United States History and the Constitution Assessment Bank

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1. Which philosophy of the early 1900s is expressed in the following quotation? Nature’s cure for most social and political diseases is better than man’s. –Nicholas Murray Butler, President of Columbia University

A. socialism

B. communism

C. Social Darwinism

D. Gospel of Wealth


2. The ending of the Pullman Strike is significant because it

A) demonstrated unions’ superiority and solidarity.

B) demonstrated the US government’s pro-business alliances.

C) showed that the US government was unwilling to get involved in business matters.

D) showed that unions and management could work together for the benefit of each other.

3. One effect of the Interstate Commerce Act (1877) was to put regulations on which industry?

A) farming

B) railroad

C) ranching

D) iron working
4. The ending of the Pullman Strike is significant because it

A) demonstrated unions’ superiority and solidarity.

B) demonstrated the US government’s pro-business alliances.

C) showed that the US government was unwilling to get involved in business matters.

D) showed that unions and management could work together for the benefit of each other.

5. According to the "Gospel of Wealth" supported by Andrew Carnegie and Horatio Alger

A) a graduated income tax is needed to reduce the gap between the richest and poorest members of society.

B) the wealth and resources in a society should be equitably distributed among the members of that society.

C) the accumulation of wealth is beneficial to society and the government should take no action to hinder this accumulation.

D) the value of any product is determined by the labor that went into it and workers should be paid for the value they create.

6. How did American industrial leaders accumulate their wealth during the late 1800s?

  1. By developing new farming techniques.

  2. By using mainly slave or forced labor.

  3. By collective bargaining and forming unions.

  4. By creating monopolies and establishing trusts.

7. All of these were problems created by late 19th century urbanization EXCEPT

A) a need for city planning.

B) a shortage of factory workers.

C) a lack of adequate transportation.

D) a need for an adequate water supply.


8. What is laissez-faire capitalism and how did its advocates appeal to Social Darwinism to support the practice?

A) Government should regulate business. Its advocates appeal to Social Darwinism because it was a philosophy that favors socialism.

B) Capitalism can only survive if people are happy. Its advocates used Social Darwinism to demonstrate how discontent leads to destruction.

C) The economy does best when government does not get involved. Its advocates appealed to Social Darwinism to illustrate that it is only natural for the best businesses/business leaders to survive and excel while others fail.

D) The economy does best when monopolies are forbidden and workers are paid a fair wage. Its advocates appealed to Social Darwinism as scientific evidence that monopolies and low pay are bad for society.

9. Which of the following would have most affected John D. Rockefeller?

A) the Supreme Court’s ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson

B) the Sherman Antitrust Act

C) the Thirteenth Amendment

D) the writings of Upton Sinclair

10. How did business practices like vertical integration and forming monopolies most directly affect the economy?

A) They inspired massive strikes that debilitated industrial output.

B) They consolidated the power of magnates like Andrew Carnegie.

C) They resulted in the creation of the Populist Party.

D) They forced many farm workers to move to the city.

11. Andrew Carnegie wrote, “The contrast between the palace of the millionaire and the cottage of the laborer with us today…is not to be deplored, but welcomed as highly beneficial.”

Which idea is best reflected in this quotation?

A) Unionism

B) Capitalism

C) Grangerism

D) Populism

12. Which attempt by the government to regulate monopolies was eventually used against labor unions?

A) The Sherman Anti-Trust Act

B) Carnegie Steel

C) The Democratic Party

D) The Industrial Revolution
13. Why did some Americans in the late 1800s support monopolies?

  1. Monopolies could potentially keep prices down, because increasing prices would encourage competitors to come back into the marketplace.

  2. Monopolies could potentially foster greater competition in the marketplace.

  3. Monopolies could potentially secure quality goods.

  4. Monopolies could potentially encourage standardization across industries.

14. During industrialization, a new business structure emerged called the corporation. Corporations are organizations that

  1. Have a monopoly on a product or service.

  2. Sell stock to the public.

  3. Earn profits for their workers.

  4. Receive federal funding.



1. Which American political party is best represented by the diagram?

A. Populist Party

B. Republican Party

C. Progressive Party

D. Know-Nothing Party


2. Look at the graph below and answer the question that follows.

Child Labor, 1890-1930

What accounted for the trend shown in this graph?

A. a decrease in productivity after World War I

B. an increase in state minimum working ages

C. an increase in skilled laborers from immigration

D. a decrease in children's charitable organizations
3. Supporters of the Tariff of 1890, also called the "McKinley Tariff," argued that such measures would protect domestic industries from foreign competition by

A) making imported goods more expensive to buy.

B) allowing greater exports of American goods overseas.

C) raising taxes on the wealthiest ten percent of America's population.

D) creating inflation to make American currency more valuable compared to foreign currencies.

4. The primary reason the United States issued the Open Door Policy was to

A) protect and broaden U.S. trade with China.

B) expand the concept of the Monroe Doctrine to Asia.

C) justify our taking the Philippines as a US colony.

D) justify the extension of American colonies into the Far East.


Who won the election of 1896 on a platform of increased industrialization, higher wages, and the "gold standard"?

A) William McKinley

B) Grover Cleveland

C) Theodore Roosevelt

D) William Jennings Bryan

6. The Populist Party was chiefly composed of

  1. individual farmers

  2. eastern businessmen

  3. Northern abolitionists.

  4. Advocates imperialism




“The Condition of the Laboring Man at Pullman”

This political cartoon was published in the 1890s and points to the growing

  1. power of unions is the United States.

  2. concern regarding factory working conditions.

  3. Involvement of government in private businesses.

  4. Disparity in wages between laborers and industrialists.


8. The Populist Party was established in the 1890s to

  1. Protect the political and economic interests of farmers and laborers.

  2. Reduce the tax burden on the wealthy industrialist class.

  3. Ensure that the U.S. stayed on the gold standard.

  4. Support the candidacy of William McKinley.

9. Which statement best describes the situation between laborers and industrialist, with regards to salaries, during the late-1800s?

  1. Laborers wages rose but so did the expenses and the costs of living in industrial areas.

  2. Industrialists were limited by Federal law to the amount of money they could earn.

  3. Most captains of industry kept workers happy by improving their pay and giving them more holidays.

  4. Laborers were able to lead a successful string of strikes and force factory owners to pay them better wages.

10. Which of the following statements best describes Populism?

A) a labor movement willing to use strikes to achieve its goals

B) an economic philosophy opposed to the abundant circulation of money

C) a political movement calling for reform and bimetallism

D) a popular movement calling for social, rather than political, reform

11. Falling farm prices and increased job opportunities in city factories were both contributing factors to which post-Civil War trend?

A) the rise of agribusiness

B) the birth of textiles

C) US urbanization

D) mass European immigration

12. “It was a sight to behold. Why, I don’t know how they survived. Whole families sharing small rooms with other families. The smell was horrible, and the Lord only knows what critters were living behind them walls. I guess it’s good they work sixteen-hour days; ain’t no room for much except sleeping.”

The above quote is probably talking about what?

A) African-American sharecroppers

B) immigrants living in a tenement

C) robber barons living in an urban area

D) members of the Populism movement attending the Omaha Convention
13. Someone who wanted to see farmers make more money, wanted more “greenbacks” in circulation, and hoped to see the dollar based on silver as well as gold would have likely been part of what movement during the late 1800s?

A) the abolitionist movement

B) the populist movement

C) the peoples’ movement

D) the labor movement

14. What was a political outcome of immigration?

A) Federal restrictions on immigration based on country of origin were passed.

B) Tenements fostered unhealthy or dangerous living conditions.

C) Immigrants faced discrimination from Americans and other immigrants.

D) Immigrants settled in cities and rural areas in the West and Midwest.

15. Why did the Populist Party support government ownership of railroads and telegraph lines?

  1. Government ownership would allow prices to fluctuate.

  2. Government ownership would keep prices high.

  3. Government ownership would keep prices stable.

  4. Government ownership would create more railroads.

16. Populism faded when

  1. The supply of gold money increased, making it easier for farmers to secure credit.

  2. Demand for agricultural products grew, increasing farmers’ revenues substantially.

  3. Agricultural shortages raised prices for farm goods, increasing farmers’ revenues.

  4. Populists achieved all of their goals and farmers no longer needed the support of a political party advocating for them.

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