University of Makeni – Sustainable Enterprise – Concepts of Security – national, global and human This is an enormous topic and is normally studied in relation to specific issues, countries and regions

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Empowerment of women

Hillary Clinton has stated that "The countries that threaten regional and global peace are the very places where women and girls are deprived of dignity and opportunity”. She has noted that countries where women are oppressed are places where the “rule of law and democracy are struggling to take root” and that when women’s rights as equals in society are upheld, the society as a whole changes and improves, which in turn enhances stability in that society, which in turn contributes to global society

Human Security

Human security is a belief that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state.

Human security is based a people-centred view of security that is necessary for national regional and global stability.

The concept owes its conception to the problems that arose during the from a post-Cold War period. The United Nations Development Programmes 1994 Human Development Report was the first publication in the field of human security with its argument that insuring "freedom from want" and "freedom from fear" for all persons is the best path to tackle the problem of global insecurity.

Today, it is widely accepted that poverty, lack of work and a general feeling that there is nothing in this system for me that fires some of the terrorists ( they believe they are freedom fighters) and those who turn on the State and use violence – what is it that drives young Americans to shoot teachers and friends.

Critics of the concept argue that its vagueness undermines its effectiveness that it has become little more than a vehicle for activists wishing to promote certain causes and that it does not help the research community understand what security means or help decision makers to formulate good policies. In order for human security to challenge global inequalities there has to be cooperation between a country’s foreign policy and its approach to global opportunities for such services as education, health and social welfare.

A range of definitions

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