Unit four colonization and Conflict "One today is worth two tomorrows."

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Colonization and Conflict

"One today is worth two tomorrows."

from Poor Richard's Almanac by Benjamin Franklin

See page 245.


The words above, written by an industrious colonist named Benjamin Franklin, described how many English colonists felt about settling and building new homes in North America. The colonists faced many hardships, but they worked hard to overcome them.

Colonial settlements and cities developed along the Atlantic Coast and eventually reached the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. Some Native Americans who had been living on these lands found a way to live in peace with the colonists. Others fought to protect their way of life. In time England would succeed as the major European power in North America.


Where Past is Present

Looking around Williamsburg in 1926, a local history buff wondered if it might be possible to restore the sleepy town to its former glory. After all, Williamsburg had once been the bustling capital of colonial Virginia and a center of patriotic spirit. The idea caught on. Before long, old buildings shone, and painstaking reconstructions arose.

A cast of characters—children and grown-ups alike—agreed to spend their days in the 1700s. You can spend a day or two there yourself, watching the costumed guides as they take care of chores, practice crafts, and ride horseback through the town. Best of all, you can walk streets that knew the footsteps of Washington and Jefferson.


What character might you want to play at Colonial Williamsburg? Why?



The English Establish 13 Colonies


From the time line you can see that Chapter 8 begins with the Puritans' arrival at Massachusetts Bay in 1630. Out of this settlement grew the New England Colonies. To the south the natural resources of the Middle and Southern colonies also attracted colonists. As you read the chapter you will learn more about the first colonists and how they used the land and resources they found.




Focus Activity


Who were the Puritans?





King Charles I

John Winthrop

Roger Williams

Anne Hutchinson

Thomas Hooker






Rhode Island



New Hampshire




John Winthrop, the Puritan leader, saw Massachusetts for the first time from the ship Arbella. "We must be knit together as one," he said to the passengers. "We must rejoice together, mourn together, labor and suffer together." The year was 1630. The Puritans had arrived in North America.


During the time that the Pilgrims were first settling in Plymouth, the Puritans were growing in numbers in England. The Puritans were a group of English Protestants. They felt the Church of England followed too many practices of the Roman Catholic Church.

Like the Pilgrims, the Puritans had been thrown into jail because of their religious beliefs. Also like the Pilgrims, some Puritans decided to leave England in order to practice their religion in peace.

In 1629 a group of wealthy Puritans formed the Massachusetts Bay Company. King Charles I of England gave them a charter to settle in North America. The charter was like a permit that gave them permission to settle in areas claimed by England. In '1630 the Puritans sailed to North America. They landed in an area that John Smith had reached in 1614. Smith later named the region New England. The Puritans settled in a part of New England called Massachusetts Bay. Their settlement later became known as Massachusetts.



Compared to the Pilgrims, the Puritans arrived in North America in great numbers. Instead of one ship, the Puritans sailed to North America in a fleet of 11 ships. Instead of 100 people, the Puritans brought close to 700. They also brought supplies, equipment, a herd of cows, and about 60 horses.

John Winthrop

The leader of the Puritans was a successful lawyer named John Winthrop. It was Winthrop who led the Puritans to Massachusetts Bay on the coast of New England in 1630. The word Massachusetts means "at or near the great hill" in Algonkian, the language of the Native Americans who lived in the area.

The Puritans founded Massachusetts Bay Colony along the Charles River. The colony's first settlement was named Boston. Find Boston on the map on this page. John Winthrop was elected the first governor by Puritan men, who were the only colonists allowed to vote.

The Geography of New England

At first, life in Massachusetts Bay Colony was hard. Much of the land is hilly. The soil is also thin and rocky. These conditions made farming difficult.

Still the area had many other natural resources that the Puritans needed to survive. The forests supplied the colonists with wood to make homes, fences, and tools. The Charles River as well as the Atlantic Ocean also provide many kinds of fish. New England had much to offer its colonists.

This is the Duxbury, Massachusetts, home of John and Priscilla Alden. They and other New Englanders moved to Duxbury in the late 1620s.



The Puritans wanted to create a colony that would be a model for all the world to see and follow. John Winthrop used words from the Bible to describe their colony as a "city upon a hill." In many ways their dream came true. Massachusetts Bay Colony began with about 700 people in 1630. Ten years later the population had grown to over 20,000. Massachusetts Bay had one of the largest populations of any European colony in North America at that time.

The Puritan Way of Life

In the Puritan community, each "free man," as a male colonist was called, signed a covenant. A covenant is a special promise or agreement. In the covenant, each free man promised that his family would live by the rules of the Puritan church.

The Puritans believed that the success of their colony was a result of their belief in God and the Bible. They also believed in hard work. This meant that everyone—rich and poor alike—had to help build the community.

The Puritans built their villages according to a plan. You can see a diagram of a New England village of the middle 1600s. In the center of each village was the meeting house and the village common. In earlier villages the meeting house also served as the church.

Education was important to the Puritans. They believed that people should be able to read the Bible. The Puritans built schools that were free to all the children of the community. Free education was unheard of in Europe at that time. To imagine what school was like then, read the excerpt from the Puritan schoolbook. How does it compare to those today?



Excerpt from

The New England Primer,

a schoolbook first published in 1689 for Puritan children.

A In Adam's Fall

We Sinned All.
B Thy Life to Mend

This Book Attend.
C The Cat doth play

And after slay.
D A Dog will bite

A Thief at night.
E An Eagle's flight

Is out of sight.
F The Idle Fool

Is whipt at School.
Colonial students learned to read using a hornbook, a page under clear horn.



At first the Puritans lived in and around Boston. Soon they started new colonies

in the region. Some of these colonies

were founded as a result of religious

disagreements between the Puritans

and their leaders.

Puritans Speak Out

Puritan leaders wanted everyone in the community to share their beliefs. One Puritan who disagreed with them was the minister Roger Williams. Williams believed that the colony needed to tolerate different religious beliefs. To tolerate means to allow people to have beliefs different from your own.

Anne Hutchinson was another Puritan who disagreed with the leaders. She believed people should pray directly to God rather than depend upon church teachings. John Winthrop described her as "a woman of active spirit ... more bold than a man."

Both Williams and Hutchinson were brought to trial. Puritan leaders tried to convince Williams to change his views. Instead Williams fled Massachusetts in 1636. He founded the settlement of Providence in what became Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the first European colony in the Americas to allow freedom of religion.

After her trial, Anne Hutchinson was forced to leave Massachusetts. In 1637 she traveled south to Rhode Island. Her family and supporters started the settlement of Portsmouth.

Another Puritan minister, Thomas Hooker, also left Massachusetts. Hooker believed that each church should be independent and should choose its own leaders. In '1636 he and about 100 followers founded the colony of Connecticut.

John Winthrop (above), Governor of Massachusetts, disagreed with colonists such as Anne Hutchinson (right).

Changes for the Native Americans

As the New England colonies grew, the Native Americans lost their land. At first some Native Americans helped the colonists. When Roger Williams fled Massachusetts, for example, the Narragansett allowed him to live on their land. In turn Williams paid them for land on Narragansett Bay, where he started his colony.

As the colonists settled more land, disagreements arose with the Native Americans. In what later became the Connecticut colony, bitter fighting broke out between the Pequot (PEE kwaht) and the English colonists. In the Pequot War of 1637, as the fighting was called, hundreds of the Pequot and colonists were killed.


Metacomet (above) wanted to force the colonists out of New England. He had a very different perspective on the English than his father, Massasoit, who had helped the Pilgrims.

After the Pequot War there was no fighting between colonists and Native Americans for almost 40 years. During that time colonists moved to what is now New Hampshire. They also moved to the regions that later became the colonies of Vermont and Maine.


By 1675 the Wampanoag leader Metacomet, whom the English called King Philip, was preparing to fight to keep Wampanoag lands. Many Native Americans joined Metacomet's forces, including the Narragansett. Years earlier Metacomet's father, Massasoit, had helped the Pilgrims.

King Philip's War, as the struggle was called, was fierce. In Massachusetts alone, Native Americans destroyed '16 towns. In 1676 Metacomet was captured and killed. His family was sold into slavery in the West Indies. This defeat marked the end of strong Native American resistance in New England.


The way of life that the Puritans brought to New England can still be seen as you travel through its many towns and small villages. Some Puritan ideas also continue to affect life in the United States. Part of our country's system of public education was modeled after Puritan schools.

Reviewing Facts and Ideas


• The Puritans, led by John Winthrop, arrived in New England and founded the settlement of Boston in 1630.

• Roger Williams founded Providence in 1636, the first settlement in Rhode Island. In 1637 Anne Hutchinson founded Portsmouth, also in Rhode Island. Connecticut was founded in 1636 by Thomas Hooker.

• The Wampanoag leader Metacomet led King Philip's War against the English in '1675. His defeat ended most Native American resistance to the colonists of New England.


1. Why did the Puritans decide to come to North America?

2. Why were Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson brought to trial?

3. FOCUS How did Puritan beliefs influence the type of colony they built?

4. THINKING SKILL Compare Massasoit's feelings toward the English with those of his son Metacomet. What might have caused any differences in how they felt?

5. WRITS Suppose you are a young child from Massachusetts Bay Colony. Write a letter to a friend in England that describes what your new life is like.




Focus Activity


How did William Penn help to build the colony of Pennsylvania?




King Charles II

William Penn


New Netherland

New Amsterdam

New York

New York City

New Jersey



Middle Colonies



The word was out. All over Europe, people were reading William Penn's advertisements for a colony called Pennsylvania. Here was a place where "the Air is sweet and clear," the ads said. Who was William Penn? Could his promises really be believed?


In the middle 1600s, the Dutch founded their colony of New Netherland. As you have read, Henry Hudson first claimed this area along the Hudson River for the Dutch in 1609. On Manhattan Island, which they bought from the Mannahata, the Dutch built a port that soon grew into a bustling center of trade. They called it New Amsterdam. Amsterdam was the name of their capital city in Holland.

In 1664 King Charles II of England wanted to make New Netherland an English colony. New Amsterdam's leader, Peter Stuyvesant, protested. Yet Stuyvesant was so unpopular that the English were able to take the port and the rest of New Netherland without firing a shot.

The English renamed New Netherland New York in honor of King Charles's brother, the Duke of York. New Amsterdam was renamed New York City. Later the Duke gave part of New York to two friends, Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. This land became the English colony of New Jersey. By 1704 Pennsylvania, Delaware, New York, and New Jersey had become the English Middle Colonies.


William Penn (left) made a treaty with the Lenni Lenape (above) and built a colony on the land that became Pennsylvania.


In 1681 King Charles II granted land in the Middle Colonies to William Penn, a Quaker. The Quakers are a religious group whose nickname comes from their belief that people should "quake before the power of the Lord."

Like the Puritans, the Quakers had been put in jail because of their religious beliefs. Penn hoped to establish a colony where Quakers could practice their religion in freedom.

Quaker Beliefs

The Quakers called themselves the Society of Friends. The Friends were started in England by George Fox in 1652. Fox told his followers that in order to know God, they had only to listen to His voice in their heart. They did not need to rely on ministers.

Penn's plans for his colony were based upon Quaker beliefs. "Be plain in clothes, furniture, and food," he said.

Most Friends believed that people should be treated fairly. Many were against slavery. Most, like William Penn, believed in treating the Native Americans with respect.

The Lenni Lenape

In 1682 Penn arrived in North America with about 100 colonists. He named the colony Pennsylvania, which means "Penn's Woods." His settlement was called Philadelphia. In Greek, the word Philadelphia means "city of brotherly love."

Penn planned for Pennsylvania to be a place of peace where people would treat each other fairly. He believed that the Lenni Lenape (LEN nee LEN nah pee), who were also known as the Delaware, should be included in his plan.

In a letter to the Lenni Lenape, Penn wrote that everyone could "live together as neighbors and friends." Unlike most European colonists, Penn paid the Native Americans for their land. Because of Penn's actions, relations between Native Americans and the colonists in Pennsylvania remained peaceful for many years.



The Middle Colonies grew rapidly during the 1700s. Colonists started the new colony of Delaware by settling on land that had also been part of Pennsylvania.

Many Europeans moved to the Middle Colonies in hope of finding a better life. In 1720 about 10,000 colonists lived in Philadelphia. By 1760 the city's population had grown to over 22,000, making Philadelphia the largest city in the English colonies. Locate Philadelphia on the map on this page.

Geography of the Middle Colonies

The Middle Colonies reached west from the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains.

Rivers and lakes crisscrossed much of the Middle Colonies. Colonists used these waterways to send their lumber, crops, and animal furs to markets in coastal cities. New York harbor, at the southern end of Manhattan Island, was one of the busiest ports in the 13 English colonies.

For colonial farmers, the land was much richer in the Middle Colonies than in New England. Within several years, hard-working farmers turned the Middle Colonies into the main food-growing region in colonial North America. People called the Middle Colonies the "breadbasket of the colonies."

Many Different People

Colonists from all over Europe were welcomed to the Middle Colonies. Jewish people from Portugal had begun arriving in the late 1600s. A large number of Dutch people were already living in the area. By the early 1700s many German immigrants had come as well and become farmers. Since the German word for their language is Deutsch (DOYTCH), the Germans became known as the Pennsylvania Dutch. The Pennsylvania Dutch built the first Conestoga (kahn uh STOH guh) wagons. These large wagons carried farm goods to city markets.

Another group of colonists was the Scots-Irish. They were Scottish people who had settled in Northern Ireland before coming to North America.

One group that was not treated equally in the Middle Colonies was the Africans. Many of them were enslaved. Some were free, but few African colonists enjoyed the same rights that. European colonists did. You will read more about Africans in the English colonies in the next chapter.


Penn's statue stands atop City Hall, one of Philadelphia's tallest buildings (below). The statue (right) was on view before being put on the building.


Many different people came to the Middle Colonies. They brought with them a wide variety of skills and trades. This great mix of people and abilities was important to the Middle Colonies.

The blending of different peoples and cultures started in colonial times. It continues today. From its earliest days, the United States has depended on the contributions made by all of its people to build the country.

Reviewing Facts and Ideas


• The Dutch colony of New Netherland became the English colony of New York in 1664.

• In 1681 William Penn founded the Pennsylvania Colony. In Pennsylvania Quakers and other religious groups could worship freely.

• The variety of people in the Middle Colonies helped the region to succeed at farming and trading.


1. How did New York and New Jersey become English colonies?

2. How did William Penn show that he wanted to treat Native Americans with fairness?

3. FOCUS Describe how the Middle Colonies were different from the New England Colonies.

4. THINKING SKILL What were some of the beliefs held by the Quakers? What effects did these beliefs have on William Penn's colony?

5. WRITE Suppose that you are a Lenni Lenape. Write a short paragraph that describes what you think about the colonists and their ways.



Reading Elevation and Relief Maps





As you saw on the map of the Middle Colonies on page 212, Delaware and New Jersey lie along the Atlantic Coastal Plain, which is mostly flat. Colonists arriving in the Middle Colonies often used maps to study the geography of a place.

Different kinds of maps used today can show different kinds of geographical information. The elevation of a place, for example, is shown on an elevation map. Elevation is the height of land above sea level. Mountain climbers often use maps that show elevation. Why do you think they need them?


Elevation maps show how high, or elevated, the land is. Elevation is measured in feet or meters above sea level. Sea level is measured as 0 feet all around the world. Places close to sea level have low elevations.

Elevation maps use color to show the difference in height of land areas. In the elevation map of New York on this page, reds. shows areas with the highest elevation. The key tells you that red represents areas higher than 2,000 feet, or 600 meters, above sea level. The other colors on the map each show different elevations.

You know that as you travel east from the Appalachian Mountains to the coast, the land drops suddenly in elevation. The drop in elevation from the foothills of the Appalachians


to the flatter land along the coast is called the fall line. On the relief map on page 214 the fall line is east of the Piedmont.


Elevation maps show the height of land areas. A relief map shows how elevation changes from place to place. Relief is the difference in height between land areas. Level, or flat, land that stretches for long distances has low, or little, relief. Land that rises and then drops off within short distances has high, or more, relief. Mountains are land-forms with both a high elevation and high relief. Plains and plateaus are landforms with low relief.

On a relief map the difference in height between land areas is shown by using light to heavy shading. Look at the relief map on page 214. The heavy shading shows high elevation areas. The light shading indicates low elevation.

The relief map on page 214 tells us the Adirondack Mountains have high relief because they are heavily shaded.

Helping Yourself

Elevation is the height of land above sea level. Use the map key colors to find the ranges of elevation.

Relief is the difference in height between areas. Heavy or light shading shows changes in elevation.


Look at the map of the Middle Colonies on this page. It shows both elevation and relief. Both color and shading are used to show what the landforms in the Middle Colonies are like. The highest mountains are heavily shaded and colored red. What does this map tell about these mountains?

Look at the area around the Appalachian Mountains. What does the map tell you about he elevation as you move east or west of the mountains? How do you think elevation affected the settling of this region?


1. What is elevation? What is relief?

2. Which map is better for showing the height of a mountain above sea level—an elevation map or a relief map? Why?

3. Suppose you were planning a bicycle trip. Which kind of map would you use to avoid pedaling up steep hills? Why?

4. Using the map on this page, compare the elevation and relief of the Middle Colonies. Which colony do you think would have the best land for farming? Explain.

5. How would you use an elevation and relief map to find a place in which to settle?




Focus Activity


Why was the founding of Georgia important to th4 Southern Colonies?







James Oglethorpe

King George II




North Carolina

South Carolina


Southern Colonies



The king of England hoped that England's new colony of Georgia would protect the English Carolinas. South of the Carolinas the Spanish had built several settlements. To the west, the French had established a large colony, but few colonists lived there. In 1732 the founding of Georgia became the king's best plan for keeping the Carolinas under English control.


The Pilgrims, Puritans, and Quakers were not the only groups who could not practice their religions freely in England. Many Roman Catholics were treated badly as well. In 1634 King Charles I of England gave a Catholic, Lord Baltimore, a charter to start a new colony for Catholics. He called the colony Maryland, after Queen Henrietta Maria of England. Maryland was controlled by a group of people called proprietors. The proprietors were men who owned all the land of the colony.

South of Maryland, Virginia was growing. Good land was becoming harder to locate. In 1663 King Charles II gave eight proprietors a charter to found Carolina, a new colony south of Virginia. Carolina was later divided into North Carolina and South Carolina. In 1732 Georgia was founded. Georgia was the last of the group of settlements that became known as England's Southern Colonies.



The area the English called the Southern Colonies was home to the Creek, Cherokee, Choctaw, and Chickasaw. Of these Native Americans, the Creek were the largest group. All the Creek spoke one language. Each of their villages was independent. Before Europeans arrived, the independent Creek villages joined together to form the Creek Confederacy. As a confederacy, the Creek were better able to protect their lands.

Chief Tomochichi

Another group of Creek people lived along the Savannah River in what is now eastern Georgia. They were separate from the Creek Confederacy. They called themselves the Yamacraw and built their village in a place called Yamacraw Bluff. Most Creek villages were located along rivers and streams or in treeless areas. These locations were well-suited to farming.

In the early 1700s the chief the Yamacraw was a man named Tomochichi (toh mah CHEE chee). Tomochichi led the Yamacraw in their first meetings with the English colonists and their leader, James Oglethorpe.

General James Oglethorpe

James Oglethorpe was a wealthy English army general. In 1729 he formed committee to examine England's prisons for debtors. A debtor is a person who owes money. Oglethorpe was shocked by the number of debtors who were locked away in prison. He asked for and received a charter to start a colony for debtors and poor people in North America. Oglethorpe named the new colony that he founded there Georgia after King George II.

James Oglethorpe (above) and Chief Tomochichi met in London, England (below), to sign a treaty giving the English land on which to build Savannah.

Courtesy, Winterthur Museum



King George liked Oglethorpe's plan to start the colony of Georgia. Because of its location, Georgia would separate the Carolinas from the Spanish and French claims. You can see this by finding Georgia on the map on this page. Also, Georgia would be a place to send England's debtors. "England will grow rich by sending her poor abroad," Oglethorpe explained.

Oglethorpe gave each colonist land for growing grapes and raising silkworms. Georgia's climate was not suited for raising silkworms, though.

Geography of the Southern Colonies

Farmers in the other Southern Colonies found that the red clay soil of the Appalachian foothills was good for growing corn and tobacco. Along part of the Atlantic Coastal Plain the growing season lasts seven months. Planters there grew rice and on large farms. Indigo is a plant that produces a blue dye.

The Creek Assist the Colonists

In 1733 Oglethorpe planned Georgia's first settlement, Savannah. The site for the new settlement was located next to Tomochichi's village. The two leaders met. Tomochichi agreed to give Oglethorpe a large area of land on Yamacraw Bluff for the settlement.

Change Comes to Georgia

The debtors who came to Georgia were soon outnumbered by other colonists. Oglethorpe had not allowed slavery. So these colonists pretended to "rent" enslaved Africans from South Carolina.

In the spring tourists often take a carriage ride through the historic section of downtown Savannah, Georgia.


By the 1750s slavery was well established in Georgia. Between the years of 1750 and '1760 the number of enslaved Africans in Georgia grew from about 1,000 to 4,000. By 1760 there were about 10,000 people living in Georgia. Of these 10,000 people, about 4,000 lived in slavery.


Founded by James Oglethorpe in 1732, Georgia became the thirteenth English Colony. From the forests of present-day Maine in the north to the coastal plains of Georgia in the south, all of the 13 English Colonies were developing and expanding. It had been over 100 years since England had established its first colony in North America. In less than 50 years the '13 English colonies would become the United States of America.


Savannah's Squares

How did Oglethorpe plan the first settlement in Georgia? Savannah was laid out on Yamacraw Bluff as a series of squares. Each square measured 1 mile by 1 mile. Some squares were broken up into rectangular farms. There were 12 rectangular farms in each square mile.

Oglethorpe laid out 23 of the square miles with rectangular farms. How many of such farms did Savannah have?

Reviewing Facts and Ideas


• The colony of Maryland was founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore as a place for Catholics to worship in freedom.

• In 1663 the English established what became the colonies of North Carolina and South Carolina.

• Before the arrival of Europeans, the Creek, one of the largest Native American groups in the Southern Colonies, formed a Confederacy.

• In 1732 James Oglethorpe, an English general, established Georgia as a colony for debtors and poor people. Later wealthy newcomers began forcing people to work as slaves on large rice and indigo farms.


1. What were the names of the Southern Colonies?

2. How did Chief Tomochichi help the colonists to found Savannah?

3. FOCUS What reasons did King George II have for allowing Oglethorpe to found Georgia?

4. THINKING SKILL Compare the relations between Tomochichi and Oglethorpe with relations between colonists and Native Americans in the other colonies. How were they similar? How were they different?

5. GEOGRAPHY Identify the major land-forms of the Southern Colonies shown on the map on page 218. Which landforms were helpful to the colonists?




Number a paper from 1 to 5. Beside each number write the word from the list below that matches the description.






1. The men who owned all the land of a colony

2. The difference in height between land areas

3. The height of land above sea level

4. A person who owes money

5. To allow people to have beliefs that are different from one's own


1. Why did Roger Williams, Anne Hutchinson, and Thomas Hooker leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony?

2. Why was education important to the Puritans? How did the Puritan colonists provide for education in a way that no European country had done before?

3. Who led the Native Americans of New England in King Philip's War? Why was this war fought?

4. Why did the Quakers come to North America? In which colony did they settle?

5. What different groups of people lived in the Middle Colonies?

6. Who founded the colony of Maryland? What religious group settled there?

7. Why were the Southern Colonies good for farming?

8. What role did Native Americans play in the founding of Georgia?

9. What is indigo? Where was it grown?

10. Look at the time line above. Which colony was founded last? Which is the earliest colony shown on the time line?




Suppose that you are a newspaper reporter in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Write an article about the trial of Anne Hutchinson.


Suppose that William Penn has asked you to help him bring people to his colony. Write an advertisement in which you try to persuade people to settle in Pennsylvania.


Write a dialogue in which you present the first meeting between Chief Tomochichi and General James Oglethorpe.



Answer the questions below to practice the skill of using elevation maps and relief maps.

1. What is the difference between elevation and relief?

2. How can you identify an elevation map? How can you identify a relief map?

3. What is the fall line?

4. Look at the elevation map of New York on page 214. What was the highest point in New York?

5. If you were the leader of a colony and were searching for a good spot to build a settlement, how might a map showing both elevation and relief help you?

Summing Up the Chapter

Copy the comparison chart on a separate piece of paper. Then review the chapter to complete the chart. After you have finished, use the information to write three paragraphs that answer the question "How were the colonies in each area founded?"


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