The "union" named for this city was a treaty of 1569 that revised the 1385 Union of Krewo, ratified Polish seizure of the Kiev area and provided for a joint Polish-Lithuanian federated state with a common monarch. The city was briefly Poland's capital as a result of the gradual Soviet attack on the Germans. For 10 points, name this Polish city that lent its name to a Polish communist government that was recognized and aided by the Soviets in the postwar period.
Answer: Lublin 21. Much of this region was first discovered by the Portuguese, who thought it was the Senegal River region and called it Rio de Oro. In the late nineteenth century the Spanish government took it over and established a penal colony there. The Spanish left in 1976, and let in troops from a neighboring country in the "Green March." Ever since, there has been fighting between that country and the Polisario Front, which has received backing from Algeria. For 10 points, name this region which is claimed by Morocco and which has a generic name referring to its relative position within a very large desert.
Answer: Western Sahara or Spanish Sahara
22. In one of this character's most notable literary roles, he is first shown talking to personifications of Power and Force, and later Io comes along to chat. He was smart enough to warn his brother against Pandora, but got too smart when he tried to fool Zeus with a sacrifice of fat and bones. For 10 points, name this son of Iapetus and brother of Epimetheus, who used a hollow fennel stalk to conceal the fire that he stole and gave to man.
23. Supposedly, this artist once promised his mistress to give her his most valuable work, but did not specify which one he meant, so she spread a rumor that his studio was on fire and selected the first work that he told someone to rescue. He subsequently immortalized the mistress, named Phryne [FRIH-nay], as the model for his most famous statue, now known only through a copy in the Vatican museum. A statue of Hermes carrying Dionysus may be the only surviving original work of, for 10 points, what fourth-century Athenian sculptor of the Aphrodite of Cnidus?
Answer: Praxiteles 24. Nearly 20 percent of the electorate of this territory holds some form of elective office, since there are six offices and 35 voters. Most recently Jay Warren replaced BrendaChristian as mayor, in large part because of his acquittal on indecent assault charges earlier last year. Former mayor Steve Christian was convicted of multiple sex offenses and removed by British authorities controlling, for 10 points, what Pacific island populated by descendants of the mutinous crew of the HMS Bounty?
Answer: Pitcairn's Island
25. He recently tried out for Craig Kilbourn's desk on The Late Late Show but lost to Craig Ferguson. His real last name is Schwartz, and although he claims he changed his name to sound less Jewish, hes a member of the Jewish comedy group Stella with David Wain and Michael Showalter, two other former cast members of TV shows "The State" and "Viva Variety". He was the voice of the pets.com sock puppet and played Phil Stubbs on television's "Ed." FTP, name this constant commentator on VH1's I Love the 80s.
Answer: Michael Ian Black
26. While collaborating with Felix Bloch, he developed a method for creating a beam of slow-moving neutrons, which allowed the magnetic moment of the neutron to be measured. With his student, Lawrence Johnston, he designed the detonators for the spherical implosives used on the Trinity and Nagasaki a-bombs. Other discoveries of his include the process of K-electron capture and the isotope tritium. FTP, name this physicist who won the 1968 Nobel Prize for improving on Glasers bubble chamber design, but may be best known for the work he conducted on iridium-rich rocks with his son, Walter.
ANSWER: Luis Walter Alvarez
1. FTPE, identify these notable battles which took place in Africa.
(10) This battle of 202 BC saw Scipio Africanus whup up on Hannibal and end the Second Punic War.
Answer: Zama (10) A British army under Lord Chelmsford was taken by surprise and massacred at this 1879 engagement with Cetewayo's Zulus. The place's name means "fourth belly of a cow."
Answer: Isandhlwana (ee-san-del-WAH-nuh)
(10) Napoleon's major land victory in North Africa was this engagement against Egyptian Mamluks in July 1798. The French routed 40,000 Egyptians under Murad Bey.
Answer: The Battle of the Pyramids
2. Name Graham Greene works from plot description, for 10 points each:
(10) A sinful priest struggles to do his work in a heavily anti-clerical Mexican state and is eventually martyred.
Answer: The Power and the Glory (10) Pinkie Brown seeks revenge upon Fred Hale, a.k.a. Kolly Kibber, for the latter's betrayal of Kite. Pinkie eventually hurls himself off a cliff.
Answer: Brighton Rock (10) A communist bus driver named Drover kills a policeman during a riot. Lots of other people get involved to try and save him from being hanged.
Answer: It's a Battlefield
3. Given description, name the painting by David [dah-VEED], for 10 points each:
(10) A large group of men in an enclosed area point toward a man standing on a table.
Answer: The Tennis Court Oath (10) Three brothers stand together as an older man holds up three swords.
Answer: The Oath of the Horatii (10) A woman leans on the shoulder of her husband, who is writing at a desk strewn with scientific apparatus.
Answer: Lavoisier and His Wife 4. Answer the following about a class of numbers, FTPE.
(10) A number which cannot be expressed as the root of any finite length polynomial expression with integer coefficients is known as what type of number?
Answer: transcendental number
(10) Some call this transcendental number "the most irrational of all numbers," as the ratio of successive numbers in the Fibonacci sequence converges to it.
Answer: phi (accept the Golden mean/ratio/section/proportion/whatever)
(10) This number was the first number to be proven transcendental. It is given by a decimal fraction with a one in each position corresponding to an integer's factorial, and a zero everywhere else.
Answer: Liouvilles constant (accept L)
5. Given the name of a famous butler or manservant from literature, name the author who created him for 15 points. If you need the title of the work, you'll get 5.
(15) Stevens, the butler of Darlington Hall
(5) Remains of the Day Answer: Kazuo Ishiguro (15) Sam Weller, who works to free his master from a breach-of-promise suit.
(5) The Pickwick Papers Answer: Charles Dickens
6. Answer these questions about Jeremy Bentham for 10 points each.
(10) Bentham was still a teenager in 1776 when he wrote this work that was intended as a refutation of Blackstone, but it's probably the most famous thing he ever wrote.
Answer: A Fragment on Government (10) Michel Foulcault drooled over this plan of Bentham's for a prison in which inmates can at all times be observed by guards whom they themselves never see.
Answer: Panopticon (10) Bentham is currently sitting in a chair in a glass case at this British educational institution. In mummified form, that is.
Answer: University College, London (prompt on "University of London")
7. Given a country and a city, state whether that city is its country's capital, biggest city, both or neither. 5 for one, 10 for two, 20 for three, 30 for four. Answers will not be read until after the bonus is complete.
(5) Mombasa, Kenya
Answer: neither (Nairobi is both)
(10) Auckland, New Zealand
Answer: biggest city (capital is Wellington)
(20) Ankara, Turkey
Answer: capital (biggest city is Istanbul)
(30) Quito, Ecuador
Answer: capital (biggest city is Guayaquil)
 Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis; The Lark Ascending Answer: Ralph Vaughan Williams  On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring; Over the Hills and Far Away Answer: Frederyck Delius  War Requiem; "Simple" Symphony Answer: Benjamin Britten
9. Name these things about the 2004 IgNobel Prizes for improbably research, for 10 points each:
(10) The Peace Prize went to Daisuke Inoue for inventing this scourge of bars throughout the U.S.
Answer: karaoke (10) An Engineering prize went to a father-and-son team who patented this baldness palliative, and have the diagrams to prove it.
Answer: the comb-over (10) The medicine prize went to a duo who in 1992 did research in 49 cities and found that the white suicide rate increases in direct proportion to the amount of radio airtime devoted to this.
Answer: country music
10. Name these random mythological characters, 5 for one, 10 for two, 20 for three, 30 for four.
(5) This young Jew was taken captive by Nebuchadnezzar, and subsequently read the writing on the wall at Belshazzar's Feast.
Answer: Daniel (10) This Hindu got of rain and war wields a thunderbolt and rides a four-tusked white elephant named Airavat.
Answer: Indra (20) This Norse god of light and guardians guards the rainbow bridge to Asgard. He has nine mothers, who are sisters to one another.
Answer: Heimdall (30) This ibis-headed Egyptian god invented writing and was associated with the moon because he also invented astronomy.
11. Name prominent Nazis, 5-5-10-10
 The former wine merchant who served throughout the war as Hitler's foreign minister.
Answer: Joachim von Ribbentrop  The head of the SS and organizer of concentration camps.
Answer: Heinrich Himmler  Hitler's favorite architect and later minister of armaments, who was sentenced at Nuremberg to 20 years' imprisonment and later wrote a famous autobiography.
Answer: Albert Speer  Hitler's chief secretary, who controlled all access to him in his last years, and who went missing in Berlin shortly after staying with Hitler until the latter's suicide.
Answer: Martin Bormann
Name these eponymous rules from organic chemistry from descriptions, for ten points each.
(10) For aromaticity, a compound must contain 4n+2 pi electrons in the delocalized cloud, where n is any whole number.
Answer: Huckel's rule
(10) A double bond cannot be placed with one terminus at the bridgehead carbon of a bridged ring system unless the rings are large enough to accommodate it without excessive strain.
Answer: Bredt's rule
(10) In an elimination reaction, the major product is the alkene with the more highly substituted (and thus most stable) double bond.
Answer: Zaitsev's rule
13. Name the American author from a short story title for 15, or a novel title for 5.
(15) "Soldier's Home" and "A Very Short Story"
(5) The Sun also Rises Answer: Ernest Hemingway (15) "Journalism in Tennessee" and "Letters from the Earth"
(5) Puddn'head Wilson Answer: Mark Twain or Samuel L. Clemens
14. Name these disputed territories, for 10 points each:
(10) Most people on these islands consider themselves ethnically Swedish, but they were awarded to Finland by the League of Nations in the 1920s.
Answer: Aland Islands
(10) This majority-Armenian enclave of Azerbaijan declared independence in 1994, but nobody else has recognized this.
Answer: Nargarno-Karabakh (10) This country on the Red Sea coast was an Italian colony until after WWII, at which point it became a part of Ethiopia. It has been independent since a war in the 1990s.
15. TV in the '80s was full of shows about loner figures who wandered around the world doing good for regular people. Name these examples for 10 points each:
(10) David Hasselhoff got his start on this show playing sidekick to a talking Trans Am with some way cool extras.
Answer: Knight Rider (10) This show featured a flying counterpart to Knight Rider's KITT. It was a funky helicopter piloted by a character named Stringfellow Hawke
Answer: Airwolf (10) We never did get to see Robin Masters, but he paid Tom Selleck to drive a Ferrari all over Hawaii in this show.
Answer: Magnum P.I.
16. Answer these questions about Clarence Darrow, for 10 points each:
(10) In 1906, Darrow defended this man, who later became leader of the IWW, for the murder of Idaho Governor Frank Steunenberg.
Answer: William "Big Bill" Haywood (10) In 1924, these two wealthy youths admitted having killed Nathan Franks for no particular reason, but Darrow was still able to save them from execution. Both names, all or nothing.
Answer: Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb (10) In 1926, Darrow successfully defended members of this black family from Detroit, who had fired on a mob trying to evict them from their house in a white neighborhood.
Answer: The Sweet Family
17. Name these people who have brought the paranormal into the world of politics, for 10 points each:
(10) This would-be Democratic presidential nominee has backed a law to ban space-based weapons, including mind control devices.
Answer: Dennis Kucinich (10) This San Franciscan was Nancy Reagan's favorite psychic, and influenced how the president's schedule was planned.
Answer: Joanne Quigley (10) This former Rhode Island Senator looked for backward's messages in George H.W. Bush's speeches and wanted to hire parapsychologists to help clean up Superfund sites.
Answer: Claiborne Pell
18. Name these legal terms that all begin with the same not particularly common letter, for 10 points each:
(10) This is the number of people that must be present at a meeting for business to be transacted.
Answer: quorum (10) This term from feudal law is a type of cash rent paid by a freeman to release him from obligatory services.
Answer: quit-rent (10) Sometimes courts will recognize a legal fiction called a "quasi-contract." Under such arrangement, damages can be awarded by this principle, Latin for "as much as one deserves."
Answer: quantum meruit
19. Name some characters from Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment, for 10 points each:
(10) The protagonist, who commits a senseless murder under the impression that it will somehow make him great.
Answer: Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov (10) This slightly clownish but very clever detective badgers Raskolnikov toward confessing to the murder. Note: First name is enough, he doesn't have a last name.
Answer: Porfiry Petrovich
(10) This government official wants to marry Raskolnikov's sister Dunya, but Raskolnikov is repelled by his shallow ideas and lack of humanity.
Answer: Pyotr Petrovich Luzhin
20. Given a year, name the Canadian prime minister at the time, for 5 points each:
Answer: Mackenzie King (5) 1869
John MacDonald (5) 1975
Pierre Trudeau (5) 1914
Robert Borden (5) 2000
Jean Chrétien (5) 1900
21. Name some dialogues of Plato from clues, 5-5-10-10.
(5) Socrates is told by his friends to go into exile, but he prefers to stay and be executed.
Answer: Crito (5) Socrates, Agathon and some friends have a party and give speeches about love before deciding to get wasted instead.
Answer: Symposium (10) Socrates argues with Polus and the title character over whether rhetoric is a Good Thing. Since the title character is a professional rhetorician, he says yes.
Answer: Gorgias (10) Socrates is nowhere to be found. An Athenian stranger has an exceedingly long argument with Cleinias and Megillus.
Answer: The Laws or Leges or Nomoi
22. Name the following distributions used in sampling statistics, FTPE:
(10) This simplest distribution is a discrete probability distribution which takes the probability value 1 with success and the probability value 0 with failure. Probability is calculated as q = 1 - p.
Answer: Bernoulli distribution
(10) This is a discrete probability distribution which describes the number of successes in a sequence of n Bernoulli distributions.
Answer: binomial distribution
(10) Named for a French mathematician, this is a discrete probability distribution belonging to certain random variables N that count, among other things, a number of discrete occurrences that take place during a time-interval of given length.
Answer: Poisson distribution
23. Name these portrayers of Leda and the Swan, for 10 points each:
(10) This artist depicts Leda's lips touching the swan's bill as they get it on atop a red blanket. Hes more famous for a sculpture of Moses with some cranial protrusions and a statue of the dude who slew Goliath.
Answer: Michelangelo Buonarroti
(10) This artist's version exists only in a copy from about 1550. Leda smiles as she takes a post-coital stroll with a very large swan, while their offspring emerge from broken eggs on the ground.
Answer: Leonardo da Vinci (accept either name alone)
(10) This mannerist sculptor of The Fountains of Neptune also did a Leda that seems to be based on Michelangelo's painting.
Answer: Bartolomeo Ammanati
24. Answer these questions about Sikhism for ten points each.
(10) This founder of and first guru of the Sikh religion was born in 1469.
Answer: Sri Guru Nanak Dev ju
(10) The tenth guru, Gobind Singh, initiated this order of Sikhism, now the dominant order, whose male members wear long hair and beards and carry tokens including a comb and dagger.
Answer: Khalsa (10) The main homeland of the Sikhs is this Indian state whose name means "five rivers" and which includes the city of Amritsar.
Answer: the Punjab
25. Answer the following about a certain phylum, FTPE.
(10) This phylum consists of organisms such as sea anemones and corals, as well as jellyfish.
Answer: Cnidaria (10) Cnidarians have cells that contain these specialized capsules, which in turn contain a barbed stinging tube.
Answer: nematocysts (accept cnidocysts)
(10) This is the term for the gelatinous material found between a cnidarians two layers of tissue, the ectoderm and endoderm.
26. Identify some of the top scientific achievements of 2004, for the stated number of points.
(10) Archaeologists discovered a new species of humans that stood only one meter tall and lived until 13,000 years ago on the island of Flores, which is part of what nation?
Answer: Indonesia (10) Astrophysicists discovered the first known pair of which type of star? These stars are spinning neutron stars and shoot out jets of radiation.
Answer: Pulsars (5,5) These two NASA Mars rovers discovered evidence that there once was salty, acidic water on Mars surface.
Answer: Spiritand Opportunity