Unit for the preparation of education professionals conceptual core

Table 5: Knowledge Base—Integration of Technology

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Table 5: Knowledge Base—Integration of Technology

Theoretical Foundations

Empirical Foundations

Illustrative Reading Lists

(from syllabi)

Creighton, T. (2002). The principal as technology leader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Becker, H. J. (2000). Findings from the teaching, learning, and computing survey: Is Larry Cuban right? Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8(51). Retrieved August 23, 2007 from http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v8n51/.

Anderson, R.E., & Dexter, S. (2005). School technology leadership: An empirical investigation of prevalence and effect. Educational Administration Quarterly, 41(1), 49-82.

Harris, J., Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2009).

Teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge and learning.

Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(4), 393-416.

Cuban, L. (2001). Oversold and underused: Computers in the classroom. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Elias, M.J., Friedlander, B.S., & Tobias, S.E. (2001). Engaging the resistant child through computers: A manual to facilitate social and emotional learning. Port Chester, NY: Dude.

International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). (2002). National educational technology standards for teachers: Preparing teachers to use technology. Danvers, MA: ISTE.

Ertmer, P. A. (2006). Teacher pedagogical beliefs: The final frontier in our quest for technology integration? Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 25-39.

Gee, J. P. (2003). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. Palgrave/Macmillan:

New York, NY.

Jonassen, D. H. (2004). Handbook of research for educational communications and technology. Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.

Pierson, M. L. (2001). Technology integration practice as a function of pedagogical expertise. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 33(4). Retrieved July 15, 2009 from


Giovagnoli, M. (2011). Transmedia storytelling: Imagery, shapes and techniques. Retrieved from http://talkingobjects.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/book-by-max-giovagnoli-transmedia-storytelling-imagery-shapes-and-techniques.pdf

Oppenheimer, T. (2004). The flickering mind: Saving education from the false promise of technology. New York, NY: Random House.

Project Tomorrow. (2009). The new digital advance team—America’s K–12 students

leading the way to transforming learning with 21st Century technology tools. Retrieved from Eric data base. (ED540403)

Johnston, L., Beard, L.A., & Carpenter, L.B. (2007). Assistive technology: Access for all students. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Reigeluth, C.M. (Ed.). (1999). Instructional-design theories and models.

Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Sullivan, F., & Moriarty, M. (2009). Robotics and discovery learning: pedagogical beliefs, teacher practice, and technology integration. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 17(1), 109-142.

Lohr, L. L., (2008). Creating graphics for learning and performance (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill/ Prentice Hall.

Spector, M. et al., (Eds.). (2008). Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Moore, D.R. (2009). Designing online learning with flash. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.

Solomon, G., & Schrum, L. (2007). Web 2.0: New tools, new schools. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education.

Staples, A., Pugach, M. C., & Himes, D. (2005). Rethinking the technology integration challenge: Cases from three urban elementary schools. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 37(3), 285-311.

Waters, F. H., Smeaton, P. S., & Buns, T. G. (2004). Action research in the secondary science classroom: Student response to differentiated, alternative assessment. American Secondary Education 32(3), 89-104.

In addition to their grounding in the rich knowledge base delineated in the discussion above, agents of change draw on certain dispositions and affective competencies that support the advocacy role. Effective communication, including the ability to resolve conflict, is critical to the change process (Rogers, 2003). Change agents, moreover, appreciate and have patience with the change process, value the people involved in the process, respect different ways of knowing, build on commonalities rather than emphasize differences, maintain respectful relationships, and are open to feedback (e.g., Dentith & Root, 2012; Fullan, 2007). These affective competencies align clearly with core dispositions that the Unit cultivates, especially the commitment to social justice; to the well-being of students, families, and communities; and to professional competence and ongoing professional development.

The Unit prepares leader-educators and practitioners who appreciate the variety of human cultural expression, employ multiple approaches to inquiry, use knowledge and practice for the benefit of a diverse society, and promote social equity and justice for effective civic engagement.

The Unit views diversity as the variety of socially significant differences that characterize students, candidates, faculty, and staff, as well as other members of the schools and communities in which students, candidates, faculty and staff work and learn. Race, ethnicity, culture, religion, gender, sexual orientation, social class, disability or other exceptionality, and geographic location (e.g. Appalachia, rural) represent broad areas of diversity; differences in learning and teaching styles, curricular priorities and instructional adaptations, and the multiplicity of viewpoints on education-related issues,

such as views on the relative value of different ways of knowing and of different social conventions, represent the subtleties. The aim of the Unit is for candidates who complete its educator preparation programs to relate in respectful and productive ways to people who belong to different groups and hold views that differ from their own, in other words, who occupy different social locations. Effective educators, from this perspective, realize that each social location, despite shifting and permeable boundaries, contributes meaningfully to identity development, enabling individuals to establish selfhood, draw on a set of adaptive assets, confront challenges, and contribute to the wider communities to which they have access (Banks, 2004; Grant & Gomez, 2001; Gregoriou, 2013; LAS definition of diversity, 2004). Based on this perspective, the Unit has established the following expectations for its candidates in regard to diversity:

  • understand and respect the “interdependence of humanity, cultures, and natural environments” (LAD definition of diversity, 2004);

  • remain open to and appreciative of different qualities and experiences;

  • understand ways of being and ways of knowing that differ from their own;

  • stay attentive to the fact that individual, institutional, and cultural discrimination maintains privileges for particular groups while creating disadvantages for others;

  • recognize and counter instances and patterns of institutional and individual discrimination against particular groups and individuals;

  • strive to eradicate all types of discrimination; and

  • encourage cultural plurality and power sharing within the organizational culture of their schools and the broader communities to which their schools belong.

The Unit cultivates prospective educators’ development of cultural consciousness in ways that enable them to work effectively with parents and other family members and to draw on students’ pre-existing cultural funds of knowledge (Moll, Armanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 1992) in order to promote relevant learning and high academic achievement. Effective learning, in this view, occurs when the learning environment builds on the funds of knowledge accessible to each student in order to enrich the learning of all students. Meaningful, supportive, culturally based, and learner-centered environments allow students to expand their self-actualizing knowledge and skills by drawing on and then adding to the concepts and skills their families, communities, and cultures already have taught them. This approach to education has been variously called “culturally appropriate,” “culturally responsive,” “culturally relevant,” and “culturally competent” (Banks & Banks, 2012; Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000; Gay, 2000; Spring, 2007).

In addition to developing candidates’ cultural consciousness, the Unit also works to assure that its candidates demonstrate commitment to social justice. To accomplish this aim, the Unit provides curricula and field experiences that elicit and develop the candidates’ critical engagement with pedagogical theory and practice in relation to student diversity (Ladson-Billings, 1995). Such engagement comes from deep understanding of one’s own culture, exploration of other cultures and unfamiliar ideas, and the willingness to critique one’s own perspectives as well as the new perspectives one encounters (Cochran-Smith, Davis, & Fries 2003; Spindler, 1982). Active participation in (1) a curriculum that is rich in opportunities for inquiry and representative of a range of theoretical, empirical, and culturally diverse perspectives and (2) field experiences in diverse settings with structured opportunities for analysis of the interplay and implications of the candidate’s own social location and those represented in the field experience setting contributes to candidates’ development of critical consciousness as well as greater depth and breadth of perspective.

Knowledge Base

The knowledge base most applicable to a critical understanding of diversity and to the cultivation of culturally responsive practice comes broadly from two sources. The first encompasses theoretical and empirical work about diversity and the role of schooling in both perpetuating and changing prevailing economic and social relations. In addition to the writings of educational philosophers and researchers, the work of certain historians, sociologists, social psychologists, anthropologists, and political analysts informs this portion of the knowledge base. The second major source of knowledge comes from the study of educational practices that respond in productive ways to differential developmental, emotional, and behavioral attributes of learners. The works of many progressive educators, special educators, and, more recently, educators advocating culturally responsive and place-based education contribute relevant insights. We categorize this body of practical work under the heading “differentiated instruction,” although we recognize that some practices associated with individualizing and differentiating instruction (e.g., tracking) have been shown to contribute to the diminished performance of many students for whom they are prescribed (e.g., Burris & Garrity, 2008). An understanding of the historical use of such practices, however, helps our candidates distinguish between educational arrangements that result in social reproduction and those that contribute to the self-determination of diverse individuals and groups (e.g., Banks & Banks, 2012; Bourdieu & Passeron, 1977; Freire, 1970; Sleeter & Grant, 2007).

An illustrative bibliography of the knowledge about diversity that informs programs in the Unit is summarized in Table 6 below. Table 7 presents an illustrative list of recent peer-reviewed books, chapters, and articles that Patton College faculty members have contributed to the literature on diversity. The two tables are followed by brief discussions of the types of diversity that candidates explore as part of their experiences in the Unit’s educator preparation programs.

Table 6: Knowledge Base—Diversity Studies

Theoretical Foundations (Illustrative Selections)

Empirical Foundations (Illustrative Selections)

Illustrative Reading Lists (from syllabi)

Apple, M. C. (1996). Cultural politics and education. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Anyon, J. (1997). Ghetto schooling: A political economy of urban educational reform. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

EDCS 3010 Education and Cultural Diversity:

Adams, M. et al. (Eds.). (2010). Readings for diversity and social justice (2nd ed.)New York, NY: Routledge.

Apple, M.W. (2000). Official knowledge: Democratic education in a conservative age. New York, NY: Routledge.

Baker, R.S. (2001). The paradoxes of desegregation: Race, class, and education, 1935-1975. American Journal of Education, 109(3), 320-343.

EDCS 3010 Education and Cultural Diversity:

Meyer, E. (2009). Gender, bullying, and harassment: Strategies to end sexism and homophobia in schools. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Au, W. (Ed.). (2009). Rethinking multicultural education: Teaching for racial and cultural justice. Milwaukee, WI: Rethinking Schools.

Belenky, M. F., Clinchy, N., Goldberger, N., & Tarule, J. (1986). Women’s ways of knowing: The development of self, voice, and mind. New York, NY: Basic Books.

EDCS 5040 Sociology, Politics, and Change in Education:

Howard, A., & and Gaztambide-Fernandez, R. (2010).Educating elites: Class privilege and educational advantage. New York, NY: Rowman& Littlefield.

Audi, R. (2007). Moral value and human diversity. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Brown, C.S. (2002).Refusing racism: White allies and the struggle for civil rights. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

EDCS 5040 Sociology, Politics, and Change in Education:

Ravitch, D. (2010).The death and life of the great American school system: How testing and choice are undermining education. New York: Basic Books.

Banks, J .A. (2006). Cultural diversity and education: Foundations, curriculum, and teaching. Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.

Castagno, A. E. (2009). Making sense of multicultural education: A synthesis of the various typologies found in the literature. Multicultural Perspectives, 11, 43-48.

EDCS 5040 Sociology, Politics, and Change in Education:

Sadovnik, A.R. (Ed.). (2010).Sociology of education: A critical reader (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Baglleri, S. & Shapiro, A. (2012).Disability studies and the inclusive classroom: Critical practices for creating least restrictive attitudes. New York, NY: Routledge.

Chae, H. S. (2004). Talking back to the Asian model minority discourse: Korean-origin youth experiences in high school. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 25(1), 59-73.

EDCS 5040 Sociology, Politics, and Change in Education:

Spring, J. (2011).The politics of American education. New York, NY: Routledge.

Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. (1990). Reproduction in education, society, and culture. (R. Nice, trans.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Corbett, M. (2007). Learning to leave: The irony of schooling in a coastal community. Black Point, Nova Scotia, Canada: Fernwood Publishing.

EDCS 5010 History and Philosophies of Education:

Brosio, R. A. (2000). Philosophical scaffolding for the construction of critical democratic education. New York, NY: Peter Lang.

Brown, M. C., & Land, R. E. (2005).The politics of curricular change: Race, hegemony, and power in education. New York, NY: Peter Lang.

Domina, T., & Saldana, J. (2012). Does raising the bar level the playing field?: Mathematics curricular intensification and inequality in American high schools, 1982–2004. American Educational Research Journal, 49(4), 685-708.

EDCS 5010 History and Philosophies of Education:

Noddings, N. (2012). Philosophy of education (3rd Ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Calabrese Barton, A., Kang, H., Tan, E., O’Neill, T. B., Bautista-Guerra, J., & Brecklin, C. (2013).Crafting a future in science: Tracing middle school girls’ identity work over time and space. American Educational Research Journal, 50(1), 37-75.

Fassler, R. (2003). Room for talk: Teaching and learning in a multilingual kindergarten. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

EDCS 5010 History and Philosophies of Education:

Spring, J. (2013). Deculturalization and the struggle for equity: A brief history of the education of dominated cultures in the United States. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Collins, E. (2008). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness and the politics of empowerment. New York, NY: Routledge.

Fordham, S. (1996).Blacked out: Dilemmas of race, identity, and success at Capital High. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Darder, A., Nieto, S., & Macedo, D. (2012). Culture and power in the classroom: A critical foundation for bicultural education. New York, NY: Paradigm.

Galen, J. (2010). Class, identity, and teacher education. Urban Review, 42(4), 253-270. doi:10.1007/s11256-009-0136-z

Delpit, L. (2013). ‘Multiplication is for White people’: Raising expectations for other people’s children. New York, NY: The New Press.

Gándara, P., & Orfield, G. (2012). Segregating Arizona's English learners: A return to the "Mexican room"? Teachers College Record, 114(9), 1-27.

Derman-Sparks, L., Ramsey, P., & Edwards, J. (2011). What if all the kids are White? Anti-bias multicultural education with young children and families (2nded.). New York: Teachers College Press.

Harpalani, V. (2002). What does “acting white” really mean? Racial identity formation and academic achievement among black youth. Perspectives on Urban Education, 1(1).

Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York, NY: Touchstone.

Heilig, J., Brown, K., & Brown, A. (2012). The illusion of inclusion: A critical race theory textual analysis of race and standards. Harvard Educational Review, 82(3), 403-424.

Ferguson, A. A. (2001). Bad boys: Public schools in the making of Black masculinity. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Henderson, A., & Mapp, K. (2002). A new wave of evidence: The impact of school, family and community connections on student achievement. Austin, TX: National Center for Family and Community Connections with Schools, Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.

Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Continuum.

King, S. (1993). The limited presence of African-American teachers. Review of Educational Research, 63(2), 115-149.

Freire, P. (1998). Teachers as cultural workers: Letters to those who dare to teach. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Lareau, A. (2011). Unequal childhoods: Class, race, and family life. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

LaSala, M. C., & Frierson, D. T. (2012). African American gay youth and their families: redefining masculinity, coping with racism and homophobia. Journal Of GLBT Family Studies, 8(5), 428-445.

Goodman, D. (2011). Promoting diversity and social justice: Educating people from privileged groups. New York, NY: Routledge.

Lee, S. J. (1996). Unraveling the “model minority” stereotypes: Listening to Asian American youth. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Grant, A.A., & Sleeter, C. E. (2008).Turning on learning: Five approaches for multicultural teaching plans for race, class, gender, and disability (5th ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.

Leonardo, Z., & Broderick, A. A. (2011). Smartness as property: A critical exploration of intersections between whiteness and disability studies. Teachers College Record, 113(10), 2206-2232.

Gruenewald, D. A. (2003). The best of both worlds: A critical pedagogy of place. Educational Researcher, 32(4), 3-12.

Lew, J. (2006). Asian Americans in class: Charting the achievement gap among Korean American youth. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Hallahan, D. P, Kauffman, J. M., & Pullen, P. C. (2009). Exceptional learners: An introduction to special education (11th ed.).Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn& Bacon.

Loewen, L. (2008). Lies my teacher told me: Everything your American history textbook got wrong. New York, NY: The New Press.

Harding, S. (1991). Whose science? Whose knowledge? Thinking from women’s lives. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Lubienski, S., & Crane, C. (2010). Beyond free lunch: which family background measures matter? Education Policy Analysis Archives, 18(11), 1-39.

Hofstede, G. (1997). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Muijs, D., Harris, A., Chapman, C., Stoll, L., &Russ, J. (2004).Improving schools in socio-economically disadvantaged areas—A review of research evidence. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 15(2), 149-175.

hooks, b. (1994). Teaching to transgress: Education as the practice of freedom.  New York, NY: Routledge. 

Nicolas, G., & Skinner, A. (2012). “That's so gay!” Priming the general negative usage of the word gay increases implicit anti-gay bias. Journal Of Social Psychology, 152(5), 654-658. doi:10.1080/00224545.


hooks, b. (2000). Feminism is for everybody. Boston, MA: South End Press

Oakes, J. (1985). Keeping track: How schools structure inequality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Howard, T. C., & Del Rosario, C. D. (2000).Talking race in teacher education: The need for racial dialogue in teacher education. Action in Teacher Education, 21, 127-137.

Ogbu, J. U. (1978). Minority education and caste: The American system in cross-cultural perspective. New York, NY: Academic Press.

Johnson, A. G. (2005).Privilege, power, and difference. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Ogbu, J. U. (2003). Black American students in an affluent suburb: A study of academic disengagement. Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.

Jones, S. (2006). Girls, social class and literacy: What teachers can do to make a difference. New York, NY: Heinemann

Orfield, G., & Yun, J. T. (1999). Resegregation in American schools. Cambridge, MA: The Civil Rights Project, Harvard University.

LAS definition of diversity (2004). Iowa State University College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. Retrieved from http://www.las.iastate.edu/about-the-college/diversity/.

Ready, D. D., & Wright, D. L. (2011). Accuracy and inaccuracy in teachers' perceptions of young children's cognitive abilities: The role of child background and classroom context. American Educational Research Journal, 48(2), 335-360.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1999). Preparing teachers for diverse student populations: A critical race theory perspective. Review of Research in Education, 24, 211-247.

Reck, U. M., Reck, G. G., & Keefe, S. (1993). Implications of teachers’ perceptions of students in an Appalachian school system. Journal of Research and Development in Education: Volume 26, 117-121.

Landreau, J., & Rodriguez, N. (2012). Queer masculinities: A critical reader in education. Netherlands: Springer.

Reeves, E. (2012). The Effects of opportunity to learn, family socioeconomic status, and friends on the rural math achievement gap in high school. American Behavioral Scientist, 56(7), 887-907.

Lomawaima, K. T. & McCarty, T. L. (2006). To remain an Indian lessons in democracy from a century of Native American education. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Reyes, M. D. (2011). Words were all we had: Becoming biliterate against the odds. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Meier, D. (2002). The power of their ideas: Lessons for America from a small school in Harlem. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

Seidl, B., & Hancock, S. (2011). Acquiring double images: White preservice teachers locating themselves in a raced world. Harvard Educational Review, 81(4), 687-709.

Mohanty, C. T. (2003). Feminism without borders: decolonizing theory, practicing solidarity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Souto-Manning, M. (2006). A Latina teacher’s journal: Reflections on language, culture, literacy and discourse practices. Journal of Latinos & Education, 5(4), 293-304.

Ng, R., Staton, P., & Scane, J. (Eds.). (1995). Anti-racism, feminism, and critical approaches to education. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.

Wallace, T., & Brand, B. (2012).Using critical race theory to analyze science teachers’ culturally responsive practices. Cultural Studies Of Science Education, 7(2), 341-374. doi:10.1007/s11422-012-9380-8

Nieto, S., & Bode, P. (2011). Affirming diversity: The sociopolitical context of multicultural education (6thed.). New York, NY: Pearson,

Weis, L., & Fine, M. (2000). Construction sites: Excavating race, class, and gender among urban youth. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Noddings, N. (1984). Caring, a feminine approach to ethics and moral education. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Willis, P. (1977). Learning to labour: How working class kids get working class jobs. New York: Columbia University Press. (Original work published in Farnborough, England by Saxon House)

Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Zentella, A. C. (2005). Building on strength: Language and literacy in Latino families and communities. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Sleeter, C. (2004). Culture, difference, and power. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Sleeter, C. E. (2008). Preparing White teachers for diverse students. In M. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman-Nemser, D. J. McIntyre, & K. E. Demers (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education: Ensuring questions in changing contexts (3rd ed.) (pp.559-582). New York, NY: Routledge.

Sleeter, C. E. & Grant, A. A. (2007).Making choices for multicultural education: Five approaches to race, class and gender. New York, NY: Wiley.

Souto-Manning, M. (2010).Freire, teaching, and learning: Culture circles across contexts. New York: Peter Lang.

Spring, J. (1994). Deculturalization and the struggle for equality: A brief history of the education of dominated cultures in the United States. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Tatum, B. (2003). Why are all the Black kids sitting together in the cafeteria? New York, NY: Basic Books.

West, C.  (1999). The new cultural politics of difference.  In C. West (Ed.), The Cornel West reader (pp. 119-140).  NY: Civitas.

White, E. (2012). Whiteness and teacher education. New York, NY: Routledge.

Woodson, C. G. (1996). The miseducation of the negro. Grand Rapids, MI: Candace Press. (Original work published in 1933)

Yosso, T .J. (2005). Critical race counter-stories along the Chicana/Chicano educational pipeline. New York, NY: Routledge.

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