United States History and the Constitution Assessment Bank

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1. Look at the graph below and answer the question that follows.

Bales of Cotton Produced in the South, 1729-1860

Which factor most encouraged the trend shown in the graph?

A. an increase of paid cotton workers in the South

B. the growth of industrial production in the South

C. the rise of textile manufacturing in England and the United States

D. an increase in the number of railroad lines that crossed the continent

2. Which region of the United States was the center of the nation's agricultural production in the early 1800's?

A) the West

B) the North

C) the South

D) the Mid-Atlantic
3. Known as the “sod buster,” this innovation greatly improved farming capabilities in the 19th century.

A) wind mill

B) steel plow

C) steam shovel

D) mechanical hoe

4. The cotton gin, new farmlands in the west, and the demand for cotton in northern and European textile factories led


A) an increase in demand for slaves in the years leading up to the Civil War.

B) a decrease in demand for slaves in the years leading up to the Civil War.

C) the development of an industrialized southern economy.

D) the Missouri Compromise and the Kansas-Nebraska Act.


5. After 1812 and before the Civil War, Southern planters opposed high tariffs on imported goods. Which BEST

describes why Southerners fought these tariffs?

A) High tariffs caused Southern manufacturing to decrease.

B) Southern states wanted to purchase goods from the North.

C) The tariffs threatened the Southern institution of slavery.

D) Southerners wanted to buy less expensive goods from England


·In 1790 there were six slave states; in 1860 there were 15.

·From 1790 until Congress banned the importation of slaves from Africa in 1808, Southerners imported 80,000 Africans.

·By 1860 approximately one in three Southerners was a slave.

Which event played the GREATEST role in creating these conditions in the South during the antebellum era?

A) the Northwest Ordinance of 1789

B) the Dred Scott decision of 1857

C) the secession of South Carolina in 1860

D) the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793

7. Which event is the BEST example of a conflict over states' rights?

A) Trail of Tears
B) The War of 1812
C) Nullification Crisis
D) Election of Andrew Jackson

8. Which segment of the American population would have been MOST supportive of the Tariff of 1828?

A) The Freedmen, who were hurt by high rates of unemployment due to the tariff.
B) Southerners who were forced to pay higher prices on goods the region did not produce
C) Western settlers who saw the threat that the tariff posed to their efforts at industrialization.
D) Northerners who would experience increased industrial growth because of a decrease in British imports.

9. In the early nineteenth century, why did the steps to industrialize take place in New England as opposed to the South?

A) Agriculture in New England was not highly profitable.
B) The South did not economically benefit from cash crops.
C) Southerners were fearful of slaves working in factories.
D) New Englanders had an abundance of slaves to work in factories.
10. Who was the most vocal opponent of the Tariff of 1828 and advocated "State's Rights" and "Nullification" in the growing sectional conflicts between North and South?
A) Henry Clay of Kentucky
B) Andrew Jackson of Tennessee
C) Daniel Webster of Massachusetts
D) John C. Calhoun of South Carolina
11. Which technological development led to an increased demand for slaves in the United States during the early- to mid-1800s?
A) the steel plow
B) the cotton gin
C) the mechanical reaper
D) the combine harvester
12. The relative absence of enterprises engaged in manufacturing and finance prior to the Civil War in the Southern states is MOST LIKELY due to
A) the dependence on cotton farming in the South.
B) the lack of cities with high populations in the South.
C) the South's refusal to use technology developed in the Industrial Revolution.
D) the South's inability to raise financial capital to engage in manufacturing activities.
13. Sectionalism can best be defined as what?

A) differences that arise between different regions of a country economically, culturally, politically, etc.

B) migration patterns that occur as people leave one part of a country for another part

C) one part of a country choosing to break ties with the rest of the nation in order to be independent

D) a region’s decision to be economically self-sufficient

14. Which of the following lists describes the antebellum South?

A) factory system, supported tariffs, growing abolitionist movement

B) open to settlement, featured the Buffalo Soldiers, large numbers of immigrants

C) supported the Fugitive Slave Law, plantation system, opposed the Wilmot Proviso, supported states’ rights

D) had slave states, home to a large number of immigrants, relied on manufacturing, supported John Quincy Adams for president


15. How would a southern political leader in the 1800s have most likely felt about higher tariffs and a strong central government?

A) He would have favored both because tariffs tended to raise the price of southern goods and many Southerners believed a strong central government was needed to protect slavery.

B) He would have opposed both because tariffs tended to lead to other nations taxing southern products as well as most Southerners believed strongly in states’ rights.

C) He would have favored tariffs but opposed a strong central government, because tariffs raised the price of southern goods but a strong central government was seen as a threat to states’ rights.

D) He would have opposed tariffs but supported a strong central government, because tariffs damaged the South’s ability to trade and raised the price of domestic products from the North but a strong central government was seen as necessary to protect states’ rights.

16. How did the Indian Removal Act contribute to the Trail of Tears?

  1. It opened thousands of acres of Western lands to new settlement by Americans.

  2. It allowed Andrew Jackson to break treaties with Native American groups at his will.

  3. It annexed Texas as new Indian Territory.

  4. It established the Indian Territory in Oklahoma to which the Cherokee were removed.

17. In what region of the United States did industrialization begin?

  1. Northeast

  2. Southeast

  3. Southwest

  4. Northwest

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