1. Which group was founded in 1909 under the leadership of W.E.B. Dubois in an effort to combat racial discrimination, racial violence, and segregation in the United States?
A) The Black Rights Coalition (BRC)
B) The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
C) The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
D) The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) BT2
2. Which of these BEST describes the differences between W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington?
A) Washington was an accommodationist and DuBois believed that blacks should have the same rights as whites. B) Washington wanted to negotiate with white leaders, but DuBois believed that total segregation was needed.
C) Washington believed that blacks should peaceful protests while DuBois believed that violence was necessary.
D) Washington believed that educating blacks could help society heal, while DuBois felt that education was a waste.
3. Like Booker T. Washington, Marcus Garvey believed blacks in the United States should
A) leave the country and set up colonies in Africa.
B) educate themselves to be successful citizens and people.
C) rise up violently against those who would deny them rights.
D) look to Rastafarianism for their answers to life's problems.
5. Following the American Civil War, northern cities saw an increase in population thanks in part to
A) an increase in Asian immigration.
B) the flight of former slaves from the south.
C) the migration of former Confederate soldiers.
D) a decrease in southern industrial opportunities.
6. During the Harlem Renaissance, Jamaican Marcus Garvey advocated for African Americans to
A) move back to Africa. B) embrace white culture.
C) adopt the methods of Booker T. Washington.
D) protest outside the White House for equal rights.
7. During his "Atlanta Compromise" Speech, Booker T. Washington MOSTLY tried to
A) make an independent state that would be for African Americans.
B) immediately gain equal rights for blacks and to end segregation.
C) force the government to give pieces of land to African Americans.
D) convince whites that blacks would not strive for immediate equality. BT2
"A ship lost at sea for many days suddenly sighted a friendly vessel. From the mast of the unfortunate vessel was seen a signal, “Water, water; we die of thirst!” The answer from the friendly vessel at once came back, “Cast down your bucket where you are.” A second time the signal, “Water, water; send us water!” ran up from the distressed vessel, and was answered, “Cast down your bucket where you are.” And a third and fourth signal for water was answered, “Cast down your bucket where you are.” The captain of the distressed vessel, at last heeding the injunction, cast down his bucket, and it came up full of fresh, sparkling water from the mouth of the Amazon River. To those of my race who depend on bettering their condition in a foreign land or who underestimate the importance of cultivating friendly relations with the Southern white man, who is their next-door neighbor, I would say: “Cast down your bucket where you are”— cast it down in making friends in every manly way of the people of all races by whom we are surrounded."
Booker T. Washington, 1895
In this passage, Washington is urging African Americans to
A) start a new life in South America.
B) work more closely with whites in the South. C) start a revolution against the United States.
D) form groups to fight against the Ku Klux Klan.
9. Which organization was founded in 1900 by Booker T. Washington with the belief that "promoting black-owned businesses was the key to economic advancement" for African-Americans?
A) the Niagara Movement
B) The Better Business Bureau
C) the National Negro Business League D) the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
10. From 1910 to 1930, many African Americans moved from the South to the North in a trend known as the Great Migration. One of the main causes of this move was
A) economic hardships due to Southern overpopulation.
B) racism in the South that caused fear and suffering. C) the promise of free housing and healthcare in the North.
D) an increase in the demand for agricultural work and products.
Cast it down in agriculture, mechanics, in commerce, in domestic service, and in the professions. And in this connection it is well to bear in mind that whatever other sins the South may be called to bear, when it comes to business, pure and simple, it is in the South that the Negro is given a man's chance in the commercial world, and in nothing is this Exposition more eloquent than in emphasizing this chance. Our greatest danger is that in the great leap from slavery to freedom we may overlook the fact that the masses of us are to live by the productions of our hands, and fail to keep in mind that we shall prosper in proportion as we learn to dignify and glorify common labour, and put brains and skill into the common occupations of life; shall prosper in proportion as we learn to draw the line between the superficial and the substantial, the ornamental gewgaws of life and the useful. No race can prosper till it learns that there is as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing a poem. It is at the bottom of life we must begin, and not at the top. Nor should we permit our grievances to overshadow our opportunities.
--Booker T. Washington, The Atlanta Compromise Speech, 1895.
Which prominent Civil Rights leader would have disagreed MOST with Washington's approach to solving the problem of racial inequality in the south?
A) Marcus Garvey
B) W. E. B. DuBois C) Frederick Douglass
D) George Washington Carver
12. What was the effect of the use of literacy tests throughout the South after the U.S. Civil War?
A) an increase in voter turnout by African Americans
B) the poor and African Americans not being allowed to vote C) an increase in the power of the Republican Party in the South
D) the election of more African American government officials in the South
13. Which of the following best describes W.E.B. DuBois’ view of Booker T. Washington?
A) He agreed with Washington on virtually every issue because he was one of Washington’s disciples.
B) He agreed that the best hope for African-Americans was to focus on blue collar professions, but he disagreed with Washington’s stance that segregation was an injustice.
C) He disagreed with Washington regarding what careers African-Americans should pursue and was offended that Washington sanctioned segregation.
D) He did not trust Washington because Washington was a white politician and DuBois was an African-American.
14. Because powerful political party leaders were controlling the election of senators, what change did the Seventeenth Amendment make?