University of Makeni – Sustainable Enterprise – Concepts of Security – national, global and human This is an enormous topic and is normally studied in relation to specific issues, countries and regions



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Environmental security

Environmental security deals with environmental issues which threaten the national security of a nation in any manner. Transnational environmental problems that threaten a nation's security, in its broad defined sense. These include global environmental problems such as climate change due to global warming, deforestation and loss of biodiversity, etc.[1]:15



  • Environmental or resource problems that threaten a nation's security, traditionally defined. These would be problems whose outcomes would result in conventional threats to national security as first or higher order outcomes. Such disputes could range from heightened tension or outright conflict due to disputes over water scarcity in the Middle East, to illegal immigration into the United States caused by the failure of agriculture in Mexico. The genocide in Rwanda, indirectly or partly caused by rise in population and dwindling availability of farmland, is an example of the extremity of outcome arising from problems of environmental security.[13]

  • Environmentally threatening outcomes of warfare, e.g. Romans destroyed the fields of Carthage by pouring salt over them; e.g. Saddam Hussein's burning of oil wells in the Gulf War.




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