Many thousands of years ago, a land bridge rose out of the cold northern sea, connecting the Western and Eastern hemispheres. People and animals crossed back and forth between the continents of North America and Asia.
Many centuries later, the people of the Western and Eastern hemispheres were building great cities, farming, trading, and developing unique cultures. The quote above from Hiawatha, an Iroquois leader, explains why different Iroquois groups united to form a representative government. This government is one example of the ways in which many cultures have shaped our country.
A WORLD WITHOUT END
Pueblo Bonito is empty now. Or is it? It's true that no one lives in the New Mexico village that sheltered a thousand Anasazi in the 1100s. But if you walk among these ancient walls, you just might sense the presence of those who lived here long ago. Carefully constructed sandstone rooms and decorated clay pots suggest the creativity of he Anasazi. And, if your timing's right, you might catch a glimpse of a modern festival nearby. The descendants of the Anasazi live on to this day, and their traditions fill the pueblos with new life.
Suppose that the ancient women pictured here could meet the modern one. What might they say to each other?
Early Peoples of the Western Hemisphere
THINKING ABOUT HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY
The story of Chapter 3 begins in Central America nearly 2,000 years ago. Read the time line below to follow the major events of this chapter. Notice that the background color of each event is the same color as a square on the map. Each square marks the location of that event. As you read the chapter, you will learn more about the different groups of people that lived throughout the Western Hemisphere.
An ancient story describes Maya beliefs about how human beings were created. In this story, people were made first of clay, then of wood, and then of reeds, but they did not survive. The fourth people, who were made of corn dough, did survive. They became the Maya. This creation story helps to explain the importance of corn to the Maya. Corn was the key to life itself.
You have read in the last chapter that people are an important resource. In this chapter you will read about how ancient peoples used their skills and creativity to form some of the major civilizations in the Western Hemisphere. Civilization is a word used to describe a kind of culture. A civilization is a culture that has developed complex systems of government, education, and religion. Often it has large populations, with some people living in large cities. One reason that scholars and students like you study past civilizations is that they leave lasting legacies for people today.
Farming was the key to the development of most civilizations. About 7,000 years ago people in the Western Hemisphere learned to plant seeds from foods they ate. As they learned about farming, people were able to grow a surplus of food. A surplus is an amount greater than what is needed. People no longer had to spend all their time hunting for food. They could specialize, or spend most of their time doing one kind of job. Some people took up jobs such as weaving, building, and making pottery. The Maya were an ancient civilization in what are now southern Mexico and Central America.
Imagine walking through the dense rain forest of what is now Guatemala 1,700 years ago. Suddenly, like a snowcapped mountain range, bright white shapes appear. This is not a mountain range, though. It is the Maya city of Tikal (ti KAHL).
Tikal, one of the oldest Maya cities, was first built about 1,800 years ago. It had a population of about 50,000. Find other Maya cities, such as Copan (koh PAHN), Palenque (puh LENG kay), and Bonampak (boh nahm PAHK) on the map below.
The Abandoned Cities
If you visit Tikal today, its buildings still seem to rise out of nowhere. But now the buildings are empty. Once they were the center of a civilization. What happened to the people of Tikal and the other Maya cities?
This is one of the most puzzling questions in history. Archaeologists (ar kee AHL uh jists) have studied monuments that the Maya have left behind in their cities. An archaeologist is a scientist who looks for and studies evidence from long ago. Beginning about the year 292, the Maya built many monuments. Some, shaped like tall columns, have pictures of rulers. Others were built to ask their gods for success in battle and for good corn harvests. But in the year 909, the Maya built the last of their monuments.
This is one of two temples the Maya built in the main plaza at Tikal in the present-day country of Guatemala. Thousands visit the site each year.
The Maya lands today are the countries of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador
1. Which three bodies of water surrounded the Maya?
2. Which city of the Maya is farthest to the south?
3. Measure the distance between Copan and Mayapan.
THE RISE OF THE MAYA
Archaeologists believe that the Maya civilization began about 2,300 years ago in what is now southern Mexico and the country of Guatemala. The Maya built stone temples that were hundreds of feel tall. They were one of the first people in the Western Hemisphere to do so.
Maya farmers grew a plentiful supply of food for a large population. They used their knowledge of the environment to get the most out of their land. In hilly areas farmers built terraces to make level surfaces for planting. In swampy areas they built raised islands by piling up soil above the water. Farmers also moved their fields from place to place to help keep the soil from wearing out.
Although the Maya grew a variety of crops, corn was their main source of food. People made corn dough into flat cakes, like tortillas people eat today.
This statue of a Maya corn god was probably used by farmers during both planting and harvesting ceremonies.
The Maya were not only good farmers. They were artists, scientists, and historians. The Maya also wrote a large number of books. Archaeologists have found written records of dates, times, and events on the Maya calendar. The Maya's invention of the idea of the number zero helped to keep their calendar accurate.
The Maya were one of the first people in the Western Hemisphere to develop an advanced form of writing. Their writing system used symbols that stood for both pictures and sounds in place of written words. The photograph below shows how the Maya language was written. Three of the symbols are translated. Why do you think it might have taken the Maya a long time to learn how to write these symbols?
Maya writing symbols from a wall inside Temple 18 at Palenque, Mexico.
The symbols on this wall are plaster copies of the originals. They were assembled by archaeologists who could not read Maya writing. The symbols do not appear in the order in which the Maya wrote them.
Looking for Answers
What happened to the Maya civilization after 909? One of their ancient books says that foreigners arrived and "there were no more lucky days for us." Did invaders conquer the Maya?
Scholars believe that wars helped cause the end of Maya civilization. Scholars had thought that the Maya were peaceful. New evidence shows that they carried out human sacrifice, or killed people in special ceremonies. Some experts believe that food shortages and wars caused Maya civilization to end. All these problems probably weakened the Maya. The disappearance of the Maya civilization, although still a mystery, is slowly being made clear.
WHY IT MATTERS
The Maya cities were abandoned, but the Maya people lived on in the surrounding countryside. Descendants of the Maya live today in present-day Guatemala and Mexico. They still speak a Maya language and follow many customs and traditions that are similar to those of the ancient Maya. Later Indian people, such as the Aztec, also carried on Maya traditions in art, science, and mathematics.
A present-day Maya woman weaves cloth using a traditional loom in Chiapas, Mexico.
DID YOU KNOW
What sports did the Maya play?
A Maya ball game called pokta-pok seems to have been a combination of basketball, volleyball, and soccer. Great crowds came to see the game. The object of pokta-pok was to put a heavy rubber ball through a stone hoop. Winners of the game were rewarded with clothing or with money in the form of cacao (kuh KAH oh) beans. Cacao beans are used to make chocolate.
Reviewing Facts and Ideas
SUM IT UP
• Farming enabled the ancient people of the Western Hemisphere, such as the Maya, to develop civilizations.
• The Maya began building cities about 1,800 years ago. They also developed a system of writing that was unique in the Western Hemisphere.
THINK ABOUT IT
1. How did farming lead to the development of civilizations?
2. What kind of activities took place in the Maya cities?
3. FOCUS What accomplishments did the Maya achieve in mathematics?
4. THINKING SKILLPredict what might have happened if the Maya civilization had continued into the present day. Explain.
5. WRITE Write a story about what you think happened when the Maya left their cities.
READ TO LEARN
How did the Aztec create their empire?
Valley of Mexico
The following poem is translated from an Aztec language called Nahuatl (NAH wah tuhl). First written down in the 1500s, it explains why the quetzal (ket SAHL) bird is important to the Aztec.
I am the singer
I am singing
the pictures of the book
I am the blue-and-green bird
I make the (books] speak
I am the quetzal.
THE BIG PICTURE
After the Maya civilization ended, other civilizations in the Western Hemisphere rose and fell. None, however, was able to gain power over a very large area. Then, in the 1100s and 1200s, two civilizations began to succeed in gaining power.
By the 1500s the Inca people had built an empire that stretched over 1,000 miles. An empire is a large area of different groups of people controlled by one ruler or government. The Inca empire was located mostly in the Andes Mountains, along the west coast of South America. Farther north lay the empire of the Aztec people. It controlled much of the southern part of what is now Mexico.
Both the Aztec and the Inca had strong armies, powerful leaders, and expert builders. These qualities helped to make their empires strong. This lesson will focus on how the Aztec empire was formed.
THE VALLEY OF MEXICO
In the 1100s the Aztec came to the Valley of Mexico. They had not yet formed an empire. They were one of many newcomers in the area seeking a home. Much of inland Mexico is dry. But in the valley are several lakes. Around 1325 the Aztec settled on the shores of Lake Texcoco and on a small island in the lake.
"Land of the Prickly Pear Cactus"
According to legend the Aztec had seen an eagle standing on a cactus with a snake in its beak. They believed this was a sign from their main god, Huitzilopochtli (weet si loh POCH tlee). It meant their search for a homeland was over. The Aztec named the place Tenochtitlan (te noch tee TLAHN). This name means "land of the prickly pear cactus." Find Tenochtitlan on the map on this page.
At first life was hard on the swampy land of Tenochtitlan. Gradually the Aztec built up their city. They soon found the lake to be rich in resources.
They built reed boats for fishing and traveling. To connect the island to the rest of the valley, they built causeways and bridges. A causeway is a raised road or path usually built across a body of water.
To grow the large amounts of food they needed, the Aztec built chinampas, or "floating gardens." These gardens only appeared to float. To create them the Aztec stuck rows of thick posts into the marsh. Then they filled the spaces between the posts with mud from the lake. These gardens became rich farm land. Eventually, the chinampas provided chili peppers, squash, tomatoes, corn, and beans for the entire city.
The prickly pear cactus is one of the national symbols of Mexico. It represents part of the legend of how the ancient Aztec found their new homeland.
Many of the Aztec cities were close together, as the Valley of Mexico provided rich farm land.
1. Which people were surrounded by the Aztec
2. Did the Mixtec live north or south of Tenochtitlan?
3. Which two peoples were farthest away from Tenochtitlan?
It is easy to see why the bright green feathers of the quetzal (left) were used or decoration. Today quetzals are found throughout Central America.
In the early 1400s a people called the Tepanec (tay pah NAYK) ruled the Valley of Mexico. They forced the Aztec to give them tribute, or payment in the form of valuable goods. Around 1430, however, the Aztec joined with other people of Lake Texcoco to defeat the Tepaneca. This victory was the beginning of Aztec control over the Valley.
By 1440 Tenochtitlan was the capital of a mighty empire. An Aztec poem tells of the power of Tenochtitlan:
Who could conquer Tenochtitlan?
Who could shake the foundation of heaven . . . ?
Tenochtitlan's broad avenues, beautiful plazas, and markets served a population of over 200,000. The city even had a zoo, which contained animals from all over the empire.
The diagram on the next page shows how the city's main palaces and temples were laid out. The Aztec planned their city in honor of the sun and their gods. Each building was put in a special location. Each location marked the position of the sun during an important time of the year, such as planting time.
Growing Up Aztec
From birth to death, Aztec life was guided by their calendar. Each day was special. Children were given names in honor of the date on which they were born.
Most Aztec children went to school. All schools were strict. But the one for the sons of Aztec leaders was the most difficult. It was known as the "house of tears." Both boys and girls, learned Aztec history and religion in school. They were also taught to be honest and respectful. This advice from an Aztec book was given by a father.
1. Do not sleep too much, or you will become a sleeper, a dreamer.
2. Speak very slowly. Do not speak fast, do not pant or squeak or you will be called a groaner, a growler, a squeaker.
3. Do not stare into another person's face.
4. Do not eavesdrop or gossip.
5. When you are called, do not be called twice or you will be thought lazy or rebellious.
The Aztec Market
On market day the Aztec and other people met and exchanged news. They also danced, played music, and performed juggling tricks.
Some scholars believe the Aztec market was one of the largest in the world at that time. Some foods for sale were chili peppers, squash, beans, corn, tomatoes, potatoes, fish, and cactus. Many beautiful items were also sold at the market. Most highly prized were items made from the feathers of the quetzal. As you have read on page 64, quetzals were special to the Aztec. Poets wrote about them. Hunters usually captured the bird, plucked a few feathers, and then set it free.
THE IMPORTANCE OF WAR
War was an important part of Aztec life. Emperor Moctezuma I once remarked, "If war is not going on, the Aztec consider themselves idle." The Aztec were in battles from 1430 through most of the next 90 years. The Aztec conquered over 400 cities in central Mexico. One purpose for conquering the cities was to obtain tribute from the people. The Aztec had other reasons for conquering peoples as well.
The mural, or large painting (below), is one image of a jaguar knight. The chacmool (chahk MOOL), or altar (bottom), was used to make human sacrifices. Many Aztec believed the chacmools represented dead soldiers.
The Aztec Army
From an early age boys were trained as soldiers. At age ten they shaved their heads, leaving one lock of hair. A boy could not cut that lock until he had captured a prisoner in battle.
The goal of every soldier was to become a knight. Jaguar and Eagle knights were the leaders of the Aztec army. During war they wore suits made of feathers or animal skins that were meant to terrify the enemy.
Soldiers were sent to fight but not to kill the enemy. Instead they took prisoners. Some prisoners were forced into slavery. Slavery is the practice of owning people and forcing them to work. Other prisoners were sacrificed to Aztec gods. To sacrifice means to give up or destroy for the sake of something else. Human sacrifice as well as slavery were a part of Aztec life.
People of the Sun
The Aztec believed that every morning the god Huitzilopochtli brought out he sun and chased away the moon and
stars. They also believed the god needed energy to do his work and that he got energy from human blood.
To make sure that the sun would rise another day, the Aztec sacrificed thousands of prisoners and slaves each year. The sacrifices were done by priests in the Great Temple. The Aztec believed they were wealthy enough to give their gods human lives.
The Metropolitan Cathedral of Mexico City sits on the north side of the Zocalo, or Constitution Plaza. In 1573 building began on the church, which is now the oldest and largest church in Latin America.
WHY IT MATTERS
Like many other civilizations, the Aztec's was full of contrasts. It was a civilization of both great beauty and great cruelty. Aztec attempts to conquer and enslave other peoples created many enemies. As you will read later, these enemies would help bring about the end of the Aztec empire.
Aztec culture remains alive even today. Many Mexicans still speak the Nahuatl language of the Aztec and follow Aztec traditions. In fact, words we use today, such as avocado, chocolate, and Mexico, were spoken by the Aztec and other early peoples of Mexico hundreds of years ago.
Reviewing Facts and Ideas
SUM IT UP
• After the Maya civilization ended, the Aztec and the Inca formed two great empires in the Western Hemisphere.
• By 1440 the Aztec had developed a powerful civilization in the Valley of Mexico.
• War was the main way that the Aztec captured prisoners to sacrifice to their gods.
THINK ABOUT IT
1. Describe how the city of Tenochtitlan was founded.'
2. How did the Aztec increase the amount of land that could be used for farming in Tenochtitlan?
3. FOCUS What events led to the creation of the Aztec empire?
4. THINKING SKILL What similarities do you see between the civilizations of the Maya and the Aztec? Explain the reasons for any differences you find.
5. GEOGRAPHY How do you think the location of Tenochtitlan helped the Aztec to maintain their empire?
By the time the Aztec were forming their empire in the middle of the 1400s, the Inca had already established their civilization in South America. One way to understand the history of these early civilizations is to use a time line. A time line is a diagram of a series of events in time. It shows events in the order in which they took place. Dates are marked to identify these events. Putting events in correct time order helps you to see relationships between events.
USING TIME LINES
As you have read in Lesson 2, the Inca empire was founded at about the same time that the Aztec arrived in the Valley of Mexico. In about 1100 the Inca settled in a village called Cuzco (KOOS koh) in the country now called Peru. This is the first event shown on the Inca history time line.
Over the next 200 years, the Inca slowly gained power over other groups in the area. About 1300, a leader named Inca Roca (een kah ROH kah) used the word Inca as a noble title. Historians date the Inca empire as beginning in 1438, under the ruler Pachacuti (pah chah KOO tee). By 1450 the Inca had conquered the Chimu people and increased the size of the empire. This is the fourth event shown on the time line.
The Inca were expert builders who paved roads in the steep Andes Mountains. Find when this occurred on the time line. In what year did the Inca begin building roads?*
The Inca were also very skilled at making gold jewelry and other items. When the
Spanish explorers who came to the Americas heard this information, they set out to find the Inca's lands and their gold. When did this event occur? What event might have helped the Spanish to be successful in 1533?
USING DECADES AND CENTURIES
All time lines are divided into time periods. The time line on this page shows time in periods of 100 years, or centuries. To many people the years 1 to 99 are called the first century. The second century includes the years 100 to 199. The jagged line shows that a long period of time has been left out.
A ten-year time period is called a decade . The years 1980 to 1989 make up the decade of the 1980s. In what decade do we now live?
We use a system of dating events that divides time into two periods called B.C. and A.D. The letters B.C. stand for time "before Christ," or before Jesus Christ was born. It marks events that took place before the year 1. The letters A.D. stand for the Latin phrase Anno Domini or "in the year of the Lord." AD. before a date means the years after the birth of Christ.
When reading B.C. dates, the numbers get lower as you read from left to right. For example, the year 100 B.C. is followed by the year 99 B.C. Dates after the year 1 are much simpler to read because the numbers get higher. For example, the year A.D. 100 is followed by the year A.D. 101.
• A time line is a diagram of a series of events in time
• Find the first and last dates on the time line.
• Identify any connections between the events.
TRYING THE SKILL
Now try reading the Inca history time line on your own. If you need help, use the Helping Yourself box on this page. How many entire centuries does the time line show? What is the last event on the time line? Which event on the time line took place first?
REVIEWING THE SKILL
1. What is a time line? What type of information does it show?
2. In which century did the Inca empire begin? How do you know?
3. How many centuries passed between the time the Inca conquered the Chimu and the time the Inca civil war began? How do you know?
4. What are some things that reading time lines can help you to do?
READ TO LEARN
Who were the Anasazi people?
On January 22, 1941, the New Mexico desert stood silent. Suddenly, there was a crash. A giant boulder called Threatening Rock had fallen on the village of Pueblo Bonito. No one was injured because the village had been empty for over 600 years. Who had lived there? What made these people leave, and where did they go?
THE BIG PICTURE
As you have read, the Maya were among the first people to develop a civilization in the Western Hemisphere. Other early North Americans also formed civilizations in what is now the United States. They lived mostly in two regions—the Southeast and the Southwest.
The Southeast was populated by people whom scholars today call the Mound Builders. The Hohokam (ho ho KAHM) and the Anasazi (ah nuh SAH zee) peoples lived in the Southwest. These early Native k:Americans started farming and settling in permanent villages in both regions about 3000 B.C.
The geography of these regions had a great effect on each people's way of life. The Mound Builders' land received much rainfall. The Hohokam and the Anasazi lived in a much drier region, where farming was difficult. The Mound Builders and the Anasazi had to meet very different geographical challenges.
You will learn about the first Native Americans to live in what is now the United States. The Infographic on pages 76-77 shows you where these Native Americans established their homelands.
EARLY NORTH AMERICA
As you have read, the environment affects people's lives. The reverse is also true. People also affect their environment. Many of the people who met difficult challenges in the past went on to build large civilizations.
The Mound Builders
About 2,000 years ago, groups of people lived along the Mississippi River and in part of the Middle West near where the Ohio and Mississippi rivers meet. Today we know them as Mound Builders because of the large mounds they built. No one knows what name they called themselves. Yet later, Mound Builders were called Mississippians.
The Mound Builders lived in an area of plentiful rainfall and plant and animal life. Their land was also crossed by many rivers, which served as major routes of trade. Think about what items the Mound Builders might have obtained through trade.
At first, the Mound Builders built small, rounded piles of earth to bury their dead. Workers carried loads of earth on their backs to the spot chosen for the mound. They often built one mound on top of another. As time passed, larger mounds were built. Archaeologists have found burial mounds containing cloth, jewelry, and pottery. One young woman was buried wearing necklaces made with almost 2,000 shells.
Later, mounds were also used for religious purposes. The largest, Great Serpent Mound, is found near present-day Cincinnati, Ohio. It measures over 1,000 feet in length and is 100 feet tall. Other large mounds were built in Cahokia (kuh HOH kee uh) in what is now Illinois. The Mound Builders also built pyramid-shaped structures similar to those of Maya and Aztec temples.
From the air, Great Serpent Mound (below) looks like a snake. The etched shell (left) was found in Hohokam lands in Arizona.
Remember what you have read about the Southeast and Southwest regions as you study the map.
1. In which present-day state was Pueblo Bonito built?
2. Which people lived near the southern border of what is now the United States?
3. Which two rivers are near Cahokia?
As desert dwellers, the Anasazi people faced many challenges caused by geography. However, geography has also been a friend to archaeologists who choose to study the Anasazi.
A Preserved Past
Archaeologists know about the Anasazi mostly because of the dry climate in which they lived. Pottery and baskets found buried in the arid Southwest have been preserved for hundreds or even thousands of years. In moist climates, most artifacts rot, or decay, quickly. An artifact is an object left behind by people who lived long ago.
Many artifacts have been found in an area known as the Four Corners. The map on this page shows that the Four Corners is the place where today the borders of four states—Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah—meet.
The "Ancient Ones"
The Anasazi lived in the Four Corners area about 2,000 years ago. Until A.D. 600, the Anasazi lived in simple underground houses. Gradually, they developed villages that looked like large apartment houses. Some built their villages beneath rock cliffs, on the sides of canyons, and on the tops of tall, flat hills called mesas.
Although Anasazi building methods and styles changed, they continued to make kivas (KEE vuhz). A kiva is an underground room used usually by Native American men for religious ceremonies. The men painted the walls of the kiva with special symbols in red, green, white, and yellow.
About A.D. 900, the Anasazi began building Pueblo Bonito, a huge 800 room town. It towered over the desert in what is now New Mexico. In the town of Mesa Verde, they built Cliff Palace, which had 217 rooms carved out of the side of a steep cliff.
The Anasazi Mystery
The Anasazi's population had reached into the thousands by about A.D. 900. But in the late 1200s something happened. The Anasazi started to leave their towns and villages. Many archaeologists believe that a long drought drove them from their homes. A drought is a long period with very little rainfall.
But the Anasazi were used to the dry climate. They had been using irrigation to water their crops. Irrigation is a method by which water is brought into dry areas. The Anasazi irrigation system guided rain water through a series of channels to their crops of squash, beans, corn, and cotton. Still, irrigation could not provide enough water for the crops during droughts.
Other archaeologists believe that enemies, quarrels among the Anasazi, or other reasons may have caused some to leave their homes. By about A.D. '1300 most of the Anasazi towns and villages were empty. Over time, the Anasazi moved or joined with other Native Americans in the Southwest. Today many historians believe that the Hopi and Pueblo peoples are descendants of the Anasazi. You will read about the Hopi and Pueblo in the next chapter.
Much of the Anasazi's black-on-white pottery (far left) survives. Looking at Mesa Verde (left) and its environment, one can imagine the role climate has played in preserving such artifacts. Today a Pueblo girl (above) might be learning about her Anasazi ancestors from her grandmother.
Native Americans, 1500s
Some scholars believe that about 40,000 years ago, people first came to what is now the United States. Many may have crossed a land bridge called Beringia (buh RIN jee uh), which once connected Asia to North America. By 1500, millions of Native Americans lived throughout North America. Which Native Americans made their home in what is now your region?
WHY IT MATTERS
In chapters to come, you will learn how Native Americans have played important roles in the history of the United States. As you read about our country's history, keep your knowledge of the early North Americans in mind.
Reviewing Facts and Ideas
SUM IT UP
• In what is now the United States, Native Americans farmed and lived in permanent villages for thousands of years.
• The Anasazi left their towns and villages around '1300 for reasons scholars cannot fully explain.
THINK ABOUT IT
1. What problems did people living in the Southwest have? What solutions did they find?
2. Why might an archaeologist believe the Mound Builders traded with people from distant areas?
3. FOCUS List in time order the events that probably led to the Anasazi leaving Pueblo Bonito.
4. THINKING SKILLCompare the Mound Builders to the Maya and Aztec. What possible connections might there have been among them?
5. GEOGRAPHY Using this Infographic, name at least three Native American peoples that lived in each of the five regions of the present-day United States.
CHAPTER 3 REVIEW
THINKING ABOUT VOCABULARY
Number a paper from 1 to 10. Beside each number write the word that best matches the description.
1. A large area of different peoples controlled by one ruler or government
5. A scientist who looks for and studies evidence from long ago
6. A culture that has developed complex systems of government, education, and religion
7. Payment in the form of valuable goods
8. The practice of people owning other people
9. A method by which water is brought into dry areas
10. Spend most of the time doing one job
THINKING ABOUT FACTS
1. What is an archaeologist? How have archaeologists found information about the Maya?
2. What other achievements besides farming marked Maya civilization?
3. Who were the Aztec? In what area did their civilization form?
4. What early civilization lived in what is now the Southeast region of the United States? What were its major routes of trade?
5. Look at the time line above. How many years passed between the Aztec settlement of the Valley of Mexico and the height of their civilization?
THINK AND WRITE
WRITING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
Suppose that you are interviewing a descendant of the Maya. Write a series of questions about what customs or traditions can be traced back to his or her ancestors.
WRITING A DESCRIPTION
Use the information in the lesson and the diagram on page 67 to write a description of Tenochtitlan.
WRITING A PROPOSAL
Suppose that you are a member of a group that has recently begun to farm. Write a description for another group that has not yet begun farming telling what farming is and why it would improve their lives.
APPLYING STUDY SKILLS
READING TIME LINES
To practice the skill of reading time lines, use the time line on page 70 to answer the questions below.
1. What do the different dates on a time line mean?
2. When does the time line begin? When does it end?
3. When did the Spanish invade the Inca empire?
4. What happened in the year A.D. 1572?
5. Think about the last two questions. How can a time line help you understand historical events?
Summing Up the Chapter
Copy this chart on a separate piece of paper to help you organize the information you have read about the early peoples of the Western Hemisphere. Review the chapter to fill in the blank parts of the chart. After you have filled in the chart, write a paragraph that answers the question "Which civilization did you find the most interesting and why?"