(ii) Thuwar The Commission received multiple reports of executions and other unlawful killings committed by thuwar and other opponents of the Qadhafi Government. Victims included individuals and groups perceived to be loyalists, Sub-Saharan African nationals suspected of being mercenaries, and captured Qadhafi soldiers. Many documented cases took place in the immediate aftermath of thuwar taking control of particular cities or territories during conflict Phases I and II. Further cases of revenge killings and killings of members of communities perceived to be loyalist317 were reported after the thuwar had consolidated control over specific territories, including after the end of hostilities (Phase III). Some victims were beaten to death, a few were hanged, and others were shot after capture or when otherwise rendered hors de combat.
The Commission also documented 13 deaths in custody as a result of beatings or shooting. Such cases were found in a number of detention facilities under the control of various brigades, local civilian and military councils, and local security committees including in Al Zawiyah, Garabulli, Misrata, Tajoura, Tripoli and Zintan.
The Commission obtained information regarding additional cases of unlawful killings after the fall of Tripoli in late August 2011 committed during Phases II and III. Motivations for such killings perpetrated by thuwar or unidentified groups of armed men were less clear. Unlike targeted revenge killings of individuals perceived to be Qadhafi loyalists, this category of unlawful killings appears to have been driven by financial gain and facilitated by the breakdown of law and order.