United Nations A/hrc/19/68


Interviews 0119, 0356, 0209



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748 Interviews 0119, 0356, 0209.

749 Interview 0356.


750 Interview 0119. Al-Jazeera, “Rape of Iman Al-Obaidi,” 3 April 2011.

751 The Rome Statute, article 8 (2)(e)(vi)-1, article. 7(1) (g).

752 See generally Prosecutor v Kunarec, ICTY, February 2001.

753 Interviews 0097, 0118, 0119.

754 Interview 0097.

755 Interview 0119.

756 Interview 0118.

757 Interviews 0145, 0187, 0257, 0384.

758 Interview 0145.

759 Interview 0470.

760 Interview 0187.

761 Interview 0470.

762 Interview 0252.

763 Interview 0374.

764 Interview 0347.

765 Interview 0340.

766 Interview 0355.

767 Interview 0290.

768 Al Jazeera TV, Viagra and Condoms with Soldiers in Ajdabiya, 27 March, 2011.

769 Interview 0477.

770 Interview 0356.

771 Andrew Harding, Libya: forced to rape in Misrata, BBC News, 23 May 2011. Available from: www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13502715.

772 Interview 0119.

773 Interview 0355.

774 Sara Sidner, “Libyan rebels say captured cell phone videos show rape, torture”, CNN World, June 16, 2011.

775 Interview 0154.

776 There is a lawsuit brought against [024] by two Libyan attorneys on behalf of women raped in Zuwara. World Affairs Journal, “A step closer to Justice for Libya’s Rape Victims.”

777 Ten incidents of electrical shocks delivered to genitalia were recorded by the Commission of which seven were perpetrated against men and three against women.

778 Interviews 0116, 0120, 0180. 0476.

779 Interviews 0116, 0119, 0161, 0180 fit this pattern. The Commission heard second hand accounts of many more.

780 Interview 0120.

781 Interview 0385.

782 Interview 0101.

783 Interview 0057.

784 Interview 0058.

785 Interview 0402.

786 Interviews 0101, 0120, 0180, 0363, 0390.

787 Interview 0101.

788 Interviews 0254, 0265.

789 Interview 0254.

790 Interview 0265.

791 A/HRC/17/44, para. 180.

792 See Protocol II Article 13(1): “The civilian population and individual civilians shall enjoy general protection against the dangers arising from military operations.” See also Protocol II Article 13(2): “The civilian population, as such, as well as individual civilians, shall not be the object of attack.” Common Article 3 prohibits “violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds” against persons taking no active part in hostilities.

793 Customary International Humanitarian Law, p. 37, Rule 11.

794 Article 48 of Protocol I, applicable in both international and non-international armed conflict, expresses the principle in the following terms: “In order to ensure respect for and protection of the civilian population and civilian objects, the Parties to the conflict shall at all times distinguish between the civilian population and combatants and between civilian objects and military objectives and accordingly shall direct their operations only against military objectives.”

795 Rome Statute, Art. 8(2)(e)(i)(v).

796 Customary International Humanitarian Law, p. 3, Rule 1 and p. 25, Rule 7.

797 Customary International Humanitarian Law, p 46, Rule 14.

798 Customary International Humanitarian Law p. 68, Rule 22.

799 Customary International Humanitarian Law p. 71, Rule 23.

800 Customary International Humanitarian Law p. 74, Rule 24.

801 Protocol II, Article 14.

802 While sieges to achieve a military objective are permitted, sieges that cause starvation are not (see Article 14, Protocol II). The passage of foodstuffs and other essential supplies must be permitted: see Customary International Humanitarian Law, p 186, Rule 53 and p.193 Rule 55.

803 See Protocol II, Articles 9(1) and 11(1). See also Customary International Humanitarian Law, p. 79, Rule 25 and p. 86, Rule 26.

804 Protocol II, Article 11(2).

805 Protocol II, Article 16.

806 Article 8(2)(e)(i) Rome Statute.

807 Article 8(2)(e)(iv) Rome Statute.

808 Interview 0189.

809 Interview 0194.

810 Interview 0286.

811 Interview 0334.

812 Interview 0182.

813 Interview 0390.

814 Interviews 0387, 0439.

815 This figure includes a large number of temporary barriers erected at intervals throughout the city

816 Grad rockets are area-effect weapons meaning they are targeted against a geographic position and not a point target.

817 Interview 0320.

818 Interview 0164.

819 See Amnesty International, Misratah. Under siege and under fire, May 2011, p-22-23

820 Interviews 0147, 0184.

821 Interviews 0184, 0203, 0205, 0210.

822 Interview 0184.

823 Interviews 0087, 0100.

824 Interviews 0075, 0184, 0203, 0204, 0210, 0377.

825 Interview 0464.

826 Interview 0218.

827 Interview 0203.

828 Interviews 0147, 0184, 0203, 0205, 0210.

829 Interviews 0075, 0147, 0184, 0359, 0377.

830 Interviews 0184, 0377.

831 Interview 0147, 0377. The Commission confirmed the date of destruction through UNOSAT imagery as occurring between 8-14 March 2011. The Commission also visited the site.

832 Interviews 0075, 0184.

833 Interview 0075.

834 Interview 0075.

835 Shabab Libya, Qadhafi forces launch counterattacks as Libyan rebels advance towards Tripoli, 19 August 2011 http://www.shabablibya.org/news/gadhafi%E2%80%99s-forces-launch-counterattack-as-libyan-rebels-advance-toward-tripoli

836 Interview 0341.

837 Interviews 0143, 0319, 0336, 0415.

838 Interviews 0127, 0136.

839 Interviews 0143, 0319, 0336, 0415.

840 Interviews 0127, 0131, 0132, 0410.

841 The Commission viewed the sites of damage in Nalut. Much of it has now been repaired.

842 Interview 0319.

843 Interviews 0208, 0319.

844 Interviews 0208, 0295, 0319.

845 Interview 0319. A witness dismissed the suggestion, saying that, being at the foot of the mountain, it would have been strategically wrong to have taken military positions there

846 Interview 0349.

847 Interviews 0336, 0349.

848 Interview 0106.

849 Interview 0349.

850 Reuters, 27 May 2011.

851 Interview 0349.

852 Interviews 0297, 0413, 0420.

853 Interview 0168.

854 Interview 0316.

855 Ibid.

856 ICRC, Libya: Situation desperate in Sirte Hospital, 11 October 2011. Available from: http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/news-release/2011/libya-news-2011-10-11.htm.

857 BBC, Civilian fears in final Sirte fight, 1 October 2011. Available from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15155599. Times of Malta, Civilians flee horror of the battle for Sirte, 4 October 2011. Available from 1http://www.timesofmalta.com/articles/view/20111002/world/civilians-flee-fighting-in-sirte.387419; AFP.

858 Interview 0351.

859 Interviews 0465, 0351.

860 Interview 0351.

861 Interview 0465.

862 Interviews 0223, 220, 0224, 0231, 0232.

863 Interview 0223.

864 Interviews 0003, 0043, 0044, 0046, 0053.

865 Interview 0046.

866 Interviews 0465, 0291, 0294, 0316, 0321.

867 Interviews 0291, 0321.

868 Interview 0321.

869 Interviews 0291, 0321.

870 Interviews 0291, 0321.

871 Interview 0321.

872 Ibid.

873 Interviews 0291, 0321.

874 Interview 0321.

875 Interview 0228.

876 Interview 0383.

877 Interview 0377.

878 Interview 0314.

879 Interview 0098.

880 Interview 0291.

881 Interview 0361.

882 Interview 0361.

883 Interview 0361.

884 Interview 0377.

885 Interview 0363.

886 Interview 0021.

887 Interviews 0060, 0078.

888 Interview 0297.

889 Interview 0413.

890 The Commission has seen the ambulance and taken photographs.

891 Interview 0413.

892 Interviews 0203, 0361, 0464.

893 Interviews 0281, 0361, 0464.

894 Interviews 0147, 0184.

895 Interviews 0281, 0341, 0427.

896 Interview 0098.

897 http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2011/sc10200.doc.htm

898 At least 110 Tomahawk cruise missiles were reportedly fired by naval forces of the UK and US as well as an unknown number of aerial munitions before NATO assumed command. http://articles.cnn.com/2011-03-19/world/libya.civil.war_1_misrata-missiles-fighter-jets?_s=PM:WORLD

899 http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_71652.htm Operation Unified Protector was undertaken by the states of Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, France, Greece, Italy, Jordan, Netherlands, Norway, Qatar, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States of America. It is not within the Commission’s mandate to assess the manner in which the Security Council Resolution to enforce the no-fly zone and to protect civilians was implemented.

900 Laser-guided bombs are guided to their targets by a laser aimed by the pilot; GPS-guided bombs are guided by satellite based on geographical coordinates; direct-fire weapons are guided by the pilot after they are released.

901 NATO letter to the Commission, 15 February 2011.

902 NATO letter to the Commission, 15 February 2011.

903 NATO letter to the Commission, 23 January 2012.

904 NATO letter to the Commission, 23 January 2012.

905 NATO letter to the Commission, 23 January 2012 and email, 21 February 2012.

906 The New York Times, 16 December 2011. The New York Times reported that on 25 September 2011 a NATO airstrike in Sirte on the home of a senior military officer killed seven civilians and wounded four. The New York Times also reported that on 16 September 2011 a NATO airstrike in Sirte killed at least one civilian and wounded two. The reason for the attack is unclear. The Commission is unable to determine whether this was a legal military target. The New York Times reported that on 6 August a NATO airstrike in Tripoli hit an SA-2 anti-aircraft missile storage facility next to a residential area. While no civilians were killed the secondary explosions damaged and destroyed homes and businesses in the area and injured three civilians. The New York Times reported that on March 29 a NATO airstrike on an ammunition depot in Mizdah led to bombs being ejected from the site and landing up to three miles away, hitting a hospital and residential area and wounding two people.

907 Protocol I, Article 52, defines a legitimate military target as one “which by [its] nature, location, purpose, or use makes an effective contribution to military action and whose total or partial destruction, capture or neutralization, in the circumstances ruling at the time, offers a definite military advantage.”

908 There was one additional incident where civilians were reportedly killed but further information suggests those killed were armed combatants. There were an additional eight civilian deaths and 11 injuries reported in four incidents which the Commission could not confirm.

909 See ICRC Customary IHL Rule 14; Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Article 8(2)(b)(iv).

910 A/HRC/17/44para 222.

911 A/HRC/17/44para 223.

912 See, for example, interview 143 (December 2011).

913 Interview 143, December 2011.

914 Available from http://af.reuters.com/article/libyaNews/idAFLDE7780OO20110809

915 Interviews 0068 and 0070.

916 NATO letter to Commission, 23 January 2012.

917 See for example the AN/AQQ-33 Sniper Advanced Targeting Pod.

918 NATO letter to Commission, 23 January 2012.

919 NATO letter to Commission, 15 February 2012.

920 UNOSAT is a United Nations agency which provides satellite imagery and analysis to UN agencies.

921 Interview 0068.

922 NATO letter to Commission, 23 January 2012.

923 Interview 0038. The Commission has a copy of the death certificates.

924 Interviews 0037 and 0038.

925 Available from http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/opinions_75652.htm

926 NATO letter to Commission, 23 January 2012. An SA-2 is a surface-to air missile system.

927 NATO letter to Commission, 23 January 2012.

928 NATO letter to Commission, 23 January 2012.

929 Interview 0076.

930 Interviews 0346, 0396.

931 Available from http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=56175

932 Available from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9gGrm_g5lRs Media report of site shows at least two civilian vehicles in the crater.

933 Interview 0352.

934 NATO letter to Commission, 15 February 2011.

935 Interview 352.

936 Available from http://www.adnkronos.com/AKI/Arabic/Security/?id=3.1.2446123160 and http://www.boston.com/news/world/africa/articles/2011/06/21/libya_asserts_nato_strike_killed_15_including_children/

937 According to locals the facility was a medical school. Interview 0348.

938 The 68mm SNEB rocket is fired from a MATRA rocket pod mounted on aircraft used by NATO; however it is possible that the site was at some point struck by thuwar rocket fire as the thuwar jury-rigged MATRA rocket pods during the war.

939 Interview 0348.

940 Interview 0342.

941 See NATO letter to the Commission, 23 January 2012, for an explanation of precautions taken.

942 A/HRC/17/44, para. 174.

943 The NATO-led military action entitled “Operation Unified Protector” (OUP) was undertaken after the Security Council Issued Resolutions 1970 and 1973. There are 159 states party to the Ottawa Convention. All NATO Countries have ratified the Ottawa Convention, except the US and Poland – the latter of which is scheduled to ratify it in 2012. Of the three non-NATO countries participating, Qatar and Jordon have both ratified it while the UAE has not signed or ratified the convention. For those having ratified the Convention anti-personnel mines are prohibited per se.

944 There are 68 states party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions. Non-members include Canada, Greece, Romania, Sweden, US, Jordan, Qatar, UAE and Turkey; Canada and Sweden have signed but not ratified the Convention. The Commission notes that by not signing up to the treaty these countries are not bound to its restrictions. Nevertheless all relevant countries will be bound by any applicable provisions of customary law with respect to weapons.

945 Protocol III to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons which may be deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to have Indiscriminate Effects (1981)

946 Protocol III, art. 2

947 Protocol III, art. 1

948 Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law, p. 237, Rule 70.

949 Customary International Humanitarian Law, Rule 77, states that the use of bullets which expand or flatten easily in the body is prohibited in both international and non-international armed conflict. Expanding bullets were first declared as prohibited in International armed conflicts in the Declaration of St. Petersburg 1868, and subsequently in the 1899 Hague Conventions. In 2010, the Rome Statute was amended to include article 8, paragraph 2 (e) (xv), specifically prohibiting the use of “bullets which expand or flatten easily in the human body, such as bullets with a hard envelope which does not entirely cover the core or is pierced with incisions”.

950 There is also treaty regulating chemical and biological weapons. See Biological Weapons Convention (1972) and Chemical Weapons Convention (1993), respectively.

951 See rules 72-78, ICRC Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law, p. 251-272

952 Relying on the Nuclear Weapons case, the Commission previously set out the justification for analysing prohibited weapons on the basis of this rule, rather than relying on a specific treaty. See A/HRC/17/44, para 172

953 See rules 70, 71, and 81, ICRC Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law.

954 A/HRC/17/44, para. 174.

955 On 13 September 2011, Mr. Sergio Duarte, High Representative for Disarmament Affairs, on behalf of the UN Secretary General delivered a statement to the Second Meeting of States Parties to the Convention on Cluster Munitions. Therein he described cluster munitions as “unreliable, inaccurate and indiscriminate.” Speech available at http://www.clusterconvention.org/files/2011/09/statement_un_duarte.pdf.

956 Email from MAG to Commission dated 30 January 2012.

957 Interview 0381.

958 NATO letter to the Commission (15 February 2012).

959 http://atwar.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/02/01/can-you-name-this-cluster-bomb/?scp=1&sq=dpicm&st=cse.

960 Email from New York Times to Comission dated 10 February 2012.

961 http://maic.jmu.edu/journal/15.3/notes/c_king/c_king.htm

962 Interview 0391.

963 Interviews 194, 249, 331. Witnesses said the mines used were 600kg Yugoslavian contact mines. This is most likely the SAG-2b.

964 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13138102.

965 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/04/29/libya-rebels-pledge-not-use-landmines.

966 A/HRC/17/44, para. 177. See also http://www.algeria-isp.com/actualites/politique-libye/201110-A6545/libye-les-avions-otan-bombardent-bani-walid-avec-des-bombes-phosphore-blanc-octobre-2011.html

967 NATO letter to Commission, 23 January 2012.

968 Security Council resolution 1973 (2011).

969 Statement of the ICC Prosecutor at the Press Conference on Libya, 16 May 2011.

970 For instance, NPR, Libya's Gadhafi Accused Of Using Foreign Mercenaries, 23 February 2011; The Telegraph, African Mercenaries in Libya nervously await their fate, 27 February 2011; The Telegraph, Libya: Belarus mercenary 'paid £1,900 a month to help Gaddafi forces', 6 April 2011; The Telegraph, Libya: Col Gaddafi 'has spent £2.1m on mercenaries', 20 April 2011; The New York Times, Libyan Oil Buys Allies for Qaddafi, 15 March 2011; Time, Gaddafi’s Fleeing Mercenaries Describe the Collapse of the Regime, 24 August 2011; The Guardian, Gaddafi’s Army of Mercenaries Face Backlash, 2 September 2011.

971 Interviews 0100, 143, 0344, 0462. The number of fighters quoted ranged from 400 to 1500.

972 Interview 0344.

973 Interviews 0100, 0124, 0344.

974 Interview 0100.

975 Interview 0344.

976 Interviews 0299, 0304.

977 Interview 0301.

978 Interview 0100.

979 Article 38 states “States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure that persons who have not attained the age of fifteen years do not take a direct part in hostilities”(Paragraph 2); “States Parties shall refrain from recruiting any person who has not attained the age of fifteen years into their armed forces. In recruiting among those persons who have attained the age of fifteen years but who have not attained the age of eighteen years, States Parties shall endeavour to give priority to those who are oldest” (Paragraph 3).

980 Article 77 of Protocol I, applicable to international armed conflicts, states: “The Parties to the conflict shall take all feasible measures in order that children who have not attained the age of fifteen years do not take a direct part in hostilities and, in particular, they shall refrain from recruiting them into their armed forces.” In recruiting among those persons who have attained the age of fifteen years but who have not attained the age of eighteen years the Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to give priority to those who are oldest (Paragraph 2). If, in exceptional cases, despite the provisions of paragraph 2, children who have not attained the age of fifteen years take a direct part in hostilities and fall into the power of an adverse Party, they shall continue to benefit from the special protection accorded by this Article, whether or not they are prisoners of war (Paragraph 3).

981 Article 4(3)(c) of the Protocol II, applicable to non-international armed conflicts, states: Children who have not attained the age of fifteen years shall neither be recruited in the armed forces or groups nor allowed to take part in hostilities

982 See, e.g., Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, Rule 8(d); Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice, Rule 13.4; Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty, Rule 29; Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of International Humanitarian Law between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, § 4; Agreement on the Application of International Humanitarian Law between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina, § 2.3; UN Secretary-General’s Bulletin, Section 8(f).

983 Interviews 268, 275.

984 Interview 276.

985 Interviews 0274, 0276.

986 Interview 0268.

987 Interview 0394.

988 Interviews 0033, 0083, 0135, 0156, 0159.

989 Interviews 0140, 0141, 0297.

990 Interviews 0141, 0297.


991 This section primarily quotes the ICRC study of Customary International Humanitarian Law, Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck, Volume I, p.182-P185.

992 Lieber Code, Article 44 ; Brussels Declaration, Article 18 and Article 39; Oxford Manual, Article 32

993 Article 4(2)(g).

994 Article 8(2)(xvi) and (e)(v).

995 Article 3(e), ICTY Statute; Article 4 (f) ICTR Statute; Article 3(f) SCSL Statute.

996 Black’s Law Dictionary, Fifth Edition, West Publishing, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1979, p. 1033

997 Elements of Crimes for the ICC, Pillage as a war crime (ICC Statute, Article 8(2)(b)(xvi) and (e)(v)).

998 Ibid Note 1 at p.185.

999 Interview 0159.

1000 Interview 0153

1001 Interview 0259.

1002 Interview 0032; Interview 0081; Interview 0085 .

1003 Interview 0063.

1004 Interview 0085.

1005 Ibid.

1006 Interview 0087.

1007 Interviews 0081, 0032, 0156, 0204.

1008 Interview 0055.

1009 Interview 0072.

1010 Interviews 0026, 0054.

1011 Interviews 0082, 0114, 0175, 0179.

1012 Interview 0129.

1013 Interview 0117.

1014 Ibid.

1015 Interview 0239.

1016 Ibid.

1017 Ibid.

1018 Interview 0436.

1019 Interview 0440.

1020 Ibid.

1021 Interview 0444.

1022 Interviews 0323, 0324, 0449, 0453.

1023 Interview 0325.

1024 Interview 0326.

1025 Interviews 0220, 0320.

1026 Interview 0305.

1027 Interview 0169.

1028 Interview 0173.

1029 Interview 0231.

1030 Interview 0232.

1031 Interview 0320.

1032 Interview 0328.

1033 Interview 0278.

1034 Interview 0300.

1035 Human Rights Watch, Libya Opposition forces should protect civilians and hospitals, 13 July 2011. Available from http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/07/13/libya-opposition-forces-should-protect-civilians-and-hospitals

1036 Interview 0079.

1037 Interview 0269.

1038 Interview 0272.

1039 Interview 0351.

1040 Interview 0460.

1041 Interviews 0124, 0179, 0259

1042 Interviews 0044, 0229, 0234.

1043 A/HRC/17/44, paras 36-42.

1044 ICCPR, Article 2, para. 3.

1045 Human Rights Committee (HRC) General Comment 31, para. 15.

1046 HRC General Comment 29, para. 14. “This clause . . . constitutes a treaty obligation inherent in the Covenant as a whole. Even if a State party, during a state of emergency, and to the extent that such measures are strictly required by the exigencies of the situation, may introduce adjustments to the practical functioning of its procedures governing judicial or other remedies, the State party must comply with the fundamental obligation, under article 2, paragraph 3, of the Covenant to provide a remedy that is effective”.

1047 Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law (Basic Principles and Guidelines), Adopted and proclaimed by General Assembly resolution 60/147 of 16 December 2005.

1048 Principle 4, Basic Principles and Guidelines.

1049 HRC General Comment 29, para. 11: “States parties may in no circumstances invoke article 4 of the Covenant as justification for acting in violation of humanitarian law or peremptory norms of international law, for instance by taking hostages, by imposing collective punishments, through arbitrary deprivations of liberty or by deviating from fundamental principles of fair trial, including the presumption of innocence.”

1050 Convention against Torture, Article 7.

1051 Rule 100, available from http://www.icrc.org/customary-ihl/eng/docs/v1_rul_rule100.

1052 Amnesty International, Pursuing al-Gaddafi : Legal questions answered, 25 August 2011, available from http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/libya-pursuing-al-gaddafi-%E2%80%93-legal-questions-answered-2011-08-25

1053 Libyan Criminal Code, Article 107.

1054 Law No. 11 of 1428 (1998).

1055 Law No. 37 (1974), Article 39 and 40.

1056 Libya acceded to the treaty on 16 May 1989.

1057 Libyan Criminal Code, Article 120.

1058 Interview 0379. Also see Al Jazeera English, Libya to disarm Tripoli by end of the year, 7 December 2011. Available from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2011/12/201112623505666411.html.

1059 Aljazeera English, Armed groups clash in central Tripoli, 3 January 2012. Available from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2012/01/20121311171606584.html.

1060 ICRC, Libya: hardship and danger remain, 16-02-2012 Operational Update No 12/01. Available from http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/update/2012/libya-update-2012-02-16.htm.

1061 http://english.ruvr.ru/2012/02/13/65929999.html

1062 Decision of the National Transitional Council No. 185 for the year 2011.

1063 Law No. 5 of 2011, Article Two.

1064 Law No. 5 of 2011, Article Three.

1065 Ibid.

1066 Article 4.

1067 Ibid.

1068 Article 5.

1069 Article 6.

1070 Article 7.

1071 Article 15.

1072 Draft Amnesty Law, Article 1.

1073 Article 2.

1074 Article 3.

1075 Article 3.

1076 Article 4.




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