30. In its first report, the Commission found that a number of Chadian nationals were executed by groups of thuwar in Benghazi in late February 2011. The Commission confirmed further similar killings during Phase II of the conflict. In February 2011 in Al Zawiyah, eyewitnesses told the Commission how two captured Qadhafi soldiers were killed by a mob. One was beaten to death, while the other was hanged from a bridge. Individual cases of killings of members of communities perceived by the thuwar to be Qadhafi loyalists. (see Annex I, sect. IV.)
31. The Commission received reports of executions by thuwar. Over a dozen Qadhafi soldiers were reportedly shot in the back of the head by thuwar around 22-23 February 2011 in a village between Al Bayda and Darnah. This is corroborated by mobile phone footage. Scores of Qadhafi soldiers and alleged loyalists (estimates ranging from 65 to 78) were executed in October 2011 at the Mahari Hotel in Sirte by thuwar. The victims had their hands bound behind their backs and were shot. Physical evidence and video footage corroborated witness testimony of the killings. Some of the dead were captured fighters, while others were believed to have been those previously receiving treatment at the Ibn Sina Hospital. Still others were civilians reportedly arrested at checkpoints established by thuwar. The Commission also documented 12 cases of men who died in custody in detention facilities controlled by thuwar. The cases involve either agents of Qadhafi’s security apparatus or Tawerghans who are a community targeted by the Misrata thuwar (see Annex I, chap. III, sect. E). Bodies were abandoned in hospitals with visible signs of torture. The Commission’s forensic pathologist concluded that the injuries were consistent with torture.