Getzels, J. W., & Jackson, P.W. (1962). Creativity and intelligence: Explorations with gifted students. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.
MacDonald, E. (2009). The mindful teacher. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Piaget, J. (1950). The psychology of intelligence (M. Piercy & D. E. Berlyne, Trans.). New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace.
Guskey, T. R., & Gates, S. L. (1985, March-April). A synthesis of research on group-based mastery learning programs. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.
Pugach, M. C. (2009).Because teaching matters (2nded.).Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.
Piaget, J. (1972). To understand is to invent. New York, NY: The Viking Press.
Glaser, R. (1991). The maturing of the relationship between the science of learning and cognition and educational practice. Learning and Instruction, 1(2), 129-144.
Posner, G. J., Strike, K. A., Hewson, P. W., &Gertzog, W. A. (1982). Accommodation of a scientific conception: Toward a theory of conceptual change. Science Education, 66, 211-227.
Kohlberg, L. (1984). The psychology of moral development: The nature and validity of moral stages. San Francisco, CA: Harper & Row.
Rogers, C.R. (1969). Freedom to learn. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Labov, W. (1964). Stages in the acquisition of standard English. In R. Shuy (Ed.), Social dialects and language learning. Champaign, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Scandura, J. M. & Scandura, A. (1980). Structural learning and concrete operations: An approach to Piagetian conservation. New York, NY: Praeger.
Nesher, P. (1986). Learning mathematics: A cognitive perspective. American Psychologist, 41(10), 1114-1122.
Schoenfeld, A. (1985). Mathematical problem solving. New York, NY: Academic Press.
Stanovich, K. E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly,21, 360-407.
Sternberg, R. J. (1997). Thinking styles. New York, NY: Cambridge University
Sternberg, R. J. (2006). Recognizing neglected strengths. Educational Leadership, 64(1) [No Pagination].
Torrance, E. P. (1963).
Education and the creative potential. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Tobin, K. G., & Capie, W. (1982). Relationships between formal reasoning ability, locus of control, academic engagement and integrated process skill achievement. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 19(2), 113-121.
Vygotsky, L. (1934/1986). Thought and language (A. Kozulin, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Vellutino, F. R., & Scanlon, D. M. (1987). Linguistic coding and reading ability. In S. Rosenberg (Ed.), Advances in applied psycholinguistics (pp. 1-69). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Wagoner, S. A. (1983). Comprehension monitoring: What it is and what we know about it. Reading Research Quarterly, 18, 328–346.
Educators as lifelong learners. Because the knowledge supporting practice in educational settings undergoes significant change over the duration of each practitioner’s career, many educational researchers and reformers emphasize the importance of on-going professional development for educators (e.g., Anderson, Herr, & Nihlen, 2007; Mouza, 2009; Wallace, 2009). In consideration of this perspective, the Unit cultivates in its candidates the habits of mind that lead to lifelong engagement with expanding domains of knowledge in their teaching fields as well as in the field of pedagogy. At the same time, the Unit acknowledges that education professionals learn a great deal from practicing their craft in a thoughtful manner and from engaging in dialog with one another around significant issues of practice (Burney, 2004; Lieberman & Miller, 2001; Newell, 1996).
Arguably, the habits of reflection and inquiry are the intellectual practices that have the greatest impact on professional growth (e.g., Farrell, 2004; Rich & Jackson, 2006; Richards &Lockhard, 1994). In addition, on-going interaction with colleagues to define, monitor, and refine effective practice enables educators to participate in continuous processes of learning and improvement that eventually lead them from the novice to the expert stage of professional performance (Frost, 2010; Lave & Wenger, 1991). These habits of mind and collaborative processes fit with Buysse, Sparkman, and Wesley’s (2003) prescriptions for professional development: (1) professional development should deal with knowledge that is situated in experience, and (2) professional development should involve experiences that engender critical reflection with others who share the experiences. The second element in this prescription can be difficult to structure (e.g. Jarosewich, Vargo, Salzman, Lenhart, Krosnick, Vance, & Roskos, 2010). In reflecting on knowledge situated in experience, practitioners need environments and prompts that encourage them to go beyond mere informational or technical issues to reflect on the foundations of practice and the assumptions underlying it (McArdle & Coutts, 2010). Collaborative reflection, if offered in a spirit of professional inquiry and sense-making, sustains and deepens educators’ continued learning from the experience of practice.
Professional development that meets these criteria tends to be “job-embedded” and sustained over a relatively long period of time (e.g., Huffman, Hipp, Pankake, & Moller, 2001; Tienken & Stonaker, 2007). The literature listed in Tables 9 and 10 represents the knowledge base supporting these approaches to professional learning. Table 10 lists literature relating to educators’ reflection and inquiry, and Table 11 lists literature relating to professional collaboration.
Table 10: Knowledge Base—Reflection and Inquiry
Illustrative Reading Lists
Argyris, C. (1991). Teaching smart people to learn. Harvard Business Review, May-June, 99-109.
Bates, A. J., Ramirez, L., & Drits, D. (2009). Connecting university supervision and critical reflection: Mentoring and modeling. Teacher Educator, 44(2) [No Pagination].
Weinbaum, A., Allen, D., Blythe, T., Simon, K., Seidel, S., & Rubin, C. (2004). Teaching as inquiry: Asking hard questions to improve practice and student achievement. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Boud, D., Keogh, R.,& Walker, D. (1985). Reflection: Turning experience into learning. London, England: Kogan Page.
Buehl, M. M., & Fives, H. (2009). Exploring teachers' beliefs about teaching knowledge: Where does it come from? Does it change? Journal of Experimental Education, 77(4), 367-407.
Dewey, J. (1910). How we think. Boston, MA, : D.C. Heath.
Canning, C. (1991). What teachers say about reflection. Educational Leadership, 48(6), 18-21.
Eichelberger, R. T. (1989). Disciplined inquiry. New York, NY: Longman.
Gillentine, J. (2006). Understanding early literacy development: The impact of narrative and reflection as tools within a collaborative professional development setting. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education,27(4), 343-362.
Hutchings, P., & Wutzdorff, A. (1988). Knowing and doing: Learning through experience. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Mahlios, M., Soroka, G., Engstrom, D., & Shaw, D. M. (2008). A study of student teachers’ reflections on their beliefs, thoughts, and practices. Action in Teacher Education, 30(1) [No Pagination].
Kolb, D.A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
McFarland, L., Saunders, R., & Allen, S. (2009). Reflective practice and self-evaluation in learning positive guidance: Experiences of early childhood practicum students. Early Childhood Education Journal, 36(6), 505-511.
Langer, E. J. (1989). Mindfulness. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Mena Marcos, J. J., Sanchez, E., & Tillema, H. (2008). Teachers reflecting on their work: Articulating what is said about what is done. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 14(2) [No Pagination].
McMahon, M. T., & Hines, E. (2008). Lesson study with preservice teachers. Mathematics Teacher, 102(3), 186-191.
Nicholson, S. A., & Bond, N. (2003). Collaborative reflection and professional community building: An analysis of preservice teachers' use of an electronic discussion board. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education,11(2), 259-279.
Merriam, S. B. & Caffarella, R. S. (1999). Learning in adulthood (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Richert, A. E. (1990). Teaching teachers to reflect: A consideration of programme structure. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 6, 509-527.
Roth, R. A. (1989). Preparing the reflective practitioner: Transforming the apprentice through the dialectic. Journal of Teacher Education, 40(2) [No Pagination].
Schön, D. A. (1991). The reflective turn: Case studies in and on educational practice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Tobin, D. (1996). Transformational learning. New York, NY: Wiley.
Table 11: Knowledge Base—Collaborative Professional Development
Illustrative Reading Lists
Calderwood, P. (2000). Learning community: Finding common ground in difference. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Chance, P. L., & Segura, N. (2009). A rural high school's collaborative approach to school improvement. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 24(5), 1-12.
Meier, D. (1995). The power of their ideas: Lessons for America from a small school in Harlem.
Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Daaz-Maggioli, G. (2004). Teacher-centered professional development.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Garet, M. S., Birman, B. F., Porter, A. C., Desimone, L., & Herman, R. (1999). Designing effective professional development: Lessons from the Eisenhower Program. Washington,
DC: US Department of Education.
Meier, D. (2002). In schools we trust: Creating communities of learning in an era of testing and standardization. Boston, MA : Beacon Press.
Juarez-Torres, R., Hurst, J. L., & Hurst, R. (2007). Teacher to teacher: Transgenerational mentoring. Teacher Education and Practice, 20(1), 14-30.
Sammon, G. (2008). Creating and sustaining small learning communities: Strategies and tools for transforming high schools (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA : Corwin Press
Mouza, C. (2009). Does research-based professional development make a difference? A longitudinal investigation of teacher learning in technology Integration. Teachers College Record, 111(5), 1195-1241.
Senge, P.M. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization.
New York, NY: Doubleday/Currency.
Wilson, S. M., & Berne, J. (1999). Teacher learning and the acquisition of professional
knowledge: An examination of research on contemporary professional development. In A.
Iran-Nejad & P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Review of research in education (pp. 173–209).
Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Young, J. R., Bullough, R. V., Draper, R. J., Smith, L. K., & Erickson, L. B. (2005). Novice teacher growth and personal models of mentoring: Choosing compassion over inquiry. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 13(2), 169-188.
Wood, G. H. (1998). A time to learn: Creating community in America’s high schools. New York, NY: Dutton.
Professional development models. Educational researchers and leaders have developed a variety of professional development models that increase opportunities for educators to engage collaboratively in reflection and inquiry. Two of these models inform practices in the Unit, and therefore figure significantly in the Conceptual Core: (1) the coaching model and (2) the professional learning community model.
Coaching is a “work alongside” model that actively supports colleagues’ professional growth (Coast & Garmston, 2002). Specification of their goals and needs helps guide and structure coaching conversations between educators (Lipton & Wellman, 2003). Engaged in collaborative and ongoing dialogue, educators explore subject content and investigate teaching strategies (Elmore, 2004) as well as develop learning networks (Johnson, 2008). This continuous dialogue and inquiry not only enables educators to examine their own perspectives and practices but also assists them in identifying practices that are essential for students’ engagement and, ultimately, their learning (Donovan, Bransford, & Pellegrino, 1999; Lipton & Wellman, 2003).
Candidates in the Unit’s initial preparation programs begin to benefit from coaching when they participate in early field experiences in P-12 schools. These field experiences give candidates the opportunity to become partners in a three-way coaching dialog (i.e., student-cooperating teacher-faculty member) in which the focus of attention is the candidates’ emerging awareness of the connections between teaching and learning. Expanded coaching dialogs occur during professional internships and increasingly concern the intern’s performance of the various responsibilities associated with the teaching role, including the role of peer-mentor that is now considered so vital to professional development (e.g. LeCornu, 2005; Zachary, 2005). Comparable coaching opportunities are provided in the advanced programs for teachers and the programs for the preparation of other school personnel.
Professional learning communities bring educators together to engage in collective inquiry about effective practice (DuFour, DuFour, Eaker, & Many, 2006). Louis and Kruse (1995) maintain that the core characteristic of the professional learning community is an unwavering commitment to student learning. A corollary assumption of this model is that the commitment to student learning requires educators themselves to be invested in a continuous learning process (DuFour et al., 2006). In professional learning community models, as in coaching, a shared commitment to constructive sense-making based on reflection on practice is crucial to meaningful professional development (McArdle & Coutts, 2010).
An increasing number of candidates in the Unit begin their initial preparation as members of freshman learning communities promoted through the University’s Division of Student Affairs. Their experiences in these learning communities prepare them for the kind of mutual inquiry and support that they experience later in their professional preparation classes, Professional Development School Partnerships, and graduate cohort programs (e.g. Hanna, Salzman, Reynolds, & Fergus, 2010). The Unit is committed to a view of learning as a collaborative activity, and the faculty engages candidates in a wide array of activities that permit them to construct new understandings, learn about how to learn as well as how to teach, frame and solve problems, and embark on a course of lifelong learning though collaborative and engaged inquiry, action, and reflection with peers, mentors, and the wider community.
Alexander, G. (1999). Schools as communities: Purveyors of democratic values and the cornerstones of a public philosophy. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 12(2), 183-193.
Allington, R.I. (2009). What really matters in response to intervention: Research based designs. Boston, MA: Allyn& Bacon.
Appel, J. (2007). Emerging forms of publication, massively multiplayer educational gaming among trends on the horizon expected to have a huge impact on schools. eSchool News, http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/topnews/
Aronowitz, S., & Difazio, W. (2010). The jobless future (2nd ed.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Ayers, W., Kamashura, K., Meiners, E., Quinn, T., & Stovall, D. (2004). Teaching toward democracy: Educators as agents of change. Boulder, CO: Paradigm.
Balfanz, R. (2009). Can the American high school become an avenue of advancement for all? America's High Schools, 19(1), 17-36.
Banks, J. A. (2004). Multicultural education: Historical development, dimensions, and practices. In J. A. Banks & C. M. Banks (Eds.), Handbook of research in multicultural education (2nd ed., pp. 3–29). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Banks, J.,& Banks, C. (2012). Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives (8th ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.
Basu, R. (2006). Multiethnic neighborhoods as sites of social capital formation: Examining social to political "integration" in schools. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 1(1), 59-82.
Bauman, Z. (1998). Globalization: The human consequences. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
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Bransford. J., Brown, A. L. & Cocking R. R. (Eds.). (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press for National Research Council.
Brantlinger, E. A. (2003). Dividing classes: How the middle class negotiates and rationalizes school advantage. New York, NY: Routledge/Falmer.
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Buysse, V., Sparkman, K. L., & Wesley, P. W. (2003). Communities of practice: Connecting what we know with what we do. Exceptional Children, 69 (3), 263-277.
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Cartledge, G., & Lo, Y. (2006). Teaching urban learners: Culturally responsive strategies for developing academic and behavioral competence. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
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