Road to the Civil War and Beyond
End of the War of 1812 through Reconstruction
Overview: This lesson will take approximately three or four weeks to complete with a normal school schedule meeting five times a week and will be a review unit for an 11th grade U.S. History class at the beginning of a school year.
Unit Goal: To present a comprehensive understanding of the Civil War, its causes and effects.
Content Standards Addressed:
11.1 Students analyze the significant events in the founding of the nation and its attempts to realize the philosophy of government described in the Declaration of Independence
-4) Examine the effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction and of the industrial revolution, including demographic shifts and the emergence in the late nineteenth century of the United States as a world power.
Students will be able to explain several causes and effects of the Civil War
Students will be able to identify several key figures, battles, and events of the Civil War.
Students will create a scrapbook that accurately represents the experiences of different groups affected by the Civil War
Students will know and understand the 13-15th Amendments and their ramifications
Students will evaluate the effects of Reconstruction on varying groups in the U.S.
Lessons: (To be completed in any amount of time needed depending on the length allotted for this unit)
Lesson #1 – Sectionalism (3-4 days)
Models of Teaching: Partners in Learning; Role Playing; Non-Directive Teaching; Advanced Organizers; Learning from Simulations
a) "Give an example of a time that you have seen a group who are at odds with one another. What were the causes and the end results?"
Input: Introduction of the Sectionalism Game
a) The teacher will break the class into three groups.
b) Each group will be assigned to be a section of the nation following the War of 1812 (North, South, and West)
c) The teacher will handout the rules and explanation of the game, and give instruction on how it works.
***The purpose of this game is to simulate the legislation passed and the sectionalism that developed (especially between the North/West and the South) over certain issues following the War of 1812.
Student Process(Comprehension Check/Group Processing)
1) The students are the House of Representatives, and they must elect a speaker.
2) The students will elect a section leader to organize and lead the group and two whips (Lobbyists ) to go out and solicit votes from the other sections
3) Each group will be give a certain amount of points for each bill they get passed into law throughout the game. The amount of points represents its importance to the section. The group with the most points wins.
4) Each bill must be presented to the House first then discussed within the groups, and finally voted on. The students must do additional research on each of their bills from their textbook.
1 )The teacher will discuss the process as well as the actual legislation passed that were referred to in the activity. (Paying particular attention to the South's discontent.)
2 )During the discussion a three circle diagram can be used to visually represent the similar and different desires of the nation and each section.
Checking For Understanding
Students will write a one page explanation to the game outlining the sectional conflicts raised in the simulation.
Lesson #2 On the Verge of War ( 1-2 days)
Models of Teaching: Attaining Concepts; Partners in Learning; Advanced Organizers; Picture Word Model (Project); Role Playing
Intro: Based upon the previous activity and readings the students will do a write around listing the wants of each section of the nation for a particular time period. For example 1812-1830 and 1830-Civil War.
1) Break the class into six groups and have them start with one section and time period.
2) Every two-three minutes rotate the groups to add anything to the other groups' work.
***This is also an informal evaluation of the students’ knowledge of the previous material.
Discussion: The teacher will lead a discussion concerning what the class just brainstormed on the board or poster papers.
1) The teacher will first briefly review the aspects of the early time frame as they were covered in the sectionalism game.
2) The teacher will lead the class in review of their ideas for the later half and then that will begin a lecture/discussion of the events leading up to the Civil War.
Further Reading and Student Practice: The class will take a trip to the library to find materials that give insight into the life of average people during the civil war. (Ask the librarian for assistance)
****This trip is the beginning of a continued assignment or project that is to be turned in at the end of the unit. The assignment is as follows:
****Unit Project: The students will make a scrapbook containing fictional diary entries, newspaper clippings and other memorabilia that represents one of the following people of the Civil War:
-Women -Northern soldiers
-Southern Soldiers -Slaves
-Free African-Americans -Westerners
It is best if the teacher helps to assign these people because then the class has a good representation of all groups. These will be presented to the class on the last 2-3 days of the unit. ***Each scrapbook will consist of 4 different perspectives one from each individual in the group. This way each group gets a comprehensive look at the war from differing viewpoints.
Lesson #3- The War (3-5 days)
Models of Teaching: Direct Instruction; Advanced Organizers; Memorization; Inquiry Training
Input: Students will watch parts of the PBS Civil War series. (The primary purpose of using the videos is that they present the Civil War and the military battles in the context of the social environment better than anything that I've ever seen)
1) The students will keep a Q & A log that list all of the questions they had concerning the video that are to be answered by them and the teacher by the end of the video session. These will be turned in and graded.
2) The students will write a journal for homework that expresses their feelings, concerning, misunderstandings, and interpretations of the Civil War as presented.
Follow up: The teacher will review the important events of the military part of the Civil War and answer any remaining questions.
Checking for Understanding: The students will take a short quiz or test that contains the questions that they came up with and answered about the videos.
Lesson #4 (2-3 Days) The Gettysburg Address and the Issue of Slavery
Models of Teaching: Inquiry Training; Attaining Concepts; Synectics; Jurisprudential Inquiry; Learning From Simulations; Role Playing
1) The students will read the Gettysburg address and the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments to the Constitution, and discuss in class.
2) The students will get in groups and rewrite each of these in light of documents provided by the teacher which include:
-Black Codes -Voting restrictions
-Personal testimonies -Court decisions
-Population/ Occupation Charts
a)To do so they will include the words of the original but amend them to be accurate to the reality that was experienced.
b) These will be shared by each group.
Lesson #4 (con’t) Reconstruction and Slavery
To introduce this the class will break into three groups Southerners, African-Americans; northerners.
Each of these groups will get particular section of the room will certain amenities (Space; water; crackers)
--After each change the groups will get new amenities or less of them representing their true condition.
--This is done to demonstrate the change of possessions and the betterment of one group compared to another before, during and after the Civil War and into Reconstruction.
Lecture/Discussion: This will be followed by a lecture and summary of the teacher concerning the results of the war and Reconstruction
Check for Understanding/Evaluation: The students will do a writing assignment that discusses their feelings during the previous activity, and relating them to how it must have affected different parts of the nation and the people that resided there.
Project Presentations (2-3days)
The presentations are oral reports on the scrapbooks each group has compiled. Students should take notes on the other presentations or can assist in the grading. ***The teacher should grade these according to an evaluation form given to the students at the time the project was assigned that is suitable for the class, the teacher and the time allotted.
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