United States History and the Constitution Assessment Bank

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1. Read the quotation below and answer the question that follows.

We are unanimously of opinion, that the law passed by the legislature of

Maryland, imposing a tax on the Bank of the United States, is unconstitutional.

-McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819

Which was one important outcome of this court decision?

A. the principle of no taxation without representation

B. the establishment of a federal government

C. the strengthening of judicial review

D. the creation of a national bank

2. The case of Marbury v. Madison established the right of the Supreme Court’s right to declare laws
unconstitutional, which is also known as

A) judicial review.

B) reserved powers.

C) concurrent powers.

D) judicial restraint.

3. During his tenure on the Supreme Court, John Marshall

A) favored a strict interpretation of the Constitution.

B) reduced the power of the federal judicial branch.

C) increased the power of the federal government.

D) was a staunch advocate of states’ rights.


4. If the Supreme Court declares a law unconstitutional, which of these is the BEST action that can be taken to remedy the situation?

A) The President can issue a veto.

B) Congress can amend the Constitution.

C) Congress can re-pass the law and hope the Court has changed its position.

D) People can organize mass demonstrations at the Court to try to pressure them to change their position.

5. Which statement BEST summarizes the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Gibbons v Ogden?

A) Federal courts can declare presidential acts unconstitutional.

B) Congress has the sole authority to regulate interstate commerce.

C) The federal government cannot abolish slavery in new territories.

D) Establishing a national bank is a power of the federal government.
6. In which case did the Supreme Court FIRST exercise its right of judicial review?

A) Gibbons v. Ogden

B) Marbury v. Madison

C) McCulloch v. Maryland

D) Dred Scott v. Sanford

7. The Supreme Court case of Marbury v. Madison (1803) established the principle of

A) the federal control of interstate commerce.
B) supremacy of the national government.
C) checks and balances.
D) judicial review.
8. The case of Marbury v. Madison established the right of the Supreme Court’s right to declare laws unconstitutional, which is also known as
A) judicial review.
B) reserved powers.
C) concurrent powers.
D) judicial restraint.
9. The Supreme Court decision in Marbury v. Madison established the
A) principle of federalism.
B) principle of judicial review.
C) power of a strong chief executive.
D) supremacy of the national government.


· Marbury v. Madison
· McCulloch v. Maryland
· Gibbons v. Ogden

All of these landmark cases were heard under the leadership of WHICH Supreme Court Chief Justice?
A) John Jay
B) Earl Warren
C) Roger Taney
D) John Marshall
11. John Marshall was instrumental in establishing the principle that the Supreme Court has the authority to declare laws and actions unconstitutional. This authority is called
A) habeas corpus.
B) judicial review.
C) diplomatic immunity.
D) executive privilege.
12. What is judicial review and what court case established it?

A) Judicial review is the power of the Supreme Court to declare acts of Congress and/or state legislatures unconstitutional. It was established by the Court’s decision in Marbury v. Madison.

B) Judicial review is the power of the Supreme Court to review presidential appointments. It was established by the Court’s decision in Washington v. Smith.

C) Judicial review is the power of the president to oversee the appointment of judges and review the job they are doing. It was established by the Court’s decision in Jefferson v. Black.

D) Judicial review is the power of Supreme Court to approve executive orders. It was established by the Court’s decision in Korematsu v. US.
13. As Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, who worked to strengthen the Supreme Court and establish its independence as a branch of the federal government?

  1. William Marbury

  2. James Madison

  3. Samuel Chase

  4. John Marshall

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1. Which characteristic is most commonly associated with the westward expansion of the United States?

A. industrialism

B. mercantilism

C. individualism

D. reformism



Which area on the map was purchased from France in 1803?




3. In U.S. History, 19th Century use of the term "American Frontier" refers to

A) the area where pioneer settlement ended.

B) the Atlantic or Pacific coast of North America.

C) any territory beyond the thirteen original colonies.

D) the boundary between English and French settlements.
4. This treaty established U.S. claims to Florida and gave the U.S. access to the Pacific.

A) Adams-Onis Treaty with Spain

B) Convention of 1818 with England

C) Webster-Ashburton treaty with England

D) Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo with Mexico
5. The policy of the US government toward the Indians in the period immediately prior to the Civil War was to

A) drive them out of the country and into Canada.

B) move the Indian population on to reservations.

C) grant citizenship and voting rights to Indians.

D) require the education of Indian children in public schools.


Historically, the map shown is relevant because it shows

A) the effect of the "Northwest Ordinance."

B) how the United States completed its "Manifest Destiny."

C) the migration of people out of the California territory.

D) the importance of the Gadsden Purchase in American History.


Which letter on the map is CLOSEST to the area which the U.S. acquired in 1853, effectively completing its Manifest Destiny?





"This emigration should be voluntary, for it would be as cruel as unjust to compel the aborigines to abandon the graves of their fathers and seek a home in a distant land. But they should be distinctly informed that if they remain within the limits of the States they must be subject to their laws. In return for their obedience as individuals they will without doubt be protected in the enjoyment of those possessions which they have improved by their industry."

Which president was speaking about Indian removal in this inaugural address?
A) Andrew Jackson
B) James Buchanan
C) Thomas Jefferson
D) Martin van Buren

9. The policy of the US government toward the Indians in the period immediately prior to the Civil War was to

A) drive them out of the country and into Canada.
B) move the Indian population on to reservations.
C) grant citizenship and voting rights to Indians.
D) require the education of Indian children in public schools.


The red path on the map from Tennessee to Oklahoma is most likely showing what aspect of American history?

A) The Erie Canal
B) The Trail of Tears
C) Transcontinental Railroad
D) 'Sherman's March' during the Civil War


According to the map, the greatest impediment to people traveling from Illinois to California in the early 1800s was

A) the danger of Indian attack.
B) a likelihood of bad weather.
C) the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada Range.
D) inability to cross the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers.

12. Which is an example of the concept of Manifest Destiny in action?

A) the Compromise of 1850
B) the Missouri Compromise
C) the Transatlantic Slave Trade
D) the annexation of Mexican territory
13. Diplomatic relations between American settlers and the Mexican government were increasingly tense in the 1830s. All of the following were causes of this tension EXCEPT
A) the requirement that the Texans become Catholics.
B) increasing number of American immigrants in Mexican territory.
C) disagreement about trade tariffs between the United States and Mexico.
D) attempts by the Mexican government to restrict the importation of slaves.


The map shown is suggesting that

A) nearly a majority of the people in California are Native American.
B) more Native Americans live in the American West than anywhere else.
C) Native Americans have been driven from the Midwest in the past century.
D) there are fewer people in the West than in the Northeast and Midwest combined.

15. The Louisiana Purchase of 1803

A) pushed the Spanish below the Rio Grande in North America.
B) resulted in increased conflict between the U.S. and France.
C) resulted in the removal of all British military forces from North America.
D) almost doubled the area of the U.S. and gave it control of the Mississippi River.

16. Which of these statements BEST describes "Jacksonian Democracy"?

A) a set of Executive Orders and laws designed to expand slavery
B) a strict set of policies designed to aid the poor, sick, and elderly
C) a government led by a strong president and that challenged the other Branches
D) a time in which the middle- and upper-classes held most of the power and influence

"The plan of removing the aboriginal people who yet remain within the settled portions of the United States . . . approaches its consummation. . . . an extensive region . . . has been assigned for their permanent residence. It has been divided into districts and allotted among them. Many have already removed and others are preparing to go. . . ."
Removal of Southern Indians to Indian Territory, 1835

This passage is MOST closely related to
A) Civil War.
B) Imperialism.
C) French Indian War.
D) Westward expansion.



The area on the east side of the map is commonly referred to as

A) the ‘West’.
B) the ‘Sun Belt’.
C) the ‘Rust Belt’.
D) the ‘Great Plains’.

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was a major victory for

A) Mexico.
B) James Gadsden
C) The United States.
D) The Republic of California.

20. Which of the following statements most accurately describes Lewis and Clark’s contribution to westward expansion?

A) “While it may have cost them their lives, their brave stand at the Alamo helped secure the freedom of Texas and eventually open the entire southwest to US expansion.”

B) “Their brave journey opened our eyes to the Oregon territory and gave US leaders vision for occupying the Pacific Northwest.”

C) “Thanks to their gold discovery, California did not have to wait as long as it otherwise would have for statehood.”

D) “Their defeat of the Cherokee eliminated the threat of Native Americans attacking white settlers, thereby opening up the West.”


21. Which of the following is true regarding western expansion during the 1800s?

A) The Native American population increased drastically as tribes gained access to better medical treatment and more abundant food supplies on reservations.

B) Alliances between white settlers and Native Americans strengthened as treaties between tribes and the US government enabled both cultures to develop mutual trust of one another.

C) Railroads were crucial because they allowed people to move west much faster and kept settlers in contact with eastern resources.

D) Due to racism, African-Americans and foreign immigrants had no opportunity to play any significant role out west.

22. What did Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Michigan have in common in the 19th century?

  1. They constituted the Midwestern industrial belt and were carved out of the Northwestern Ordinance.

  2. They all produced prominent Populist politicians who ran for president.

  3. They were the sites of major strikes.

  4. They were transformed by textile mills introduced by Samuel Slater.

23. What regional influence did the railroad have on industrialization?

  1. Industrialization followed the railroads, which largely traveled east to west.

  2. The North was ostracized from industrial development.

  3. Industrial zones and urban centers became concentrated in the West.

  4. Industrial capital was centered in Midwest banks.

24. How did the American West change as a result of the Homestead Act?

  1. The West remained unexplored until the early 1900’s.

  2. Most of the West was reserved as Indian Territory.

  3. Industrial funds drained into the South along railroad lines.

  4. American settlers claimed lands and quickly populated the West.


25. The Louisiana Purchase (1803) was important because it gave the United States control of which of the following?

  1. Mexico

  2. Canada

  3. The Rocky Mountains

  4. The Mississippi River

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