Universiteit van amsterdam opleiding antropologie en sociologie der niet-westerse samenlevingen



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9 Interview KWS senior community warden Ole Perrio, May 2007. Ole Perrio states 80% of the population lives below the poverty line. This is acknowledged in an interview with the David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust, Tsavo East National Park, June 2007.

10 Although I speak of the Taita and the Maasai I do not mean to imply that these people are homogeneous or that in this research I am speaking about all of them. I do believe that the situation of Maasai and Taita communities I have not researched is partly comparable, and some results might even be applicable to other Third World communities living adjacent to nationally protected areas.

11 In the literature Maasai is sometimes spelled with a single a. I will follow the current scholarly practice of spelling Maasai with double a (Bruner & Kirschenblatt-Gimblett 1994: 467), except in proper names as 'Masai Mara'.

12 Interview Partalala Ole Sakat, a 25 year old Maasai man who has never gone to school, Endoinyio-Erinka, August 2007.

13 Interview Margaret and Agnes Munga, Mwaghede, May 2007.

14 As people from different tribes now live under similar circumstances as agriculturalists in a highly mixed setting with mixed marriages not being unknown, in this research I have used Taita as well as non-Taita informants as local representatives of the Taita area, but focussed mainly on the Taita tribe. When necessary I have regarded the Maasai living in certain areas of Taita-Taveta district and sometimes passing through Taita land (see also Njogu 2003: 64) separately.

15 Interview Taita elder Albert Baresha, teacher, Wundanji, June 3, 2007.

16 This number excludes people below 20 and is an estimate which includes people who are actually unemployed or economically inactive, but indicate they help in running the family business or farm.

17 In 2000 average wages in Kenya were US$ 630-2500 per year with one person per two households (totaling 8 to 12 people) being employed in Taita-Taveta. While economic diversification is generally practiced, it does not solve the problem of lack of income in this area (Njogu 2003: 87).

18 Other Maa speaking people include the Samburu, Njemps and the Arusha (Bruner & Kirschenblatt-Gimblett 1994: 467).

19 The Siria Maasai and Loita live more to the Southern border of the Mara Reserve and to the East (Lamprey and Reid 2004: 1006).

20 An age-set is an institutionalised stage in life which is shared by people that are in the same age-category. Most important in defining who belongs to a certain age-set is the time of circumcision (Eriksen 2001: 135).

21 Richard Leakey, the former director of KWS proposed fencing the protected areas, but due to lack of money and large scale protests that this would eliminate at least three quarters of the nation's wildlife this never materialized (Benirschke et.al 1998: 1510, Raven 1998: 1510-1511, Western 1998: 1507-1510). Only in some areas with extreme human wildlife conflict KWS has placed stretches of electric fence to separate the park from the community areas.

22 National Parks and equivalent reserves areas are defined by the IUCN classification category II as 'not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation ... and where the highest competent authority of the country has taken steps to prevent or eliminate as soon as possible exploitation or occupation in the whole area' (Myers 1972: 1263). In the IUCN definition of National Reserves there is some room for human activities such as grazing, but according to Njogu (2003: 129-131) the Kenyan national reserves are managed as National Parks.

23 James Ole Tira Sanva, Swaky Sairiowa, Subchief William Nkesese Ole Naurori, Norokisankuni Sen' eng and Rereu Sen’eng and their families are all informants who did not want to leave their homes in the core of the Koiyaki-Lemek Wildlife Trust conservancy near Masai Mara, interviews June and July 2007.

24 Besides the National Parks 24% of the land are (group)ranches, 11% settlements, agricultural land and sisal estates and 3% barren land, mainly rocks (interview Mlamba, Taita-Taveta Wildlife Forum, May 2007, see also Mombo n.d.: 1).

25Many of these forests, of which only fragmented pieces are left, form the most northern part of the Eastern Arc Mountain forest, and consist of very old trees that will never return after being cleared. Locally referred to as 'cloud forests', they are the home to many endemic species, flora as well as fauna (Njogu 2003: 31,114). Despite the fact these species are almost all highly endangered, none of them fall in the category of charismatic mega-fauna and therefore the mountain areas get far less conservation attention than the plains.

26 Although in areas with rainfall much lower than 500mm it is only practicable in small, intensive plots (Norton-Griffiths et.al. 2006 in press).

27 In this research defined as all group ranches surrounding the Mara, minus the protected areas of the Mara Reserve and the Mara Triangle.

28 Norton-Griffiths et.al. calculated the potential livestock rents to be US $35 million, while potential agricultural rents for the same area are US$181 million (2006 in press: 3, 5).

29 Such as my informants of the Kipeen family, Menye Muya Ololkumum, Charles Kararei, Sammy Kisemei, Patrick Ntiangau Liaram.

30 Interview Steven Ndambuki Mwiu, Research Centre Tsavo West National Park, June 2007.

31 The Mombasa pipeline does have a thin branch in the direction of Kasigau (Taita), but several kilometers from the main pipeline it seldom provides water, as thirsty communities closer to the mainroad have already finished the small amount that passes through there.

32 In the Tsavo area the first records of human-elephant conflict date from 1916, when the District Commissioner of Voi asked the government permission for local people to kill elephants that were damaging crops. In the 1970s the problem became so intense that in certain areas the cultivation of sisal and food crops was abandoned completely (Smith & Kasiki 2000: 22). Between 1990 and 2006, in the main dispersal areas of the Tsavo conservation area almost 10.000 cases of crop-destruction were reported (Cheptei 2007), and by far not all cases are being reported. Of all reports of human wildlife conflict in this area over half was attributed to elephants (Cheptei 2007). Njogu found that over 91% of all households in the Taita area experienced crop loss due to wildlife in all parcels of land used for crop farming, 65% dealing with foraging elephants (Njogu 2003: 198).

33 Interview Maktau, June 2007.

34 Informant at my baraza on human-wildlife conflict, Sasenyi Primary School, Mwagwede, June 2007.

35 Focus-group interview, Oltorotwa, July 2007.

36 Focus-group interview, Oltorotwa, July 2007.

37 Interview Buguta, June 2007.

38 Interview Derrick Mwangala from Kanyagha, during KWS baraza on fencing in Voi, June 2007. The Maasai in Kimana voice the same feeling that wildlife is the biggest cause of poverty, preventing people to become rich from cultivation (Rutten 2004: 18).

39 In general in Kenya, the presence of wildlife reduces livestock returns by 30% (Norton-Griffiths & Butt 2006, Norton-Griffiths et.al. 2006 in press: 12, 22). In the Taita area in the five year period preceding his survey, Njogu found that 40,2% of the households had experienced loss of cattle, sometimes up to 50 head, 25,4% and 5.9% had lost goats or sheep and 3% had lost a donkey. Lions caused over half these losses, followed by elephants, hyena's and leopards (Njogu 2003: 197-198).

40 Mzee (plural wazee) is a Swahili word which is used to respectably address or refer to old people.

41 Approximately 300.000-700.000 wildebeest enter the Mara each year from the Serengeti, with 50.000-150.000 of them spilling into the adjoining groupranches. According to Lamprey and Reid the wildebeest migration is know as the 'yearly famine' to the Maasai in the Mara area (Lamprey & Reid 2004: 1017-1019).

42 Interview in Endooto Ekerok, August 2007.

43 Focus-group interview at Oltorotwa, July 2007.

44 In Kenya as a whole between January 1989 and June 1994, 448 people were reported to be killed or injured by wildlife, of which elephants were responsible for 173 (KWS 1994). In the dispersal areas of the Tsavo Conservation Area between 1990 and 2006 145 human deaths, 346 human injuries and 2945 threats to humans were reported to KWS (Cheptei 2007). it has to be kept in mind that by far not all cases are being reported. After interviewing 101 community respondents in Taita-Taveta and 56 in Narok, Kimwele and Waweru (2006) already were informed of 24 and 18 people that were killed by wildlife in the respective areas in 2004.

45 Interview at his home in Mwaghede, May 2007.

46 5/06/07 11hrs an elephant report was filed: ‘At Kituma elephants have destroyed the house of Mr. Wakio Mushori.’ Problem Animal Control book, KWS community office, Sofia, Voi.

47 Veronica Nampayio Naingisa, Fransica Rarin Naingisa, Noolmejooli Karia, Hellen Noomali Tinka (speaking most) and Everlyne Tinka focus-group interview at Enkeju Emutukaa August 2007.

48 Interview in Aitong, August 2008.

49 Two hundred poles are needed for a medium sized boma and the material has to come from the Mau forest, after which transportation with a lorry to the village has to be arranged. A Maasai local of Oltorotwa planning such a fence has made an estimation of the costs. He now pays about 3.500 Ksh (US$ 52) to pay for the material and labour to build a fence of prickly bushes, which has to keep on being repaired every now and than bringing in extra costs. However, to buy and transport materials and put up a tall fence of 200 poles he will need to put down 140.000 Ksh (US$ 2090), which is 40 times as much.

50 According to Smith & Kasiki in the Tsavo area 'the annual expenditure of most households on materials and services to reduce crop-raiding exceeded their annual income' (2000: 23).

51 Interviews Benjamin Kisemei, in Talek, July 2007 and William Nkesese Ole Naurori in Koiyaki-Lemek Wildlife Trust, August 2007.

52 Interview in Endoinyio-Erinka, July 2007.

53 Focus-group interview Oltorotwa, August 2007.

54 Interview in Mbirikani, June 2007.

55 Such as Richard Bonham's Maasailand preservation trust predator compensation fund.

56 Interview in Enkeju Emutukaa, August 2007.

57 Interview in Endoinyio-Erinka, July 2007.

58 Interview Mr. Mwanyumba a local Taita from Wundanji working at the Taita-Taveta Wildlife Forum, May 4, 2007.

59 Baraza in Sasenyi, June 2007.

60 Informant at my baraza on human-wildlife conflict, Sasenyi Primary School, Mwagwede, June 2007.

61 Mr. Mwanyumba, of the Taita-Taveta Wildlife Forum tells how the Taita used to go hunt buffalo when there was a drought during an interview at East African Wildlife Office in Wundanji, May, 2007.

62 Interview Albert Baresha, Wundanji, June 2007.

63 The Taita use the term ‘sweet’ not only for things that taste sugary, but for anything that tastes good. The term bitter is used to refer to anything with a bitter or sharp taste as well as to things that do not taste good.

64 See also interview Joseph Sauni of the David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust Kasigau and Rukinga Ranch poaching prevention team, Voi, June 2007 and interviews with John Mlamba, a local of Taita-Taveta Wildlife Forum, Voi and Buguta, May and June 2007. Pictures of caught poachers with their flash light are available from the Field Report of the Bura Desnaring Team March 2008. www.sheldrickwildlifetrust.org, accesed April 24, 2008

65 Interview anonymous desnarer of David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust, Tsavo East June 2007.

66 However, some NGO’s such as Wildlife Works and tourist facilities playing part in anti-poaching such as Rock Side Camp near Maungu believe poaching in the area has become commercial and not for the pot.

67 Constance Mwasho, Community Warden Southern area Tsavo West.

68 Examples of recent reports reinforcing the view that community members poach because of lack of food, for instance as a result of lack of rain, including pictures of arrested poachers are the field reports of the Bura Desnaring Team of February and March 2008, which can be downloaded from www.sheldrickwildlifetrust.org, accessed April 24, 2008.

69 Interview Madame Memugoi, Buguta-East, June 2007.

70 The word Dorobo means ‘poor’, as those without cattle are considered poor (Sutton 1993: 50).

71 Interview mzee Kisemei, Endoinyio-Erinka, August 2007.

72 David Read also describes how a decorated tail of the wildebeest is used as a fly swat, while its hair can be used for cutting (Reid & Chapman 1997: 14, 172).

73 Interview Sylvester Kotoine, Oltorotwa, August 2007.

74 Observance and interview Maasai Buffalo Dancers at Tourism Board conference in Kenyatta International Conference Centre Nairobi, September 2007.

75 Reid tells how the skin and manes of the lions are used as a trophy by any warrior who has managed to kill the animal (Reid & Chapman 1997: 98-99, 104, 159-160, 189).

76 Interview Sylvester Kotoine, Oltorotwa, August 2007.

77 This information was largely brought forward by members of the Maasai Buffalo Dancers Cultural Group and came about in informal conversations with other Maasai. Naomi Kipury has a slightly different classification and spelling of the clans names, speaking of the Ilmolelian, Aiser and Iltaarrosereo clans (1983: 40). Reid and Chapman also report on how the wild ‘animals are relatives of the clans’ (my translation 1997: 179), referring to all the wild animals living on the plains and in the forests, and explicitly referring to the python, warthog and leopard (ibid.). That this relationship is not just symbolic, concerning mythical icons of the animals, but also concerns the real animals in flesh and blood becomes clear with the story of a killed cobra, which was related to the clan of the loitayo (ibid. 180).

78 How little the people of the areas with wild animals can imagine living without them is illustrated by the surprised and unbelieving reactions when I tell people there are little or no wild animals where I come from. Quite a number of people asks me again and again if there are no elephants there, and than ask if there are lions, or crocodiles, or buffalo. And if the answer is no and no again, they ask once more if there are really no elephants there.

79 Interview in Talek, July 2007.

80 Interview in Eluai, August 2007. In their study comparing human-wildlife interaction in Kajiado district in 1977 and 1996 Campbell et.al. have observed a similar trend. To them local people expressed an 'increased concern with hyena, explaining that there were more of them and that they had changed their behavior, more frequently approaching settlements and attacking livestock' (2003: 7).

81 Interview in Marasi, June 2007.

82 Interview in Koiyaki-Lemek Wildlife Trust, August 2007.

83 Interview in Oltorotwa, August 2007.

84 The KWS survey on human wildlife conflict (1994) concludes a 'common view amount the entire cross-section of people consulted is that elephants, secure in their protected status, have increased in number and lost their fear of people. Instead of shying away from humans as they once did, elephants now invade homesteads and break into huts to reach food' (KWS 1994: iii).

85 Interview Donald Mombo, local of the Taita area and ex-chief executive of the Taita-Taveta Wildlife Forum, now working for Kecobat in Nairobi, June 2007.

86 World Bank Group 2007 Quick Query: Sub-Saharan Africa Selected World Development Indicators. http://ddp-ext.worldbank.org/ext/DDPQQ/report.do?method=showReportaccessed February 13, 2008.

87 Kenya Ministry of Tourism 2007 Facts and Figures. www.tourism.go.ke/ministry.nsf/pages/facts_figures

downloaded April 24, 2007. See also Sinclair 1998.



88 UNDP 2007/2008 Human Development Index rankings http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics accessed February 13, 2008.

89 World Bank Group

http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/IDA0,,contentMDK:20054572~menuPK:3414210~pagePK:51236175~piPK:437394~theSitePK:73154,00.htmlaccessed February 13, 2008, and World Bank Group http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/EXTANNREP/EXTANNREP2K5/0,,contentMDK:20636901~menuPK:1512409~pagePK:64168445~piPK:64168309~theSitePK:1397343,00.html accessed May 10, 2006.

90 This means that they live not on what US$ 2 buys you in Kenya, but on the equivalent of US$ 2 purchasing power, which means that they try to foresee in all their needs every day with what two dollars would buy them in the United States.

91 World Bank 2007 Kenya Country Brief.

http://web.worldbank.org//WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/AFRICAEXT/KENYAEXTN/0,,menuPK:356520~pagePK:141132~piPK:141107~theSitePK:356509,00.htmlAccessed February 13, 2008. Numbers based on the 2005/2006 Kenya Integrated Household Budget Survey of the Government of Kenya.

92 Ibid.

93 Forming even 43% of Kenya's total foreign exchange in 1990, after the popularity of the film Out of Africa (Honey 1999: 295).

94 Kenya Ministry of Tourism 2007 Facts and Figures. www.tourism.go.ke/ministry.nsf/pages/facts_figures

downloaded April 24, 2007. See also Sinclair 1998.



95 The estimated costs would be US$ 10.800 per km for installation, and an annual US$ 1.100 per km to maintain the fence. This maintenance fee would increas when components and posts need to be replaced (Smith & Kasiki 2000: 23-24).

96 While not allowing sporthunting (Daily Nation 2007a: 4), it does give room for game ranching and farming, culling, cropping and bird shooting (Opala 2007a: 4). Newly created independent regional wildlife associations can function as informers of the KWS and set up endowment funds to be used for development or the newly instated compensation for destruction of private property (Opala 2007a: 4-5), which will be compensated at local market prices up to a maximum of Ksh 100.000 (US$ 1492) however only when the crops or livestock have been protected properly for instance by a 'substantial physical barrier' (Daily Nation 2007b: 5). In addition an amount of Ksh 1 million (US$ 15.000) compensation for loss of life is being proposed (Daily Nation 2007b: 5).

97 In Taita-Taveta there are now two electric fences between community areas and Tsavo East and West: between Ndi-Ndara (25km) and Taita-Maktau (33km), more fences are proposed (Cheptei 2007). However, these elephant proof fences are very expensive: erecting the Ndara-Ndi fence cost circa US$ 324.000 (Smith & Kasiki 2000: vii), while it costs circa US$ 1100 per kilometer to maintain it each year (Smith & Kasiki 2000: 24). However, the fence does not significantly change the human-elephant incident density (Smith & Kasiki 2000: 42-43, Njogu 2003: 210). Moreover, communities are often worried KWS will place the fence in a way that adds community land to the National Park, and when the fence separates local people from the animals it is more difficult for them to start an ecotourism business (KWS-community baraza Voi, June 2007).

98 Several visits KWS community office Voi, Reported Cases of Human Wildlife Conflict reports and Monthly Human Wildlife Reports community office Voi, visits KWS community office Taveta and KWS district office Wasongiro. (Narok). KWS is sometimes aided by rangers from private or NGO based (tourism) businesses and organisations (pictures 3.5, 3.7).

99 Contrary to what most people think, the KWS community office does only provide the forms, while actual compensation is decided by a local compensation committee and paid by the treasury in Nairobi (interview KWS Senior Community Warden Ole Perrio, Tsavo East, June 2007, see also KWS 1994, Njogu 2003: 210-211)

100 The compensation for crops was introduced in the late 1970s and abolished by parliament in 1990, because it was corrupt and unaffordable (interview agricultural officer Jonas Kiute from Bungule in Buguta-East, June 2007, see also Njogu 2003: 211). I have heard of two exceptional cases of loss of crops or livestock in which local authorities compensated the victims partly. The residents of the Taita area claim that only in pre-election periods compensation for destruction of crops or livestock is considered. According to Njogu, KWS has supported Taita-Taveta with food relief in the past (Njogu 2003: 211).

101 Although corruption and unequal allocations of funds are issues, it has to be said that some of the higher KWS officials have admirable qualities in negotiation, leadership, and diligence and sometimes deal with meagre housing and a rampant lack of good material as well. During my visits often there was a PAC vehicle, but no money to pay for a driver, or were cars, even the ones to be used by the senior warden, not repaired for months because of lack of money (see also KWS 1994).



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