: To engage with a wide range of cultural “texts,” locating them within various historical contexts; to assess the way that different kinds of massification have shaped and altered American society; to engage with the pre-history of what can be seen as a contemporary phenomenon; to offer an interdisciplinary approach to late-nineteenth and early-twentieth-century American culture.

Learning Outcomes: A: Knowledge and Understanding of: 1) the historical development of various forms of mass culture 2) attempts to theorise and critique distinctions between “high” and “low”/“mass” and “popular” culture 3) the relationship between modernity and mass culture B: Intellectual Skills: 1) thinking critically and imaginatively about the subject matter 2) interpreting a wide range of primary and secondary sources and locating them within broader historical contexts 3) engaging with issues of interdisciplinarity 4) developing a critical language for discussing elements of popular and material culture 5) integrating close analysis of literary representations into cultural studies practice C: Professional and Practical Skills: 1) synthesising material from a range of sources 2) identifying, comparing and evaluating key arguments and claims in these sources 3) abstracting and transferring ideas and arguments from one field to another 4) using web-based resources and archives D: Transferable Skills: 1) the ability to communicate effectively in writing 2) presenting written work in an appropriate manner 3) managing and taking responsibility for one’s own time and learning

Timetable of lectures and seminars: Lecture: Tuesday 10-11 Trent LG11

Seminar: Tuesday 1-2 ARCS B43

or Tuesday 4-5 Portland E127

or Thursday 3-4 Pope A13

Teaching and Learning Methods:

Lectures provide an opportunity to set out the contexts and histories of the topics we address. Lectures on this course are involve images, film, quotes and discussion – so attendance is really important as its not stuff you can catch up with from notes.

Lectures will also be as interactive as possible with opportunity to stop and ask questions along the way.

Seminars are based around the weekly reading schedule and will involve class discussion, groupwork and small group presentations.

The internet provides amazing resources for studying this topic and I will use lectures and WebCT to guide you to the best material – seminars and coursework will give you the opportunity to make use of independent internet research.

School Attendance Policy:

The School operates a strict attendance policy which is enforced on ALL modules across ALL year groups. Seminar attendance is compulsory in this School. Failure to attend, without notifying the module tutor and giving a valid reason (illness or exceptional personal circumstances) BEFORE the class, wherever possible, may (if repeated) result in a mark of zero for the module. Mistaking the time and venue of a seminar, deadlines for other modules, problems with transport, and family holidays, are NOT valid excuses.

Our procedures are as follows:

  1. Any student who fails to attend either 2 consecutive seminars or 3 seminars in total on any module, will be contacted by the module tutor and asked to provide a valid reason and supporting documentation for their absences.

  2. Any student who fails to respond within 7 days or to provide a satisfatory explanation with supporting evidence, will be asked to see the Senior Tutor for a meeting. Failure to provide an explanation and supporting evidence at this stage will merit a final warning that any further absences will result in a zero for the module.

  3. Any student who misses 5 classes in total without supporting documentation will be awarded a mark of zero for the module for failing to fulfil their commitments to the course. At this stage, a letter will be sent to the student’s term-time and home addresses informing them of the School’s decision. Students who wish to appeal the decision will have 14 days from the date of this letter to produce supporting documentation for their absences. No other forms of appeal will be accepted.

The implications of receiving a mark of zero for a module are very serious. Students will NOT be offered a resit in the September period. They will be required to resit with residence the following year before progressing to the next stage of their degree (thus adding another year to their degee).

PLEASE NOTE: Students will be contacted about attendance matters in the first instance via email. Failure to check these messages is not an acceptable reason for failing to respond. If students have missed classes and have email problems then they must come into the School to see the module tutor.
Assessment Mode and Weightings:

Assessment Type



Exam 1 

50 %

2 hour exam 


40 %

2,000-2,500 words

Short Coursework Assignment


800-1000 words

For information on the School’s Essay Guidelines, see
Another useful resource designed to help first year students with basic questions about essay writing, exams, seminars, is 
Deadlines for Submission:

Short Coursework Assignment (worth 10% of the total mark) set in week 4 seminars and to be submitted by 12 noon Tuesday 27 October.

2,000 – 2,500 word essay (worth 40% of the total mark) to be submitted by 12 noon Thursday 26 November.
Two-hour exam will be during the January exam period.
Guidelines for Submission:
All assessed coursework for the School of American & Canadian Studies must be submitted in two ways:

  1. By electronic submission, through Turnitin

  1. ONE paper copy to be handed in, either at the School Office, during Office opening hours or, in the case of core modules, in Trent B76, at designated times, together with the Turnitin submission receipt and a completed essay coversheet.

Both electronic and paper submission must take place by 12.00 noon on the deadline date. The Turnitin receipt must be printed out and submitted with the paper copy. The paper ID number from the receipt must be recorded on the essay coversheet.

The paper copy will NOT be accepted without a copy of the Turnitin receipt.
Penalty for late submission:
The usual penalty for lateness (5 marks per working day) will be applied to all coursework which is not submitted both electronically to Turnitin and in paper form by the deadline. Emailed coursework is not acceptable.
NB. Computer failure is not a valid reason for late submission of coursework.

The University regards cheating and plagiarism as serious academic offences. A mark of ZERO is immediately awarded for the assessed work in question, and more serious consequences can follow, including formal disciplinary action, and ultimately, dismissal from the University.

Plagiarism is clearly defined in the Undergraduate Handbook for American & Canadian Studies as:
“The substantial unacknowledged use of other people's work and the submission of that work as though it were your own is regarded as plagiarism and will be penalised heavily (see Essay Guidelines). This does not mean you cannot make legitimate use of other resources. Essays generally involve the citation of passages from books, articles, or other sources, either published or unpublished. But whenever such a passage is quoted or paraphrased, acknowledgement must be made in an appropriate manner. Also, collaboration with others must be acknowledged. You are required to sign a statement (cover sheet) that you have acknowledged any assistance or substantial use of the work of others when you submit all your written work.”
The “other sources” include websites and internet information. You should check with module tutors as to which websites are appropriate for your research. Please note that cutting and pasting passages from websites constitutes plagiarism.
The handbook text continues:
“Copying material from another student's essay (written in a previous year, for instance) or copying from any of your other pieces of written work also constitutes plagiarism/ self-plagiarism. Should this be discovered, both you and the person who knowingly supplied the copy will be penalised. If the supplier of the copy has already graduated, a note of her/his offence will be put on her/his permanent record in the School.”
“If you are concerned about what to cite and how to go about doing so, see the School’s Essay Guidelines or consult your module tutor.”


Learning outcomes

Argument and understanding

Sources and evidence

Written communication


A work of genuine cogency and originality

Little additional research needed to warrant publication

A rare combination of intellect and elegance

80 Exemplary standard

Insightful; perceptive; intellectual vigour; considerable originality; depth of understanding directly addressed to the question; very coherent synthesis of ideas; very high level of subject mastery; critical and thorough understanding of key concepts

A very wide range of sources consulted, demonstrating excellent search skills; sources used with discrimination; excellent judgement shown in assessment of evidence; sophisticated use of examples; independence of judgement

Exemplary typography and layout; felicitous expression; no errors of grammar; sophisticated vocabulary; structured appropriately to the purposes of the assignment; exemplary citation and bibliography according to a standard convention

75 Excellent standard

Insightful; perceptive; some originality; depth of understanding directly addressed to the question; coherent synthesis of ideas; critical and thorough understanding of key concepts

A wide range of sources consulted; sources used with discrimination; sound assessment of evidence; sophisticated use of examples

Excellent typography and layout; lucid expression; no errors of grammar; sophisticated vocabulary; structured appropriately to the purposes of the assignment; exemplary citation and bibliography according to a standard convention


Well argued and well considered but lacking originality

Well selected range of sources with some signs of sophistication in their selected use

Good to excellent typography with some stylistic infelicities; exemplary citation practice

65-69 Proficient standard


Good understanding directly addressed to the question; good synthesis of ideas; good understanding of key concepts
This answer would develop a logical argument with perception, expository skill, balance, and a degree of insight which lifts it above the sound and competent level which, in general, characterises a 2.2 answer.

Well selected range of sources consulted; careful assessment of evidence; good use of examples

This answer would show a good ability to handle concepts as well as a good range of sources consulted but could be extended further to provide evidence of additional connections and independent research.

Good typography and layout; good expression; few errors of grammar; appropriate use of vocabulary; well-structured; accurate and full citation and bibliography
Good typography and layout; in general, good expression but there maybe some unnecessary errors of grammar as well as perhaps some inconsistencies with structure. A good and thorough use of the bibliography.

55-59 Majority at a competent standard


Competent understanding addressed to the question; fair understanding of key concepts; some weaknesses of understanding and knowledge but not in significant areas
This answer would display a satisfactory level of relevance and knowledge but is often weakened by a lack of focus.

A range of sources consulted; some careful assessment of evidence; some appropriate examples

Some good source material which is not analysed in great depth and with limited use of appropriate examples

Adequate typography and layout; expression such that the meaning is generally understandable; few serious errors of grammar; inconsistent citation and bibliography with significant omissions

Acceptable typography and layout; some grammatical errors and loose or wordy expression.

45-49 Acceptable standard

Only partly addressed to the question; lacking in synthesis of ideas; tendency to description rather than analysis; limited understanding of key concepts
This answer would adopt a descriptive approach based on superficial knowledge

Restricted range of sources consulted; only basic understanding of evidence; limited range of examples, sometimes inappropriate ones

Very limited use of sources consulted; inconsistent understanding of evidence; inclusion of none to few examples; some irrelevant material

Poor typography and layout; considerable number of grammatical errors; limited vocabulary; inaccurate citation and bibliography with significant omissions

Inadequate typography and layout; errors of organisation so that the essay has very little obvious focus or argument; ambiguously written so its main area of discussion remains unclear.

35 Marginal

Weak structure; largely irrelevant to set question; considerable misunderstanding of key concepts

Minimal range of sources consulted; very limited understanding of evidence; minimal range use of examples; little use of sources beyond direct paraphrase of lectures, easily available texts or web pages

Poor presentation; numerous and significant grammatical errors; significantly restricted vocabulary; inadequate citation and bibliography

30 Below


Substandard and misconceived in its approach

Highly derivative

Poor presentation; significant grammatical errors; highly restricted vocabulary; little or no citation and incomplete bibliography

20-29 Well below passable standard

Only marginally addresses the question; fundamental misunderstanding of key concepts; mostly irrelevant; no line of argument

Little attempt to support any assertions; no use of sources beyond direct paraphrase of lectures or easily available texts or web pages;

Poor grammar and vocabulary makes it difficult to decipher any intended meaning; no citation; no relevant bibliography

10-19 Very few learning outcomes met

Few relevant elements; only fragmentary arguments; only slight evidence of understanding of key concepts

No attempt to support assertions; some plagiarism and/or collusion

Poor grammar and vocabulary makes it very difficult to understand the intended meaning

1-10 Far from meeting any learning outcome

No evidence of learning anything from the unit, although there may be elements derived from general knowledge

Considerable plagiarism and/or collusion

Short answer; note form; mostly incomprehensible


No work submitted or extensive plagiarism and/or collusion


Disability & Dyslexia Support:
The University of Nottingham is committed to promoting access for students who have a disability, dyslexia and/or a long-term medical condition.  Services provided aim to enable students to fulfil the inherent requirements of the course as independently as possible. 
The University’s Disability Plan for Students: 2007-09, Disability Statement and [dis]Ability Directory, which lists all the provision available at the University, can be accessed from the Disability Policy Advisory Unit:
It is your responsibility to ensure that the University is aware of your individual requirements.  If you have a disability, specific learning difficulty (such as dyslexia) or long-term medical condition, you are urged to inform the School’s Disability Liaison Officer (DLO) and/or your personal tutor.
DLO contact details are:
Stephanie Lewthwaite (Semester 1)

Room B51 Trent Building

Tel:    0115 8466458


Robin Vandome (Semester 2)

Room B50 Trent Building

Tel:    0115 8468356


The DLO or personal tutor may refer you to Academic Support (based in Portland Building).  Academic Support, in Student Services, includes the Disability and Dyslexia Support teams, and offers a range of academic and practical support for all students.   It incorporates a recognised ASSESSMENT Centre for those who wish to apply for Disabled Students’ Allowances, carrying out the assessments required by your LEA or funding body.  Academic Support is also responsible for making recommendations for alternative arrangements such as those required in assessments, exams and for timetabling.  Assistance can also be given with regard to queries about adapted accommodation and University provision of accessible transport.
Contact details are:
Tel:              +44 (0) 115 951 3710

Fax:             +44 (0) 115 951 4376

Minicom:       +44 (0) 115 951 4378


Please remember that letting us know what you might need at an early stage will help us to help you. 
Religious Observance:

The University respects the rights and religious views of its students. Students who are unable to take examinations on a particular day during the published examination periods for reasons of religious observance should complete and return a Religious Observance Form by the published deadlines.

Full information on the University’s protocol relating to absence from an examination for reason of religious observance can be found at:
Module Feedback:

Feedback on all modules in the School is an ongoing and two-way process.

Feedback from your tutor(s) will include:

  • Informal feedback, advice and ideas in seminar discussions

  • Individual feedback, advice and ideas during appointments in office hours

  • Individual written feedback on coursework (normally within three weeks of submission)

  • Response to email enquiries (normally within seven days)

  • Generic feedback on exam performance communicated via the portal

If there are questions or concerns – or things that you really like – about the module you can raise these in the following ways:

  • Contact the module convenor (if appropriate)

  • Contact your personal tutor

  • Contact the student ombudsman (

  • Pass your concerns to your SSFC rep

  • The module may also be subject to SET/SEM evaluation, in which case you will have the opportunity to complete a detailed, anonymous evaluation at the end of the semester.

Lecture/Seminar Schedule
For required reading you will need to purchase:

L. Frank Baum, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz - Penguin ISBN 0140621679*

E.L. Doctorow, Ragtime - Penguin ISBN 0141188170*

*These are cheap editions and will be available from Blackwell’s from the start of term – you can buy them ahead of time from

All other required reading will be included in the course pack which will be available to purchase from the School Office from the start of term.
Week 1: Introduction

Required Reading: Nick Heffernan, “Popular Culture” from Howard Temperley and Christopher Bigsby eds. A New Introduction to American Studies (Harlow: Pearson Longman, 2006) (in course pack)
Week 2: Precursors to Mass Culture: P.T. Barnum, Minstrel Shows and the Penny Press

Required Reading: Jim Cullen, “Democratic Vistas: The Emergence of Popular Culture, 1800-1860” from The Art of Democracy (in course pack)
Week 3: Advertising, Fraudulence and Legitimacy

Required Reading: T.J. Jackson Lears, “From Salvation To Self-Realization: Advertising and the Therapeutic Roots of the Consumer Culture, 1880-1930” (in course pack)
Week 4: Magazines and the Creation of Mass Audiences

Required Reading: Richard Ohmann, “The Origins of Mass Culture” and excerpt from “Charting Social Space” from Selling Culture

Class Test Set
Week 5: Amusements from Vaudeville to the First Picture Shows

Required Reading: David Nasaw, “‘Something for Everybody’ at the Vaudeville Theater” and “The First Picture Shows” from Going Out: The Rise and Fall of Public Amusements (in course pack)

Class Test Deadline Tuesday 27 October
Week 6: Coney Island and the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair

Required Reading: Kathy Peiss, “The Coney Island Excursion” from Cheap Amusements and excerpt from Gary S. Cross and John K. Walton, “The Crowd and Its Critics” from The Playful Crowd (in course pack)
Week 7: Window Dressing, Consumer Society and The Wizard of Oz

Required Reading: L. Frank Baum, The Wizard of Oz
Week 8: Race, Identity and Mass Culture

Required Reading:

Micki McElya, “The Life of ‘Aunt Jemima’” from Clinging to Mammy: The Faithful Slave in Twentieth-Century America

Susan Curtis, excerpt from “Introduction” and “The Legacy of Scott Joplin” from Dancing to a Black Man’s Tune: A Life of Scott Joplin
Week 9: Records, Radios, Cars … and Consumers

Required Reading: Robert S. and Helen M. Lynd, “Inventions Re-making Leisure” from Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture

Lizabeth Cohen, “Encountering Mass Culture at the Grassroots: The Experience of Chicago Workers in the 1920s,” American Quarterly, Vol. 41, No. 1 (Mar., 1989), pp. 6-33 (in course pack)

Essay Deadline Thursday 26 November
Week 10: Ragtime

Required Reading: E.L. Doctorow, Ragtime
Week 11: The Mass Culture Debate

Excerpt from Lawrence Levine, “The Folklore of Industrial Society: Popular Culture and its Audiences” (in course pack)

Michael Denning, “The End of Mass Culture” in Naremore and Brantlinger eds., Modernity and Mass Culture
General Reading List

Gunther Barth, City People: The Rise of Modern City Culture in Nineteenth-Century America (New York: O.U.P., 1980) HT123.B2

Gerald R. Baydo ed., The Evolution of Mass Culture in America - 1877 to the Present (St. Louis, Mo.: Forum Press, 1982) HN57.E8

Lizabeth Cohen ed., A Consumer's Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America (New York: Vintage Books, 2004) HC110.C6

David B. Clarke, Marcus A. Doel & Kate M.L. Housinaux, The Consumption Reader (London: Routledge, 2003) HC79.C6.C6 pp Rachael Bowlby, “Commerce and Femininity"

Lizabeth Cohen, The Mass in Mass Consumption Reviews in American History > Vol. 18, No. 4 (Dec., 1990), pp. 548-555 JSTOR

** Jim Cullen ed., Popular Culture in American History (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 2001) E161.P66

** Jim Cullen, The Art of Democracy: A Concise History of Popular Culture in the United States (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2002) E161.C8

** Richard Wightman Fox and T.J. Jackson Lears eds., The Culture of Consumption: Critical Essays in American History, 1880-1980 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1983) HC110.C6.F6

** Richard Wightman Fox and T.J. Jackson Lears eds., The Power of Culture: Critical Essays in American History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993) E169.1.P6

Neil Harris, Cultural Excursions: Marketing Appetites and Cultural Tastes in Modern America (Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1990) HN57.H2

Herbert J. Gans, Popular Culture and High Culture: An Analysis and Evaluation of Taste (New York: Basic Books, 1999) E169.1.G2

** Michael Kammen, American Culture, American Tastes: Social Change and the 20th Century (New York: Basic Books, 1999) E169.1.K2

T.J. Jackson Lears, No Place of Grace: Antimodernism and the Transformation of American Culture, 1880-1920 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994) E169.1.L48

** Lawrence W. Levine, Highbrow/Lowbrow: The Emergence of Cultural Hierarchy in America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988) E169.1.L4

Lawrence W. Levine, The Unpredictable Past: Explorations in American Cultural History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993) E169.1.L4

Chandra Mukerji and Michael Schudson eds., Rethinking Popular Culture: Contemporary Perspectives in Cultural Studies (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991) GN357 RET

James Naremore and Patrick Brantlinger eds., Modernity and Mass Culture (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991) CB430.M6

David Nasaw, Going Out: The Rise and Fall of Public Amusements (1993) GV 53.NAS

David Nye and Carl Pedersen eds., Consumption and American Culture (Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1991)E169.1.C6

Miles Orvell, The Real Things: Limitations and Authority in American Culture, 1880-1940 E169.1.O7

Bernard Rosenberg, David Manning White eds., Mass Culture Revisited (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1971) HM258.R6

Joan Shelley Rubin, The Making of Middle/brow Culture (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992) Z1003.2.R8

** Thomas J. Schlereth, Victorian America: Transformations in Everyday Life, 1876-1915 (New York: HarperPerennial, 1992) E169.1.S3

Dominic Strinati, An Introduction to Theories of Popular Culture (London: Routledge, 2004) HM258.S8

** William R. Taylor ed., Inventing Times Square: Commerce and Culture at the Crossroads of the World (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991) F128.65.T4

Alan Trachtenberg, The Incorporation of America: Culture and Society in the Gilded Age (New York: Hill and Wang, 1982) E169.1.T7

Peter Gibian, Mass Culture and Everyday Life E169.Z82.M2

Useful Theoretical/Interpretative Approaches

Jonathan Bignell, Media Semiotics: An Introduction (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2002) PN1990.9.B4

Kaja Silverman, The Subject of Semiotics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983) P325.S4

Marcel Danesi, Messages, Signs, and Meanings: A Basic Textbook in Semiotics and Communication (Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press, 2004) P99.D2

Roland Barthes, Mythologies, selected and translated by Annette Lavers (London: Vintage, 1993) HN425.5.B2

Roland Barthes, A Barthes Reader, Susan Sontag ed. (London: Vintage, 1993) PN37.B2

Jonathan Culler, Barthes: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002) P85.B2.C8

James Curran and Michael Gurevitch eds. Mass Media and Society (London: Hodder Arnold, 2005) HM1206.M2

Stuart Hall ed., Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (London: SAGE, 1997) HM101.R4

Raymond Williams, Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society (London: Fontana, 1988) H41.W4

Raymond Williams, Culture and Society, 1780-1950 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983) PR149.S7

Andrew Milner, Re-imagining Cultural Studies: The Promise of Cultural Materialisme-resource

T. J. Jackson Lears, The Concept of Cultural Hegemony: Problems and Possibilities The American Historical Review > Vol. 90, No. 3 (Jun., 1985), pp. 567-593 JSTOR

Steve Jones, Antonio Gramsci (London: Routledge, 2006) JC265.G7.J6

Topic Reading Lists
Week 2: Precursors to Mass Culture: P.T. Barnum, Minstrel Shows and the Penny Press


** Phineas T. Barnum; James W. Cook ed., The Colossal P.T. Barnum Reader: Nothing Else Like It in the Universe (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2005) GV1811.B3.B2

** James W. Cook, The Arts of Deception: Playing with Fraud in the Age of Barnum (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001) E166.C6

Michael Leja, Looking Askance:Skepticism and American Art from Eakins to Duchamp (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004) Oversize N7430.5.L4 pp “Mumler’s Fraudulent Photographs”

Neil Harris, Humbug: The Art of P. T. Barnum (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981) GV1811.B3.Z

Eric Fretz, “P.T. Barnum’s Theatrical Selfhood and the Nineteenth-Century Culture of Exhibition” in Rosemarie Garland Thomson ed., Freakery: Cultural Spectacles of the Extraordinary Body (New York: New York University Press, 1996) GN68 FRE (requires Flash 7);idno=AFW8590
On Minstrelsy, see the week 8 bibliography
Penny Press

** Michael Schudson, Discovering the News: A Social History of American Newspapers (New York: Basic Books, 1978) PN4855.S3

Hans Bergmann, God in the Street: New York Writing from the Penny Press to Melville (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995) PS255.N5.B4

David M. Henkin, City Reading: Written Words and Public Spaces in Antebellum New York (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998) F128.44.H4 pp “The Rise of the Daily Paper”

Gunther Barth, City People: The Rise of Modern City Culture in Nineteenth-Century America (New York: O.U.P., 1980) HT123.B2 pp. “Chapter 3: Metropolitan Press”
Week 3: Advertising, Fraudulence and Legitimacy

** Susan Strasser, Satisfaction Guaranteed: The Making of the American Mass Market (Pantheon, 1989) HF5813.U6.S8

** Pamela Walker Laird, Advertising Progress: American Business and the Rise of Consumer Marketing (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998) HF5813.U6.L2

Stephen Fox, The Mirror Makers: A History of American Advertising and Its Creators (New York: Vintage, 1985) Business Library HF5813.U6.F6

Michele H. Bogart, Artists, Advertising, and the Borders of Art (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995) NC998.5.A1.B6

T.J. Jackson Lears, Fables of Abundance: A Cultural History of Advertising in America (New York: Basic Books, 1994) HF5813.U6.L4

Judith Williamson, Decoding Advertisements: Ideology and Meaning in Advertising (London: Marion Boyars, 1978) HF5822.W4

Ellen Gruber Garvey, The Adman in the Parlor: Magazines and the Gendering of Consumer Culture, 1880s to 1910s (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996) PS374.S5.G2

William R. Taylor, In Pursuit of Gotham: Culture and Commerce in New York (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992) F128.47.T2 pp “Launching a Commercial Culture: Newspaper, Magazine and Popular Novel as Urban Baedekers”

Roland Marchand, Advertising the American Dream: Making Way for Modernity, 1920-1940 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985) NC998.5.M2

Michael Schudson, Advertising, The Uneasy Persuasion: Its Dubious Impact on American Society (New York: Basic Books, 1984) Business Library HF5813.U6

William Leiss, Stephen Kline and Sut Jhally, Social Communication in Advertising: Persons, Products, and Images of Well-being (London: Methuen, 1986) HF5821.L4

Stuart Ewen, Captains of Consciousness: Advertising and the Social Roots of the Consumer Culture (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976) Business Library HF5813.U6

Mary Douglas and Baron Isherwood, The World of Goods: Towards an Anthropology of Consumption (London: Routledge, 1996) HB801.D6

James D. Norris, Advertising and the Transformation of American Society, 1865-1920 (New York: Greenwood Press, 1990) Business Library HF5813.U6.N6
Week 4: Magazines and the Creation of a Mass Audience

** Richard Ohmann, Selling Culture: Magazines, Markets, and Class at the Turn of the Century (London: Verso, 1998) HF5813.U6.O4

** Carolyn Kitch, The Girl on the Magazine Cover: The Origins of Visual Stereotypes in American Mass Media (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001) P94.5.W652.K4

Tom Pendergast, Creating the Modern Man: American Magazines and Consumer Culture, 1900-1950e-resource

Theodore P. Greene, America’s Heroes: The Changing Models of Success in American Magazines (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970) E169.1.G7

Christopher Wilson, “The Rhetoric of Consumption: Mass Market Magazines and the Demise of the Gentle Reader, 1880-1920” in Richard Wightman Fox and T. J. Jackson Lears eds., The Culture of Consumption

Joshua Brown, Beyond the Lines: Pictorial Reporting, Everyday Life, and the Crisis of Gilded Age America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002) PN4834.B7

Michael Denning, Mechanic Accents: Dime Novels and Working-Class Culture in America (Verso, 1987) PS374.D5

Jan Cohn, The Business Ethic for Boys: "The Saturday Evening Post" and the Post Boys The Business History Review, Vol. 61, No. 2. (Summer, 1987), pp. 185-215 JSTOR

Kathryne V. Lindberg, Mass Circulation versus The Masses: Covering the Modern Magazine Scene boundary 2, Vol. 20, No. 2. (Summer, 1993), pp. 51-83 JSTOR

Richard Ohmann, History and Literary History: The Case of Mass Culture Poetics Today, Vol. 9, No. 2, The Rhetoric of Interpretation and the Interpretation of Rhetoric. (1988), pp. 357-375 JSTOR
Week 5: Public Amusements: From Vaudeville to the First Picture Shows

Robert Snyder, “Vaudeville and the Transformation of Popular Culture” in William Taylor ed., Inventing Times Square

Richard Butsch, “Bowery B'hoys and Matinee Ladies: The Re-Gendering of Nineteenth-Century American Theater AudiencesAmerican Quarterly, Vol. 46, No. 3. (Sep., 1994), pp. 374-405.

John F. Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of Modernity in America (New York: Hill and Wang, 2001) HQ1090.3.K2

David Nasaw, Going Out

Bill Brown, The Material Unconscious: American Amusement, Stephen Crane and the Economies of Play (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996) PS1449.C85.Z BRO

Early Cinema [videorecording] (London: British Film Institute, 2002) Video PN1993.5.A1.E2

David Robinson, From Peep Show to Palace: The Birth of American Film (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996) PN1993.5.U6.R6

Lary May, Screening Out the Past: The Birth of Mass Culture and the Motion Picture Industry (Chicago: Chicago UP, 1983) PN1995.9.S6

Charles Musser, The Emergence of Cinema: The American Screen to 1907 (New York: Scribner's, 1990) PN1993.5.U6.M8

Tom Gunning, D.W. Griffith and the Origins of American Narrative Film: The Early Years at Biograph (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991) PN1998.A3.G74

Tom Gunning, “The Aesthetic of Astonishment: Early Film and the (In)credulous Spectator,” in Viewing Positions: Ways of Seeing Film, ed. Linda Williams (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995) 114-133 PN1995.V4,

Thomas Elsaesser with Adam Barker eds., Early Cinema: Space, Frame, Narrative (London: BFI Publishing, 1990) PN1993.5.E2

Ben Singer, Melodrama and Modernity: Early Sensational Cinema and its Contexts (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001) PN1995.9.M45.S4

“The Innovators 1900-1910: Time After Time,” BFI Sight and Sound Feature

Week 6: Coney Island and the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair

Coney Island

** John F. Kasson, Amusing the Million: Coney Island at the Turn of the Century (New York: Hill & Wang, 1978) F129.C75

** Kathy Peiss, Cheap Amusements: Working Women and Leisure in Turn-of-the-Century (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986) F124.P4

** Gary S. Cross and John K. Walton, The Playful Crowd: Pleasure Places in the Twentieth Century (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005) GV1851 CRO

Woody Register, The Kid of Coney Island: Fred Thompson and the Rise of American Amusements (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001) GV1852.2.T4

Michele H. Bogart, “Barking Architecture: The Sculpture of Coney Island” Smithsonian Studies in American Art Vol. 2, No. 1 (Winter, 1988)

John Fagg, “From back number aesthetics to new expression: James Gibbons Huneker's New CosmopolisEuropean Journal of American Culture, 28(1), 21-40

Lewis A. Erenberg, Steppin’ Out: New York Nightlife and the Transformation of American Culture, 1890-1930 (Chicago: University of Chicago) Press, 1984 F128.5.E7

Rem Koolhaas, Delirious New York: A Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan (New York: Monacelli Press, 1994) NA735.N5 KOO

George Chauncey, Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Makings of the Gay Male World, 1890-1940 (New York: Basic Books, 1994) HQ76.2.U6

David E. Nye, Electrifying America: Social Meanings of a New Technology, 1880-1940 (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990) HD9685.U6.N9

Jon Sterngass, First Resorts: Pursuing Pleasure at Saratoga Springs, Newport, and Coney Islande-resource

Stephen Crane, “Coney Island’s Failing Days” in The University of Virginia Edition of the Works of Stephen Crane. Vol. 8, Tales, Sketches and Reports (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1973)

James Huneker, “Coney Island: By Day; By Night” in New Cosmopolis – PDF available to download at

Gunther Barth, City People: The Rise of Modern City Culture in Nineteenth-Century America (New York: O.U.P., 1980) HT123.B2 pp. “Chapter 4: Department Store”

World’s Fair

** Neil Harris et al, Grand Illusions: Chicago's World's Fair of 1893 (Chicago: Chicago Historical Society, 1993) NK512.C4

Robert W. Rydell et al, Revisiting the White City: American Art at the 1893 World's Fair (Washington, D.C.: National Museum of American Art and National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, 1993) Oversize N6510.R4

** Christopher Gair, “Whose America?: White City and the Shaping of National Identity, 1893-1905” Three Cities Project

Robert W. Rydell and Nancy E. Gwinn eds., Fair Representations: World's Fairs and the Modern World (Amsterdam: V.U. University Press, 1994)

** Judith A. Adams, The American Amusement Park Industry: A History of Technology and Thrills (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1991) GV 1853.2.A3

David F. Burg, Chicago's White City of 1893 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1976) NK512.C4

Reid Badger, The Great American Fair: The World's Columbian Exposition & American Culture (Chicago, Ill.: Nelson Hall, 1979)

Marian Shaw, World's Fair Notes: A Woman Journalist Views Chicago’s 1893 Columbian Exposition (Pogo Press, 1992) NK512.C4

Stanley Appelbaum, The Chicago World's Fair of 1893: A Photographic Record (New York: Dover, 1980) Oversize NK512.C4

Karal Ann Marling, “Writing History with Artifacts: Columbus at the 1893 Chicago Fair,” pp. 13-30 JSTOR
Week 7: Window Dressing, Consumer Society and The Wizard of Oz

Stuart Culver, “What Manikins Want: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and The Art of Decorating Dry Goods Windows” Representations, No. 21 (Winter, 1988), pp. 97-116

Helen M. Kim, “Strategic Credulity: Oz as Mass Cultural Parable” Cultural Critique, No. 33 (Spring, 1996), pp. 213-233

Vivian Wagner, “Unsettling Oz: Technological Anxieties in the Novels of L. Frank Baum” The Lion and the Unicorn 30 (2006) 25–53

Joel D. Chaston, “Baum, Bakhtin, and Broadway: A Centennial Look at the Carnival of Oz” The Lion and The Unicorn 25 (2001) 128–149

Jack Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and their Tradition (New York: Routledge, 1999) LB1138.Z4

Martin Gardner and Russel B. Nye eds. The Wizard of Oz and Who he Was (East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 1994) PS3503.A923

William Leach, Land of Desire: Merchants, Power, and the Rise of a New American Culture (New York: Vintage Books, 1993) HF5465.U6.L4

Simon J. Bronner ed., Consuming Visions: Accumulation and Display of Goods in America, 1880-1920 (New York: W.W. Norton, 1989) HF5845.C6

William R. Leach, “Transformations in a Culture of Consumption: Women and Department Stores, 1890-1925” The Journal of American History, Vol. 71, No. 2. (Sep., 1984), pp. 319-342. JSTOR

Rachel Bowlby, Just Looking: Consumer Culture in Dreiser, Gissing and Zola (New York: Methuen, 1985) PN3499.B6

Michael B. Miller, The Bon Marché: Bourgeois Culture and the Department Store 1869-1920 (Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1981) HF5464.F7.M4

Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class (Amherst, NY.: Prometheus Books, 1998) HB831.V4

John P. Diggins, The Bard of Savagery: Thorstein Veblen and Modern Social Theory (Hassocks: Harvester Press, 1978) HB119.V4.D4

Stjepan Mestrovic, Thorstein Veblen on Culture and Societye-resource
Week 8: Race, Identity and Mass Culture

Micki McElya, Clinging to Mammy: The Faithful Slave in Twentieth-Century America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2007) E185.86.M2

Diane Roberts, The Myth of Aunt Jemima: Representations of Race and Region [e-resource]

Michael D. Harris, Colored Pictures: Race and Visual Representation (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2003) Oversize N8232.H2 pp. Chapter 3 “Aunt Jemima, the Fantasy Black Mammy/Servant”

Melvin Patrick Ely, The Adventures of Amos 'n' Andy: A Social History of an American Phenomenon (Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 2001) PN1991.77.A5

Sabine Haenni, The Immigrant Scene: Ethnic Amusements in New York, 1880-1920 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008) PN2277.N4.H2

Jan Nederveen Pieterse, White on Black: Images of Africa and Blacks in Western Popular Culture (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992) N8232.N4

Michael Pickering, Stereotyping: The Politics of Representation (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001) HM216.P4

Michael Rogin, Blackface, White Noise: Jewish Immigrants in the Hollywood Melting Pot (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1996) PN1995.9.N4.R6

Mark A. Reid, Redefining Black Film (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993) PN1995.9.N4.R4

Thomas Cripps, Slow Fade to Black: The Negro in American Film, 1900-1942 [e-resource] 

Donald Bogle, Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films, 4th ed. (New York: Continuum, 2001) PN1995.9.N4

Ed Guerrero, Framing Blackness: The African American Image in Film (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993) PN1995.9.N4.G8

Susan Curtis, Dancing to a Black Man’s Tune: A Life of Scott Joplin (Columbia: U of Missouri P, 1994) ML410 JOP CUR

Brenda Dixon Gottschild, Waltzing in the Dark: African American Vaudeville and Race Politics in the Swing Era (New York: Palgrave, 2002) GV1785.W3 GOT

David Wondrich, Stomp and Swerve: American Music Gets Hot, 1843-1924 (Chicago, Ill.: Chicago Review Press, 2003) ML3477

Lynn Abbott and Doug Seroff, Ragged But Right: Black Traveling Shows, "Coon Songs," and the Dark Pathway to Blues and Jazz [e-resource]

On blackface minstrelsy

** Eric Lott, Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993) PS456.N4

W.T. Lhamon, Jr., Jump Jim Crow: Lost Plays, Lyrics, and Street Prose of the First Atlantic Popular Culture (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003) PS509.N4.L4

Dale Cockrell, Demons of Disorder: Early Blackface Minstrels and Their World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997) PS456.M4.C6

W.T. Lhamon, Jr., Raising Cain: Blackface Performance from Jim Crow to Hip Hop (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998) PN1969.M5.L4

William J. Mahar, Black English in Early Blackface Minstrelsy: A New Interpretation of the Sources of Minstrel Show Dialect American Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 2. (Summer, 1985), pp. 260-285. JSTOR

Eric Lott, The Seeming Counterfeit": Racial Politics and Early Blackface Minstrelsy American Quarterly, Vol. 43, No. 2. (Jun., 1991), pp. 223-254 JSTOR.

Eric Lott, Love and Theft: The Racial Unconscious of Blackface Minstrelsy Representations, No. 39. (Summer, 1992), pp. 23-50 JSTOR

Alexander Saxton, Blackface Minstrelsy and Jacksonian Ideology American Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 1. (Mar., 1975), pp. 3-28. JSTOR

Hans Nathan, Dan Emmett and the Rise of Early Negro Minstrelsy (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1962) PS456.N4
Week 9: Records, Radios, Cars … and Consumers

Robert S Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd, Middletown: A Study in American Culture (London: Constable, 1929) HN80.M46 

Claude S. Fischer, “Changes in Leisure Activities, 1890-1940,” Journal of Social History 27.3 (Spring 1994) 453-475

Lisa Gitelman, “Reading Music, Reading Records, Reading Race: Musical Copyright and the U.S. Copyright Act of 1909,” The Musical Quarterly 81.2 (Summer 1997) 265-290 via JStor

Dave Laing, “A Voice without a Face: Popular Music and the Phonograph in the 1890s” Popular Music, Vol. 10, No. 1, The 1890s (Jan., 1991), pp. 1-9 via JStor

Mark Katz, “Making America More Musical Through the Phonograph, 1900-1930,” American Music 16.4 (winter, 1988) 448-476 via Jstor

William Randle, Jr., “Black Entertainers on Radio, 1920-1930,” The Black Perspective in Music 5.1 (Spring, 1977) 67-74 via JStor

Carolyn Marvin, When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking About Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century – e-resource

Mark Katz, Capturing Sound: How Technology has Changed Music – e-resource

William Howland Kenney, Recorded Music in American Life: The Phonograph and Popular Memory, 1890-1945 – e-resource

Andre Millard, Edison and the Business of Innovation (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990) HD9697.A42.E3

Jason Loviglio, Radio’s Intimate Public: Network Broadcasting and Mass-Mediated Democracy – e-resource

Douglas B. Craig, Fireside Politics: Radio and Political Culture in the United States, 1920-1940 – e-resource

Susan J. Douglas, Listening In: Radio and the American Imagination – e-resource

Francis G. Couvares, The Remaking of Pittsburgh: Class and Culture in an Industrializing City 1877-1919 (Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1984) HN80.P6

Pamela Walker Laird, "The Car without a Single Weakness": Early Automobile Advertising,” Technology and Culture, Vol. 37, No. 4 (Oct., 1996), pp. 796-812 via Jstor

Steven Watts, The People's Tycoon: Henry Ford and the American Century (New York: A.A. Knopf, 2005) HD9710.U6.W2

David L. Lewis, The Public Image of Henry Ford: An American Folk Hero and His Company (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1976) HD9710.U62.L4

James J. Flink, America Adopts the Automobile, 1895-1910 (Cambridge, Mass.: London: M.I.T. Press, 1970) HD9710.U6.F5

Week 10: E.L. Doctorow, Ragtime

** Christopher D. Morris, Models of Misrepresentation: On the Fiction of E.L. Doctorow (U of Mississippi P, 1991) PS3554.O3.Z

Michelle M. Tokarczyk, E.L. Doctorow’s Skeptical Commitmente-resource

Herwig Friedl, Dieter Schulz eds., E.L. Doctorow: A Democracy of Perception: A Symposium with and on E.L. Doctorow (Essen: Blaue Eule, 1988) PS3554.O3.Z

Richard Trenner ed., E.L. Doctorow: Essays and Conversations (Princeton, N.J.: Ontario Review Press, 1983) PS3554.O3.Z

** Peter Brooker, New York Fictions: Modernity, Postmodernism, The New Modern (London: Longman, 1992) PS255.N5 pp 80-126

** Fredric Jameson, Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (Duke University Press, 1991) PN98.P67.J2 pp. 21-25

Henry Claridge, “Writing in the Margin: E.L. Doctorow and American History,” in Graham Clarke ed., The New American Writing: Essays on American Literature Since 1970 (London: Vision, 1990) PS225.C5

E.L. Doctorow, London, Hemingway, and the Constitution: Selected Writings, 1977-1992 (New York: Random House, 1993) PS3554.O3 pp “Theodore Dreiser: Book One and Book Two”

Berndt Ostendorf, “The Musical World of Doctorow's Ragtime American Quarterly > Vol. 43, No. 4 JSTOR

Michael Wutz, “Literary Narrative and Information Culture: Garbage, Waste, and Residue in the Work of E. L. DoctorowContemporary Literature > Vol. 44, No. 3 (Autumn, 2003), pp. 501-535 JSTOR

Thomas G. Evans, “Impersonal Dilemmas: The Collision of Modernist and Popular Traditions in Two Political Novels, ‘The Grapes of Wrath’ and ‘Ragtime’" South Atlantic Review > Vol. 52, No. 1 (Jan., 1987), pp. 71-85 JSTOR

David Wondrich, Stomp and Swerve: American Music Gets Hot, 1843-1924 (Chicago, Ill.: Chicago Review Press, 2003) ML3477 WON pp. “Ragtime, or All Coons Alike” 43-112

Edward A. Berlin, Ragtime: A Musical and Cultural History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980) PS465.B4

David A. Jasen and Gene Jones, Spreadin’ Rhythm Around: Black Popular Songwriters, 1880-1930 PS451.S67

James P. Kraft, Stage to Studio: Musicians and the Sound Revolution, 1890-1950 Denis Arnold Library ML37

Week 11: The Mass Culture Debate

** The following articles are responses to Levine’s “The Folklore of Industrial Society” and were published in a forum on mass/popular/folk culture in The American Historical Review, Vol. 97, No. 5. (Dec., 1992) and are all available via JSTOR:

Robin D. G. Kelley, Notes on Deconstructing "The Folk", pp. 1400-1408

Natalie Zemon Davis, Toward Mixtures and Margins, pp. 1409-1416

T. J. Jackson Lears, Making Fun of Popular Culture, pp. 1417-1426

Lawrence W. Levine, Levine Responds, pp. 1427-1430

Key texts and comments on the mid-century mass culture debate:

Walter Benjamin, (1936) “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction”

Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer (1944) “The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception” (full text)

Clement Greenberg, “Avant-Garde and Kitsch”
Re-thinking high culture/low culture distinctions:

Andreas Huyssen, After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1988) PN771.H8

Fredric Jameson, “Reification and Utopia in Mass Culture Social Text, No. 1. (Winter, 1979), pp. 130-148. JSTOR

Shane Gunster, “Revisiting the Culture Industry Thesis: Mass Culture and the Commodity Form Cultural Critique,” No. 45. (Spring, 2000), pp. 40-70. JSTOR

Lawrence W. Levine, Highbrow/Lowbrow: The Emergence of Cultural Hierarchy in America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988) E169.1.L4

Thomas Crow, Modern Art in the Common Culture (New Haven: Yale UP, 1996) N6490.C7 pp. “Modernism and Mass Culture in the Visual Arts”

T.J. Jackson Lears, “The Courtship of Avant-Garde and Kitsch” in Fables of Abundance

Kirk Varnedoe, Adam Gopnik, High and Low: Modern Art and Popular Culture (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1990) Oversize N6490.V2

Kirk Varnedoe and Adam Gopnik eds., Modern Art and Popular Culture: Readings in High and Low (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1990) Oversize N6490.V2

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