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Chapter 4: The American Revolution (1765-1783)

Important Vocabulary Terms and Topics
Directions: Circle terms or topics you remember and write a statement to show your understanding.

Treaty of Paris, 1763

Proclamation of 1763

Sugar Act

Stamp Act

John Adams

Patrick Henry

Samuel Adams

Sons of Liberty

Non-Importation Agreement

Townshend Acts

Boston Massacre

Crispus Attucks

Committees of Correspondence

Boston Tea Party

King George III

Intolerable Acts

First Continental Congress

Martial law



Second Continental Congress

Continental Army

George Washington

Olive Branch Petition

Common Sense

Thomas Paine

Thomas Jefferson

Declaration of Independence

Natural Rights



Lexington and Concord

William Howe




Molly Pitcher

Battle of Trenton

Battle of Princeton

Battle of Saratoga

Marquis de Lafayette

Friedrich von Steubon

Benjamin Franklin

Valley Forge

Battle of Monmouth

Kings Mountain

Charles Cornwallis


Treaty of Paris, 1783



American Revolutionary War

Ch. 4, section 1

  1. How did the colonial government differ from the British government?

Colonial government had a Governor appointed by and served the king but paid by the colonial legislature. British government had a King which was an inherited executive power. Colonial government had Colonial Legislatures with Upper House or Council (appointed by the Governor and usually a prominent colonists but without inherited titles) and Lower House (elected by men who help property with about 2/3 of colonial men qualified to vote). British government had a Parliament with House of Lords (Aristocrats with inherited titles also inherited legislative power) and House of Commons (elected by men who held significant amounts of property with less than ¼ of British men qualified to vote). Formal documents provided the basis for colonial government, where as the British government consisted of a collection of accumulated laws.

  1. What was the Stamp Act and what was the colonists’ reaction to it?

The Stamp Act, enacted by parliament in 1765, was the first law that taxed the American colonists directly, rather than through duties on imports; therefore it is called—a direct tax. The Stamp Act required colonists to purchase special stamped paper for legal documents (wills), licenses, newspapers, pamphlets, almanacs, playing cards, and dice. The colonists organized a secret resistance group called the Sons of Liberty. The colonist disobeyed the law, organized protests, boycotted goods, and many times harassed the British Stamp Agents. They were angry.

  1. Who was Patrick Henry and what was his significance?

Patrick Henry a young Virginia representative apart of the individual colonial assembly. He helped the Virginia lower house adopt several resolutions as a lawyer he put together a strong collective protest stating Virginians could be taxed only by the Virginia assembly and only by their own representatives. These resolutions were known as the Virginia Resolves.

  1. Who was Samuel Adams? What organization did he form?

Samuel Adams, influential political activist, help found the Sons of Liberty, a secret resistance group that leads in the boycott of British goods.

  1. Why did the Stamp Act Congress issue a Declaration of Rights and Grievances? What did this mean?

The Stamp Act Congress issued a Declaration of Rights and Grievances which demonstrated a sense of unity among the colonies. The Declaration of Rights and Grievances stated that parliament lacked the power to impose taxes on the colonies because the colonists were not represented in parliament.

  1. Who was Charles Townshend and what did he create?

Charles Townshend, the leading government minister who decided a new measure (other than the stamp act) to create revenue from the colonies. This was a new way to make revenue from the American colonists. In 1767, parliament passed the Townshend acts.

  1. Why did the Townshend Acts anger the colonists?

The Townshend Acts angered the colonists because this was an indirect tax on imports, such as glass, lead, paint, and paper as they came into the colonies from Britain. It also imposed a three-penny tax on tea, the most popular drink in the colonies. The price of goods was higher.

  1. What happened at the Liberty? Do you think that the colonists’ reaction to the seizing of the Liberty was justified?

A ship belonging to a merchant (John Hancock) was suspected of smuggling goods by the British soldiers. The inspector claimed Hancock neglected to pay custom taxes. This seizure triggered riots against custom agents. In response the British stationed 2,000 redcoats. Yes, England’s policy of taxing goods that the colonists traded with other countries was unjust. No, custom agents were simply doing their duty by searching ships they believed to be involved in smuggling.

  1. What prompted the Boston Massacre?

Off duty British soldiers and colonists had been competing for ship yard work in Boston. A mob gathered outside a custom house and taunted British soldiers. This disagreement and tension led to the Boston Massacre.

  1. Who was the first African American to be killed in the American Revolution?

Crispus Attucks, a sailor of African American and Native American ancestry, was an early hero of America’s struggle for freedom. He was the first to die in the Boston Massacre.

  1. Why were the committees of correspondence established?

The committees of correspondence was established to help the colonies communicate with each other colonies about threats to American liberties and to stay informed on the British troops movements.

  1. What prompted the Boston Tea Party?

The British East India Company was almost bankrupt. They could not sell their tea. So the parliament passed a law allowing them to sell the tea without a tax to the colonists. This angered many colonial merchants because it was cutting them out. So, several rebels disguised themselves as Native Americans and dumped 18,000 pounds of tea into Boston harbor which began the Boston Tea Party. In reaction, parliament passed the Intolerable acts.

  1. What were the Intolerable (Coercive) Acts and how did the colonists respond to them?

Shut down Boston harbor; Quartering act; Commander-In-Chief of British forces (Thomas Gage)—new governor of Massachusetts; Boston under martial law (rule imposed by military forces) in order to keep peace. The colonists responded by these acts by assembling the first continental congress and defended their right to run their own affairs from the Declaration of Colonial Rights.

  1. How did the Intolerable (Coercive) Acts lead to colonial unity?

Colonists saw the acts as a threat to their liberty. Although they did not agree on whether to fight for independence, they united in their protest against the harshness and unfairness of the Intolerable Acts.

  1. What did King George set out to achieve when he disciplined Massachusetts?

King George III wanted to end (quell) all rebellions and enforcement of British rule when he disciplined Massachusetts. He also wanted to make the colonies pay for the damaged tea.

  1. What was the significance of martial law?

Martial law was an action authorized by General Thomas Gage (commander-in-chief) of the British forces in North America. Gage was appointed the new royal Governor of Massachusetts. The significance of martial law was to keep peace by ruling the colonies with using military forces.

  1. Who were the Minutemen?

Minutemen were civilian soldiers who were organized by the colonial leaders in the New England towns. They were to step in and be ready to fight at any moments notice. The minutemen begin to quickly stockpile fire arms and gunpowder at the Battle of Lexington.

  1. What was accomplished at the First Continental Congress?

56 delegates met in Philadelphia and drew up a Declaration of Colonial Rights:

  1. Colonies rights to run own affairs

  2. Supported protests in Massachusetts

  3. If British used force—the colonies would fight back!

  4. Meet again in may 1775

This was a great example of how the colonies plan to stand strong against the British.

  1. In what ways did the colonial reaction to British rule intensify between 1765 and 1775?

Colonial reaction gradually becomes more organized—Declaration of Rights and Grievances; boycotts of British goods; violent protest, Boston Massacre; Boston Tea Party; the First Continental Congress; battles of Lexington and Concord.

Ch. 4, section 2
1. Why did the British decide to march on Concord?

The British were concerned about reports brought to them of colonists having large amounts of arms (a stockpile guns) and ammunition hiding outside of Boston in the town of Concord. The British found out about the weapons and were going to destroy them.

  1. What did Warren order Paul Revere to do?

He was ordered by Dr. Warren to warn the townspeople of Lexington and Concord that the British regulators were about to arrive to search for hidden arms for war.

He was to also warn John Hancock and Samuel Adams (two of the most prominent leaders in the resistance to British authority) who were in hiding because the British regulators were out to arrest them.

  1. What were the causes and outcomes of the battles at Lexington and Concord?

The British were met in Lexington by 70 minutemen; resulting in eight minutemen (civilian soldiers) killed and 10 more were wounded. The British had only one casualty. This is where “the shot was heard around the world”. British won!!!

Concord—700 British troops march to concord to disarm the colonial militia. British find the empty arsenal and return to Boston, on their way back are met by 3,000 to 4,000 minutemen (ready to fight); the British soldiers were ambushed and outnumbered, some were wounded, the others retreated….Colonists won!!!

  1. What actions did the Second Continental Congress take in response to the outbreak of war with Britain? Do you think the Continental Congress was responsible in the actions that it took? Why?

John Adams of Massachusetts suggested a plan for each colony to set up their own government and that congress declare the colonies independent. After several debates, they decided to place George Washington as leader of the Continental Army and to print money. The printed money would be used to pay the troops and organize a committee to deal with foreign nations.

  • Yes, because the British forces were well organized and the Americans needed a strong leader to organize them as well.

  • No, because the colonists had declared their intention to step up armed resistance thereby jeopardizing any hope for reconciliation with the crown (King George III).

  1. What was the Olive Branch Petition? Do you think the Olive Branch Petition was too little too late? Why?

The Olive Branch Petition (July 8, 1775) was sent to King George III urging to return to “former harmony” but King George rejected it, calling the colonists “traitors”. He issued the Prohibitory Act in august 1775, which declared the colonies in a state of rebellion and empowered royal officers.

  • Yes, because King George III had only responded to the colonists with punishment and by sending troops.

  • No, because a war would be costly for both sides.

  1. Who was Thomas Paine? What did he argue in his pamphlet? Give details on the pamphlet.

Thomas Paine was an immigrant from England who wrote a pamphlet called Common Sense, an anonymous 50 page pamphlet. In simple but forceful and direct language he argued that the time had come for a radical course of action for the colonies: American independence from England, republican state governments, and a union of new states. Paine attacked King George III and explained his own revolt against the King had begun with Lexington and Concord. Paine sold over 500,000 copies and donated most of his profits to the Revolutionary war.

  1. Why do you think that Common Sense was so effective?

Common Sense eased the colonists’ fears that they needed Britain to survive. It explained independence would give Americans the chance to create a better society. Paine stated a republic would provide opportunities to reward merit rather then inherited privilege. He also explained freedom from the British empire would allow Americans to trade with the entire world. This would be a universal struggle.

  1. What ideas influenced the Declaration of Independence?

Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. Many of his ideas came from John Locke, who maintained that people enjoy “natural rights” to life, liberty, and property. Jefferson described these rights as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

  1. What reasons did Thomas Jefferson give to justify revolt by the colonists?

Jefferson explained the colonies had a right to revolt due to the government failing to protect those unalienable rights. In the document, Jefferson had a long list of grievances (as stated in Common Sense). He stated a declaration that all men are equal with certain natural rights that cannot be taken away. This document only separated the colonies from Great Britain. There was no turning back; the colonists must be ready to fight!!!

  1. What political ideas from the Enlightenment influenced Thomas Jefferson?

The Social Contract theory, an emphasis upon natural rights and that the purpose of government should be to benefit the population being governed, not hold it in bondage.

  1. Explain the ideas of natural rights and rule of law?

Natural rights simply means rights that belong to people simply because they are human (Jefferson quotes them as Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness); Rule of law is a type of government in which decisions must be based on law, not on the personal whim of the ruler (no one can be disenfranchise based on personal wishes).

  1. What groups made up the Loyalists and the Patriots?

Loyalists (Tories)—those who oppose independence from Great Britain and evently left the colonies. Loyalists (William Franklin, Charles Inglis, Joseph Brant, Isaac Wilkins); African Americans (fought with hopes of freedom); Native Americans

(due to colonial settlers being the biggest threat to their lands).

Patriots—supports of independence eventually are called Rebels. Patriots (Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Thomas Paine, Robert Livingston, Roger Sherman, Nathaniel Greene, James Armistead, and Mercy Otis Warren); Quakers (but did not fight); African Americans (some fought).

  1. How did the thinking of the Loyalists differ from that of the Patriots?

The Loyalists maintained respect for the King and preferred British rule. They felt the Patriot forces were too weak to resist Britain’s power and that a revolt against the King would bring destruction. The loyalists disliked the Patriot’s taxes, oaths of loyalty, and militia drafts. Some were even angered by the Patriot’s closing Loyalist newspapers. The Patriots agreed with Paine and wanted to be free of tyrannical laws imposed by Britain. They felt that their actions were in response to Britain’s determination to limit them and they would not waver (give up).
Ch. 4, section 3

  1. What were some advantages of the colonists during the war? The disadvantages?

Advantages of the colonists during the war:

  1. Familiar with home ground; 2. Leadership of George Washington and other

officers who had more efficient military tactics, such as firing from cover; 3. Inspiring cause--“independence”; 4. Support from France

Disadvantages of the colonists during the war:

  1. Soldiers struggled to stay alive; to stay clothed, housed, fed, warm, and

Healthy; 2. Soldiers struggled to keep their spirits up; 3. Despite facing a better prepared, better-armed, more numerous enemy; 4. Low pay received; lack of uniforms and boots

  1. What were some advantages of Great Britain during the war? The disadvantages?

Advantages of the Great Britain during the war:

  1. Strong, well-trained army and navy; 2. Strong central government with

available; 3. Funds to furnish better food, supplies, and lodgings; 4. Support of colonial loyalists and Native Americans.

Disadvantages of Great Britain:

1. Unfamiliar lands; large distance separating Great Britain from battle fields

2.No strong alliance or strong generals; 3. Some British politicians showed sympathy to the American cause; luck was not on their side; 4. The use of mercenaries who had no real stake in the outcome was not a good idea.

  1. What was the Battle of Bunker Hill?

British leader: General Thomas Gage; British won only because of colonists not having enough ammunition. British suffered a great loss in troops named the deadliest battle of the war. After the battle of Breed’s Hill (Bunker Hill, Massachusetts), many people called for a peaceful solution to the colonies problems with England.

  1. How was the Continental Army able to capture Trenton?

Washington takes Trenton and Princeton—Washington and his army were crossing the Delaware River in small rowboats. Those 2,400 men marched through sleet and snow (a fierce storm). Most of the Hessians (Germans) were sleep and had drank too much the night before because it was Christmas night. Washington took the troops by surprise. They killed 30 men, held 918 men captive, and took 6 Hessians cannons. This demonstrated Washington’s tactical brilliance which sparked the determination, dedication, and courage of his troops. Many soldiers re-enlisted at this time. Another victory came later against 1,200 British soldiers stationed at Princeton.

  1. Why were the victories at Trenton and Princeton so important to the Continental Army?

The victories at Trenton and Princeton were so important because these victories showed that Washington and his troops (Continentals) took the overconfident Germans by surprise (in Trenton) on Christmas night and won. This battle showed Washington and some 2,400 troops ferried across the ice-choked Delaware River in small boats. Before there were many losses and those victories motivated continentals to re-enlist and continue fighting in the war and the American morale rose. Also, this demonstrated Washington’s tactical brilliance which sparked the determination, dedication, and courage of his troops.

  1. What factors contributed to General Burgoyne’s defeat at Saratoga?

General Burgoyne under estimated the difficulties of fulfilling the Americans attack. The British commander and his troops faced difficult terrain (traveling from Montreal) and raids by the American militia. They ran low on food and General Howe failed to arrive with reinforcements. British confidence was damaged. The French signed an alliance or Treaty of Cooperation with the American troops. General Burgoyne showed more compassion toward his soldiers than any other British commanding officer; he was nicknamed “the soldier’s friend”.

  1. Why was the Battle of Saratoga considered the turning point of the war?

The American victory at the battle of Saratoga was the turning point in the American Revolution—it prompted France’s involvement and the British army was not able to combine to defeat the continentals. The victory at Saratoga bolstered the French trust in the American army and France had now agreed it was time to support the revolution. The massed American troops finally surrounded Burgoyne at Saratoga. The British strategy had to be changed and General Borgoyne had to surrender to General Horatio Gates. The British now had to fight near the coast and close to their guns arsenal and the supply base on the British fort.

  1. What did France agree to do in its treaty of cooperation with the Americans?

France signed the treaty in February 1778 and the agreed to recognize American independence and agreed not to make peace with Britain until it recognized American Independence as well. The French had been secretly sending weapons to

the Patriots since 1776.

  1. What happen at Valley Forge?

Valley Forge (1777-1778)—harsh winter camp where the Continental army of 10,000 soldiers stayed. The soldiers suffered from cold weather exposure and frost bite; resulting in a loss of 2000+ soldiers, there were no deserters! Surgeons worked constantly but often were unsuccessful in saving soldiers’ arms and limbs from amputation. The continental army suffered greatly.

  1. What economic problems did the Americans face in financing the war?

Congress ran out of hard currency. They began to print paper money causing inflation—rising prices. Some government officials engage in profiteering—selling scare goods for a profit.

  1. Why was the Spanish governor of Louisiana important for the Patriots?

He gave the Patriots money and supplies. He also prevented the British from sailing up the Mississippi River, effectively stopping the British from mounting a two-sided attack on Patriot troops.

  1. In what ways did women contribute to the Revolutionary war?

Women managed homes, businesses, and ships dock areas along with taking care of their families. They cooked and were sewing uniforms for the troops. Some fought in the war risking their lives in combat. (1) Sarah Franklin—volunteered to mend clothing for the soldiers. (2)Deborah Sampson (Massachusetts) and (3) Sally St. Clair (South Carolina)—disguised themselves as men and fought in the army.

(4) Nancy Hart (Georgia)— captured a group of loyalists soldiers all by herself.

(5) Abigail Adams (wife of John Adams)—wrote a letter to him explaining Congress should include the liberties of women in the laws of the new country.

  1. Who was Molly Pitcher?

Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley “molly pitcher” took her husband’s place at the cannon when he was wounded at the Battle of Monmouth. Also, she continued involvement in the war carrying pitchers of water to the soldiers. General Washington made her a non-commissioned officer for her brave deeds.

Ch.4, section 4

  1. What contribution did Friedrich von Steuben make to the American war effort?

Friedrich von Steuben—a Prussian captain and talented drillmaster (volunteered his services to General Washington) transformed the continental army during the winter of 1777-1778 by teaching the soldiers how to execute field maneuvers, fire and reload quickly, and wield bayonets.

  1. What role did Marquis de Lafayette play in the Revolution?

Marquis de Lafayette— a brave, idealistic 20-yr old French aristocrat, aided the American cause by joining George Washington’s staff, leading a command in Virginia, and suggesting the military strategy that resulted in the surrender of the British army (Yorktown). He also encouraged the French to send reinforcements in 1779.

  1. What was the British strategy in the South and why did they expect support from southern Loyalists?

The British hoped to rally loyalist support in the south, recapture their colonies, and establish a base from which they could move north. The South was largely agricultural and dependent on British markets for its cotton; at the same time, the South relied on imports, mainly from Britain, of goods they could not produce themselves.

  1. Where were most of the later Revolutionary battles fought? Describe the war in the South.

Most of the later battles were in the south. Despite early British victories in many seaports, the British failed to win civilian or Loyalists militia support, leading the South to support the Patriots. Also Spanish forces attacked British forts, deflecting British attention away from the Patriots. New Continental Army commanders won important victories and caused massive British losses, frustrating British commanders.

  1. Why did General Cornwallis lead his army to Yorktown?

The British General Charles Cornwallis wins many southern victories. He camps at Yorktown, plans to take Virginia. The battle of Yorktown—was a significant win for the colonists because up until then, the war could have gone either way.

  1. What was Washington’s plan at Yorktown?

He planned to trap the British General Charles Cornwallis’s army between his army and the French forces, who were in the Chesapeake Bay.

  1. How did the French forces contribute to the American victory at Yorktown?

The French troops joined the siege, while other French ships blocked a British rescue by sea. There was also some Spanish support (as an ally to the French). Spain allowed the American Navy to use the Spanish port of New Orleans.

  1. Who was Benedict Arnold?

Benedict Arnold—traitor, he was a commanding officer and good friend to Washington. Arnold’s wife was a devout loyalist, so he began to spy for the British—he was caught. At the beginning of the war he was a popular patriot soldier and leader who helped defend the New England territory and then served as the American Commander of Philadelphia.

  1. What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1783?

Treaty of Paris (1783) written & signed in Paris: (Benjamin Franklin attended for the colonies)

  • Officially ends the Revolutionary War

  • Confirmed colonial (U. S.) Independence

  • Recognized the colonies as the United States of America

  • Set boundaries of the new nation (Canada-Florida & Atlantic Ocean to Mississippi River).

  1. What issues did the Treaty of Paris leave unresolved?

The issues the Treaty of Paris left unresolved were it (1) did not specify when British troops would evacuate American Forts and (2) did not discuss the protection of lands belonging to Native Americans who had allied with British.

  1. In what ways did the Revolution fail to change the lives of women and African Americans?

Women did not have any new political rights. There were limits on women being able to divorce their husbands and common law still dictated that a married woman’s property belonged to her husband. African Americans were still enslaved and even those who were free usually faced discrimination and poverty. Native Americans lands were being taken away by the colonial settlers.

  1. What were the exceptions to the spirit of egalitarianism that arose after the Revolutionary War?

The main exceptions to the spirit of egalitarianism was African Americans, most of whom remained enslaved and Native Americans, whose land were being taken away by colonial settlers.

  1. Describe three significant challenges facing the United States when the American

Revolution ended.

There were three challenges facing the United States

  • It had to form a government; Handle problems resulting from the provisions of the Treaty of Paris, 1783; Live up to its original ideals for wanting independence (set out to find/build a stable republic (government of the people).


Vocabulary_Chapter 4 The American Revolution

1. Treaty of Paris (1763)Treaty ending the French and Indian War that resulted in

Great Britain winning control of France's claims in Canada and east of the

Mississippi River and Florida.

2. Proclamation of 1763—developed by King George III, it was a declaration (law) that

limited colonial settlement after the French and Indian War forbade colonists from
moving into territory west of the Appalachian Mountains.

3. Sugar ActThis law raised duties (taxes) on goods imported from any place other

than England or another British-controlled colony, especially on refined sugar and
textiles (cloth). It was designed to help pay war debt from the French and Indian war

and reduce colonial smuggling.

4. Stamp ActThis law was a British tax on printed material (such as newspapers,

pamphlets, legal documents, wills, and playing cards and dice) in the colonies. It was

considered a direct tax in which the colonists had to pay.

5. John Adamsa prominent Massachusetts lawyer who observed the protests made by

the colonists during the Revolutionary period and wrote several documents in
support of the protest. He will eventually become the Secretary of State and later the

2nd President of the United States.

6. Patrick Henrya young Virginia representative who used the enlightenment ideas

(revolutionary period—natural and individual rights) to draft a radical document

called the Virginia Resolves that argued only the colonial assemblies had the right to

tax the colonists. Later, he was quoted in stating “Give me liberty or Give me death”

while fighting for the Revolutionary cause.

7. Samuel AdamsFamous leader during the Revolutionary period in Boston, he

formed the secret resistance group called the Sons of Liberty.

8. Sons of Libertya secret resistance group of Patriots that led protest against

England’s laws and organized boycotts against England’s taxation policies. They also

harassed the custom stamp agents. Daughters of Liberty made colonial goods to

substitute for British goods during this period.
9. Non-importation Agreementcolonial consumer boycotts of British exports as a

response to taxes passed by the Parliament. It threaten British merchants and

manufacturers with economic ruins.

10. Townshend ActsThis law levied new import duties (taxes) on items such as glass,

lead, paint, paper, and a 3 penny tax on tea. It was an indirect tax which caused the
colonial merchants to increase the price of their goods.

11. Boston Massacre—Incident that occurred on March 5, 1770 between a squad of

British soldiers and colonists that resulted in 5 colonists (including Crispus Attucks)
dead in the snow. Led to colonial dissent (hatred) against the British.

12. Crispus AttucksA sailor of African American and Native American ancestry

(may have been an escaped slave) who was self-educated and was an early hero of
America’s struggle for freedom. He was one of the first to die in the Boston


13. Committees of Correspondencean organized network of colonial men that was

established to help the colonies communicate with each other colonies about threats

to American liberties and to stay informed on the British troops movements.
14. Boston Tea Partythe result of the English allowing the British (Dutch) East

Indian Company sell their tea to colonists tax free. This angered many colonial

because it was taking away their profit (cutting them out). So, several

rebels disguised themselves as Native Americans and dumped 18,000

pounds of tea into Boston harbor.

15. King George IIIAt the age of 22, he became the King of England in 1760 (just

before the end of the French and Indian War and during the Revolutionary War

16. Intolerable Acts(Also known as the Coercive Acts) The British government’s

response to the colonial Boston Tea Party; the Parliament passed this series of laws

in 1774. They were as follows: closure of Boston Harbor, placing Boston under

martial law, issuing the Quartering Act, and appointing a new royal governor

(Thomas Gage) in charge.

17. First Continental Congressa gathering of 56 delegates at Carpenter’s Hall in

Philadelphia on September 5, 1774; the delegates adopted a number of measures

such as renewed boycotts of British goods and a call to the people of all the English

colonies to arm themselves and form militias (colonial soldiers).
18. Martial Lawemergency rule by military authorities to control chaos (presently

under this rule some Bill of Rights guarantees are suspended).

19. Minutemen/Militiaarmed citizens (colonial men) who serve as soldiers during an

emergency (ready to fight at a moment’s notice). They were Patriot fighters (full-

time farmers and part-time soldiers).
20. Second Continental Congress—this Congress gathered in Philadelphia on May of

1775, less than a month after British troops and colonial militia had clashed at

Lexington and Concord. The colonists agreed to set up their own government and

that Congress declare the colonies independent. They decided to place George

as leader of the Continental Army and to print money. The printed

money would be used to pay the troops and organize a committee to deal with

foreign nations

21. Continental Armythe army that represented the colonies during the

Revolutionary War, made up of minutemen (Patriots-armed civilians in the colonies).
22. George Washingtonappointed Commander of the Continental Army at the

Second Continental Congress; led the American forces against the British in the War

for Independence. Later becomes the first President of the United States.

23. Olive Branch Petitionthe delegates from the Second Continental Congress

devised a plea written by John Dickerson (on the behalf of the American colonists) to
King George III in 1775 that he would halt the fighting. This was thought of as a

compromise with hopes of Britain increasing colonial self-rule. King George III

rejects the petition.

24. Common Sensea 50 page pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in which he argued

that the time had come for American Independence. Paine attacked King

George III and explained his own revolt against the King had begun with Lexington

and Concord. Paine sold over 500,000 copies and donated most of his profits to the

Revolutionary War. It was used as an inspiration to the colonists to demand

independence from England.

25. Thomas Paine—was an immigrant from England who was the author of a pamphlet

called Common Sense used to inspire colonial independence.

26. Thomas Jeffersonthe main author of the Declaration of Independence; a firm

believer in people having “unalienable rights” (natural rights) which are Life,

Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness.

27. Declaration of Independence—a document written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776,

issued at the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted

independence from England. It expressed ideas inspired by English philosopher

John Locke. Jefferson stated the colonies had a right to revolt due to the
government failing to protect their unalienable rights to Life, Liberty, and Pursuit

of Happiness.
28. Natural Rightsthe Enlightenment period ideas embraced by the Second

Continental Congress that all men are born with and that no one can take away, also

known as unalienable rights.

29. Patriotsperson who wanted independence from England, many joined the

Continental Army against England.
30. Loyalistsperson who remained loyal to Great Britain during the American


31. Lexington and Concord—the first battles of the American Revolutionary War

occurred in April 1775. Lexington won by British (Redcoats) and Concord won by

Continental Army (Patriots).
32. William HoweBritish Commander at the Battle of Bunker Hill who was ordered

to retake the hills; he accomplished this by ordering a frontal assault of British

soldiers in the middle of the day. He was successful on the third charge up the hill

by capturing the fort only because the Patriots ran out of ammunition.

33. MercenaryGerman leaders hired out some of their regular army units to England

to fight against the Patriots in the American Revolution. They were called Hessians.

34. Inflationis a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an

economy over a period of time. When the general price level rises, each unit of

currency buys fewer goods and services.
35. Profiteeringmakes what is considered an unreasonable profit especially on the sale

of essential goods during times of war or emergency; the selling of scarce items at

unreasonably high prices.

36. Molly Pitcher—was a nickname given to a woman who earned it by carrying

pitchers of water to the soldiers that fought in the American Revolution,
her original name is Mary Ludwig Hays. It is also believed she took her husband’s

place at the cannon (after he was shot) at the Battle of Monmouth.

37. Battle of Trentontook place on December 26, 1776, during the American

Revolutionary War, after General George Washington’s crossing of the Delaware

River north of Trenton, New Jersey. The hazardous crossing in adverse (bad) weather

made it possible for Washington to lead the main body of the Continental Army

against Hessian soldiers garrisoned at Trenton. After a brief battle, nearly the entire

Hessian force was captured, with negligible losses to the Americans. This modest

victory raised the spirits of the troops and Patriots supporters at
a critical moment

38. Battle of Princetonthis was a battle in which General George Washington's

revolutionary forces defeated British forces near Princeton, New Jersey. On the night

of January 2, 1777 George Washington, Commander-in-Chief had another victory by

moving his troops at night. Washington inflicted heavy casualties on General Charles
Cornwallis’s troops.

39. Battle of Saratoga—conclusively decided the fate of British General John

Burgoyne’s Army in the American Revolutionary War and is generally regarded as a

turning point in the war. Fought in Saratoga, New York, news of Burgoyne's

surrender was instrumental in formally bringing France into the war as an

American ally, although it had previously given supplies, ammunition and
40. Marquis de Lafayette—a French aristocrat and military officer who assisted

American forces in the American Revolutionary period. Lafayette served as a major-

general in the Continental Army under George Washington. In the middle of the war

he returned to France to negotiate an increase in French support. On his return, he

blocked troops led by Cornwallis at Yorktown while the armies of Washington and

others prepared for battle against the British. He is best known for devising the

military strategy to surround the British at Yorktown.

41. Friedrich von Steubena Prussian-born military officer who served as inspector

general and Major General of the Continental Army during the American

Revolutionary War. He is credited with being one of the fathers of the Continental

Army in teaching them the essentials of military drills, tactics, and disciplines.
42. Benjamin Franklin—as a statesman during the American Revolutionary period, he

lead American negotiations in Paris, France to end the Revolutionary war. Franklin is

also known as a colonial inventor, printer, and writer (he contributed to the repeal of

the Stamp Act, Declaration of Independence, and the United States Constitution). He

earned the title “the First American” for his early campaign of colonial unity (Albany

Plan of Union).

43. Valley Forgethe infamous winter camp site (outside of Philadelphia,

Pennsylvania) where Washington and his Continental Army spent the harsh winter

of 1777-1778. The soldiers suffered from a lack of supplies and food. Washington

reported nearly 1/3 of his 10,000 had no shoes.
44. Battle of Monmouthan American Revolutionary War (or American War of

Independence) battle fought on June 28, 1778 in Monmouth County, New Jersey. The

Continental Army under General George Washington attacked the rear of the British

Army column as they left Monmouth Court House. The battle improved the military

reputations of Washington and the soldiers improved discipline under fire.

45. Kings Mountain—a 1780 Revolutionary War battle in South Carolina in which

Patriots defeated a Loyalist militia.
46. Charles Cornwallis—the commander of British forces during the American

Revolution. He surrendered at Yorktown and returned to Britain.

47. Yorktown—a victory won by a combination of American and French forces.

Lafayette helped to corner Britain’s Lord Cornwallis and his troops at Yorktown in a

triangular trap. The American defeat of the British at Yorktown (1781) was the last

major battle of the American Revolution. However, the war did not officially end

until the Treaty of Paris (1783).

48. Treaty of Paris (1783)the announcement of America’s independence without

qualification from England. It ended the American Revolutionary War. The United
States won its independence and gained control of land stretching to the Mississippi

49. Egalitarianism—the War stimulated a belief in equality of all people, which

fostered a new attitude; the idea that ability, effort, and virtue, not wealth or family

defined one’s worth. Note: only applied to all white males.

50. Manumission—the act of freeing someone from slavery; mainly occurred in colonies

like Virginia and Maryland after the American Revolutionary War.

51. American Revolutionary War—also known as the War for Independence between

the American colonies and England. The end of the war granted America its

independence from England with the Treaty of Paris of 1783.

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