Unit 8b specificities global Issues, Post World War II (1945) to the Present



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UNIT 8B SPECIFICITIES

Global Issues, Post World War II (1945) to the Present
CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 1914 TO THE PRESENT

  • Communist Revolutions and impact on the Cold War

    • U.S. helps defeat a Communist rebellion in Greece (1946-48) and gives aid to Turkey as part of the Truman Doctrine

    • Mao Zedong’s Red Army overthrows Nationalists in China (1949)

      • Leads to Korean Conflict that lasts from 1950 to 1953

      • Also supports North Vietnam against South Vietnam and the U.S.

    • Fidel Castro overthrows the Batista government in Cuba (1958 to 1959)

      • Gains Soviet support as U.S. places a trade embargo on Cuba

      • Anti-Castro exiles supported by the US fail to overthrow the Cuban government in the failed Bay of Pigs invasion (1961)

      • Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) almost leads to nuclear war between the U.S. and USSR. 

        • U.S.S.R. removes missiles in Cuba in exchange for U.S. promise not to invade that island

        • Castro remains dependent on the USSR on the collapse of the U.S.S.R. in 1991.

    • Nicaragua (1979)

      • Communist Sandinistas (Marxist revolutionary group) led by Daniel Ortega overthrow the Anastacio Somoza dictatorship

      • Communist Sandinistas also help  rebels in a civil war in El Salvador

        • U.S. supports Nicaraguan anti-Communist rebels known as the Contras in Nicaragua and El Salvador

        • Iran-Contra scandal under Reagan administration –  funds from the sale of military weapons to Iran in exchange for the release of the U.S. hostages in Iran were diverted illegaly to the Contra Movement. It is important to note that under the Boland Amendment, the U.S. Congress forbade funding to the Contra Movement. Because of the tensions and possible spread of Communism in Latin America the Reagan administration committed illegal acts primarily in violation of the Boland Amendment.

  • After War II, European colonies in Africa and Asia gain independence from colonial powers

  • In many cases, violence and/or corruption emerge in newly independent countries due to a lack of stable democracies or ethnic/religious conflicts

  • Indian independence in 1947 results in the partition between Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan

    • Today, India is the world’s largest democracy

  • Israeli independence in 1948 leads to the ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict that continues to threaten stability in that region

  • Independence movements in Southeast Asia lead to both conflict (Vietnam) and rise of new economic powers (Singapore)

  • Numerous African nations become independent between 1957 and 1975

    • In many cases (Nigeria, Congo, Rwanda), civil war due to corrupt governments and/or ethnic conflicts result

    • Many of these independent countries are in the process of building political and economic stability

  • Globalization

    • New systems of trade, transportation, and communication have brought larger numbers of people into contact with each other

      • Advances in technology after World War II have resulted in increased global interaction and improved quality of life

      • Rapid economic developments have linked the economies of many world nations so that the actions of one nation affect others

      • Since World War II, nations have used collective security (United Nations, NATO) to solve problems and tie security within and between nations

      • As technological innovations like television and the mass media reach larger numbers of people, cultures often change and blend many influences

CAUSES OF THE FEBRUARY (MARCH) AND OCTOBER REVOLUTIONS OF 1917 IN RUSSIA, THEIR EFFECTS ON THE OUTCOME OF WORLD WAR I, AND THE BOLSHEVIK ESTABLISHMENT OF THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS

  • Bolsheviks establish U.S.S.R.

  • Bolshevik Party is renamed the Communist Party

  • Most influential leaders:

    • Lenin (1922-1924)

    • Stalin (1941-1953)

    • Gorbachev (1985-1991)

    • Yeltsin (1991-1999)

HOW THE END OF WORLD WAR II LED TO THE COLD WAR

  • Yalta Conference (1945)

    • Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin address dealing with interim governments at the end of the war in Europe

    • Stalin’s aims differ from the other Allied powers in that he wanted a buffer in Eastern Europe against invasion from the West

    • Eastern European nations would have communist-friendly governments

    • Soviet satellite nations with Communist governments installed in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania

    • Germany divided into two sections with East Germany under Communist control

    • Churchill:  “an iron curtain has descended across the continent.”

    • Stalin – communism and capitalism cannot exist in the same world

  • Containment

    • New U.S. President Harry Truman adopts foreign policy of containment that block Communism and prevents its spread

    • Truman Doctrine (1947):  U.S. aid to Turkey and Greece to prevent spread of Communism to these two countries

    • Marshall Plan (1947) – aid to Western Europe for economic recovery and prevention of spread of Communism to this region; spurred by Soviet takeover of Czechoslovakia

    • Berlin Airlift (1948) – After Allied withdrawal from Germany, Soviets close off Berlin to the West; Allies drop food and medicine through an airlift that leads to the removal of the Soviet blockade of this city

FACTORS LEADING TO COMMUNISM IN CHINA AND HOW IT DIFFERED FROM SOVIET COMMUNISM

  • Extreme devastation of Chinese cities and economy by Japanese invasion during World War II

  • Resumption of civil war between Mao Zedong’s Communist Red Army and Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) Nationalist forces at the end of World War II

  • Soviet Union supports Red Army and United States supports the Nationalist Army

  • Mao defeats Nationalists in 1949 and establishes a Communist government on the mainland while the Nationalists retreat to Taiwan; Communists take over Tibet in 1950

  • Differences from Soviet communism:

    • Mao’s policies focused mainly on agrarian workers and did not place the same emphasis on industrialism as Soviet communism did

    • Great Leap Forward (1958-1961):  rural peasants placed in large collective farms called communes where production was controlled by the state; unsuccessful as crops failed and poor planning and inefficient industry hampered growth

MAJOR EVENTS OF THE COLD WAR

  • Soviet satellites in Eastern Europe lead to the Iron Curtain (1945 - 1948)

  • Truman Doctrine (1947) – U.S. aid to Turkey and Greece to prevent spread of Communism (containment)

  • Marshall Plan  (1948) – U.S. aid to Western Europe for war recovery and prevention of spread of Communism

  • Soviet takeover of Czechoslovakia (1948)

  • Berlin Airlift (1948) – aid by air to Soviet-blockaded Berlin

  • Communist takeover of mainland China by Mao Zedong (1949)

  • Creation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (1949) between Western European countries and the United States as a defensive military alliance

  • Korean War (1950-53) that leaves a divided Korean peninsula – North Korea (Communist) and South Korea (democracy)

  • Creation of Warsaw Pact (1955) between U.S.S.R. and Eastern European satellites as a military alliance

  • Development and testing of hydrogen bomb by U.S.  (1952) followed by Soviet H-Bomb (1953)

  • Vietnam War (1953-75) that results in Communist-backed North Vietnam overtaking U.S.-backed South Vietnam

  • Launching of Sputnik satellite by Soviet Union (1957)

  • Cuban revolution led by Fidel Castro that leads to Communist takeover of that country (1959-60)

  • U-2 spy plane manned by Francis Gary Powers shot down by Soviet Union (1960)

  • Berlin Wall divides the city into Communist East Berlin and free West Berlin (1961)

  • Cuban Missile Crisis between U.S. and U.S.S.R. that almost leads to nuclear war (1962)

  • Richard Nixon adopts policy of détente towards U.S.S.R. that lessens Cold War tensions

  • Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) (1972) lead to SALT I Treaty that lessens numbers of ICBMs between the U.S. and U.S.S.R.

 

ROLES OF MODERN WORLD LEADERS IN THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM IN EASTERN EUROPE AND THE SOVIET UNION



  • Ronald Reagan (1911-2004)

    • U.S. President who described Soviet Union as “evil empire”

    • Negotiated with Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev in the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty that eliminated nuclear and conventional ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with intermediate ranges

    • Berlin Wall Speech to Gorbachev to tear down the wall

  • Mikhail Gorbachev (1931- )  Soviet Secretary General

    • Glasnost – openness that led to greater discussion of issues by the Soviet public including new ideas for economic reform and economic problems like the long lines to buy limited supplies of food and other products

    • Perestroika – economic restructuring where local managers gain greater authority over their farms and factories and allow for opening of small private businesses

    • Democratization process that allowed more political freedom for voters, who could choose candidates supporting economic reform

  • Lech Walesa (1943 - )

    • Polish dockworker who led strike in Gdansk in order to get Polish government to recognize the Solidarity union, the first independent free-trade union in the Soviet bloc

    • After martial law was imposed and Solidarity outlawed, he established the Round Table Agreements where the Polish government to parliamentary elections and a Solidarity-led government

    • Elected president of Poland in 1990 after the fall of communism in that nation

  • Pope John Paul II (1920-2005)

  • Polish archbishop who, after his election as pope, was instrumental in ending communism in Poland and other parts of Eastern Europe by giving spiritual inspiration to rise against communist leaders

RISE OF INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS IN AFRICA, MIDDLE EAST, AND SOUTH ASIA AND REASONS FOR ONGOING CONFLICTS

  • Africa

    • In 1900, only Liberia and Ethiopia were independent African nations

    • South Africa (1910)

    • Ghana (Gold Coast) - First sub-Saharan colony to become independent (from Great Britain) after WWII  (1957)

      • Power remained unstable until a democratic government was elected in 2000

      • Kenya (1963)

        • Jomo Kenyatta – leader of independence movement  from Britain and first president

        • Mau Mau uprising between Kenyans and British before independence

        • Corruption in government and ethnic conflicts remain in Kenya

        • Congo (1960)

          • Independence from Belgium (1960) leads to civil war between different factions

          • Coups and civil war continue; numerous issues with refugees both from other nations and within the nation

          • Angola (1975)

            • Independence from Portugal in 1975

            • Civil war between communist-backed and pro-democracy forces continues until resolution in the 2000s

            • Civil war leads to ongoing problems associated with detonations of land mines

  • Middle East

    • Israel and Palestine

      • Balfour Declaration of 1917 calls for partition of Palestine that includes an independent Jewish state

      • Israel achieves independence in 1948 with David Ben Gurion as the first prime minister

      • Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) began armed struggle with Israel over control of the Gaza Strip and West Bank; Led by Yasser Arafat

      • Arab-Israeli conflict continues in the Middle East

      • Syria and Lebanon gained independence from France (mid 1940s)

      • Algeria gained independence from France (1950s)

      • Egypt gained independence from Great Britain (1950s) and Suez Canal now under Egyptian control

      • Iran (post WWII had been occupied by Great Britain and the Soviet Union and control of Iranian oil). Iran gained independence in the 1950s

  • South Asia

    • India and Pakistan

      • Mohandas Gandhi begins non-violent independence movement from Great Britain that leads to independence in 1947

      • Conflicts between Hindus and Muslims lead to the partition of India and Pakistan

      • India:  Jawaharlal Nehru – first prime minister

      • Pakistan – Muhammad Ali Jinnah –governor-general

      • Civil war, coups and political assassinations( General Zia, Benazir Bhutto) in Pakistan through the 2000s including the current instability resulting from fundamentalist Islamic movements

      • India dominated by the Nehru family for most of the last half of the 20th century and face the assassinations of Indira Gandhi and her son Rajiv

      • Continued tensions between India and Pakistan over the region of Kashmir

      • Sri Lanka (Ceylon)

        • Independence from Great Britain in 1948

        • Conflict between the Buddhist majority and the Tamils, a Hindu group, lead to civil war from the 1980s to 2009 with a defeat of the Tamil Tigers

HOW ARAB REJECTION OF ISRAEL HAS LED TO ONGOING CONFLICT

  • Balfour Declaration of 1917 calls for partition of Palestine that includes an independent Jewish state

  • Israel achieves independence in 1948 with David Ben Gurion as the first prime minister

  • Six Arab states invade Israel the day after independence but Israel is victorious

  • Series of wars with Arab states, including major conflicts in 1956, 1967, and 1973

  • Hostilities with Egypt end with the Camp David Accords of 1979 and includes the return of the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt

  • Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) began armed struggle with Israel over control of the Gaza Strip and West Bank; Led by Yasser Arafat

  • Palestinian intifadas continue over these regions and for control of Jerusalem

  • Oslo Peace Agreement in 1993 lead to Palestinian self-rule in the Gaza Strip and West Bank

  • Arab-Israeli conflict continues in the Middle East

DEVELOPMENT AND IMPACT OF RADICAL ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM ON EVENTS IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY

  • Iran

    • Ayatollah Khomeini and fundamentalist Muslims overthrow the Shah and establish an Islamic state

    • 60 Americans held hostage in the U.S. embassy in Tehran for 444 days

  • Palestinian Terrorism

    • Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) began armed struggle with Israel over control of the Gaza Strip and West Bank; Led by Yasser Arafat

    • Palestinian intifadas continue over these regions and for control of Jerusalem

    • Hamas begins terrorism of Israel through a series of bombings that begin with the 1987 Intifada; goal is to eliminate Israel

  • Hezbollah

    • Shi’a Islamic fundamentalist group in Lebanon whose acts of terrorism began after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982; its goal is the elimination of Israel

    • Responsible for the 198e U.S. barracks bombing in Lebanon

    • Supported by Syria and Iran

  • Al-Qaeda

    • Pan-Islamic terrorist group led by Osama bin Laden

    • Goal is to defend Islam against all non-Islamic religions and influences

    • Responsible for the 1993 Trade Towers bombing and the 9/11 destruction of the World Trade Center

  • Taliban

    • Fundamentalist group that controlled Afghanistan from 1996 to 2001

    • Revived as an insurgent group in the Pashtun region of Pakistan and Afghanistan

    • Led by Mullah Mohammed Omar

U.S. RESPONSE TO TERRORISM SINCE SEPTEMBER 11, 2001

  • The War on Terror’s Four Key Principles (From the Office of the Coordinator of Counterterrorism)

    • Make no concessions to terrorists and strike no deals.

    • Bring terrorists to justice for their crimes

    • Isolate and apply pressure on states that sponsor terrorism to force them to change their behavior.

    • Bolster the counterterrorist capabilities of those countries that work with the United States and require assistance.

    • USA Patriot Act in 2001

      • Reduced restrictions on law enforcement agencies' ability to search telephone, e-mail communications, medical, financial, and other records

      • Eased restrictions on foreign intelligence gathering within the United States

      • Expanded the Secretary of the Treasury’s authority to regulate financial transactions, particularly those involving foreign individuals and entities

      • Broadened the discretion of law enforcement and immigration authorities in detaining and deporting immigrants suspected of terrorism-related acts

      • National Security Agency initiates a secret operation to eavesdrop on telephone and e-mail communications between U.S. citizens and people overseas without a warrant

      • Joint Congressional Resolution 107-40 authorizing the use of military force "to deter and prevent acts of international terrorism against the United States."

      • Stricter aviation security under the responsibility of the federal government

      • Creation of the Department of Homeland Security in 2002

      • Operation Iraqi Freedom (2003-2010)

        • Iraqi President Saddam Hussein captured and executed in 2007

        • Afghanistan – Operation Enduring Freedom

          • Taliban and al-Qaeda targets bombed after 9/11

          • Taliban overthrown from power in 2001

          • U.S. troops have been in Afghanistan since 2001

PLACES, REGIONS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO MAJOR ERAS AND TURNING POINTS

  • Cold War Era:  United States, Washington, D.C., Soviet Union, Moscow, Potsdam, Iron Curtain, Soviet satellite nations, Warsaw, Berlin, China, North Korea, South Korea, North Vietnam, South Vietnam, Hanoi, Saigon, Cuba, Nicaragua, Iran, Afghanistan

  • Post-War Independence – India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Philippines, Indonesia, Burma, Malaysia, Singapore, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, The Congo, Algeria, Angola, Mozambique

  • The Middle East in the 20th Century:  Israel, Palestine, Jerusalem, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, West Bank, Saudi Arabia, Iraq

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF 20th CENTURY GLOBALIZATION

  • Economic Impact

    • Development of mass communication and information industries including satellites, computers, the Internet that allow people to transmit information and business transactions quickly and cheaply

    • Increase of goods and services led to a shift in manufacturing jobs from developed to undeveloped nations – outsourcing

    • Importation and adaptation of western products and rapid industrialization, especially in electronics, resulted in emergence of Japan and the Four Tigers of Asia (South Korea, Singapore, and Hong Kong) as global economic powers

    • Development of multinational companies that operate in different countries, i.e., Ford, Nestlē, Mazda, Honda

    • Expansion of free trade to eliminate trade barriers between nations, i.e., GATT, European Union, NAFTA

  • Social

    • Spread of popular culture through television, movies, and other forms of mass media

    • Broadcast of international sporting events lead to popularity in other parts of the world, i.e. growth of soccer in the United States

    • Spread of Western languages to Africa, Asia, and the Americas through colonization and imperialism

    • Use of English as the primary international language, i.e. the Internet, international conferences

REASONS FOR COLLAPSE OF COMMUNIST CENTERED ECONOMIES WHEN COMPETING WITH FREE-MARKET ECONOMIES IN THE LATE 20th CENTURY

  • Inefficient central planning system where party officials told farm and factory managers how much to produce, what wages to pay, and what prices to charge that led to little motive for efficiency

  • Gorbachev’s reforms in the Soviet Union

    • Glasnost – openness that led to greater discussion of issues by the Soviet public including new ideas for economic reform and economic problems like the long lines to buy limited supplies of food and other products

    • Perestroika – economic restructuring where local managers gain greater authority over their farms and factories and allow for opening of small private businesses

    • Democratization process that allowed more political freedom for voters, who could choose candidates supporting economic reform

  • Solidarity legalized as a workers’ union in Poland

  • Private enterprise and a small stock market established in Hungary

  • Yeltsin implements “shock therapy” in Russia’s economy that eliminated government intervention in the economy, reduced trade barriers, removed price controls, and eliminated subsidies to state-run industries

  • Shock therapy also applied to economies in Poland and Czechoslovakia

SIGNIFICANCE OF LEAGUE OF NATIONS AND UNITED NATIONS

  • United Nations

    • UN Charter (1945) – the 50 original members promise to protect each other against aggression and to advance human rights

    • General Assembly where each member country has one vote

    • Power rests with the 11 member Security Council

      • Five permanent members – U.S. Great Britain, France, China, and Russia with veto power

      • Secretary-General heads the United Nations

      • Declaration of Human Rights that addresses the mission of humanitarian assistance

      • Peacekeeping forces sent to troubled areas of the world

HOW PEOPLE CAN SUPPORT OR CHANGE THEIR GOVERNMENT

  • Support

    • Voting

    • Registering others to vote

    • Paying taxes

    • Recruitment in the military

  • Change

    • Revolution – United States, France, Glorious Revolution in England, Spanish colonies in Latin America, Russia

    • Non-violent protests – Gandhi in India, Mandela in South Africa, Martin Luther King, Jr. in US

    • Secession – Confederate States of America

    • Military coup d’états:  Argentina, Nigeria

    • Peaceful transitions through voting:  U.S. when political parties shift powers, Mandela in South Africa

    • War – Vietnam

    • Religious influences – John Paul II in Poland, Khomeini in Iran Dissolution of former nations:  Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia

POLITICALLY MOTIVATED MASS MURDER

  • Cambodia (1975-1979) – Pol Pot’s Killing Fields in Cambodia, where he sought to return his country to its agrarian roots by forcing people out of the cities and executing the intellectuals and professionals.  Resulted in over 2 million deaths.

  • China (1937-1938) – “Rape of Nanking” occurs when Japanese Imperial soldiers murder 300,000 civilians and soldiers out of the 600,000 in that city.

  • Latin America – Various countries such as Chile, Argentina, and El Salvador in the 1970s and 1980s as a result of military coups and civil wars.

  • Soviet Union

    • Stalin’s Forced Famine of the Ukraine (1932-1933) was Stalin’s response to quell an independence movement and resulted in over 7 million deaths when Stalin issued mandatory quotas that shipped foodstuffs from this region until no food was left.

    • Stalin’s Great Purge (1934-1939): Removal of the old leaders of the Communist movement and the many high ranking military officers to ensure Stalin’s complete control

    • Armenia (1915-1918) – 1,500,000 Armenians die through forced marches and massacres that result when Turkey expels them from their native homeland in that country

EXAMPLES OF GENOCIDE

  • The Holocaust (6 million deaths)

    • Deterioration of conditions for Jews in Germany in the 1930s and 1940s, including the Nuremberg Laws (1935), the establishment of ghettos and concentration camps, and the program of genocide

    • Short-term and long-term effects of the Holocaust on the Jewish people and how this actually led to the re-establishment of the Jewish nation. 

  • The Balkans – Ethnic cleansing of communities in Bosnia by Serbian troops; Srebinica massacre (1995) involves the murder of over 8000 Bosnian Muslim (Bosniak) males in this community

  • Rwanda – Mass murders by the majority Hutu population of over 800,000 minority Tutsi and pro-Tutsi Hutu supporters (1994)

  • Darfur –Eastern region of Sudan where Sudanese government-supported Arab militias known as the Janjaweed against native groups in this region have resulted in over 400,00 0 deaths and the displacement of 2.8 million civilians

INDIVIDUALS WHO LED RESISTANCE TO POLITICAL OPPRESSION

  • Nelson Mandela (1918- ) –anti-apartheid activist whose actions after his release from prison led to the establishment of a multi-ethnic South African government that he headed as president

  • Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948):  led Indians to independence from Great Britain through nonviolent resistance

  • Oscar Romero (1917-1980) – Roman Catholic archbishop of El Salvador who spoke out against poverty, social injustice, and torture in his country; assassinated by a death squad

  • Natan Sharansky (1948 -) – Soviet-born human rights activist who was part of the Moscow Helsinki group that monitored human rights activities in the USSR after the Helsinki Final Act of 1975; Founder of the Refusenik (Soviet Jews who were banned from emigrating from the USSR) movement; sentenced to a Siberian labor camp; eventually settled in Israel where he founded the Zionist forum to help new immigrants to Israel

  • Las Madres de la Plaza de Mayo – Association of Argentine mothers who assembled in the main square of Buenos Aires to protest the disappearance of their children during Argentina’s “Dirty War” between 1976-83; symbolized by white head scarves embroidered with their children’s names

  • Chinese student protestors in Tiananmen Square – April-June 1989 – several thousand students who organized in Beijing to protest Deng Xiaoping’s anti-democratic policies through demonstrations and hunger strikes; symbolized by the Goddess of Democracy and “Tank Man”; Deng responds with a declaration of martial law and a crackdown of 250,000 Chinese soldiers who fire into the crowd of demonstrators and results in the deaths of several hundred protestors.

ADVANCEMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRATIC IDEAS THROUGH AMERICAN IDEALS

  • Solidarity movement in Poland

  • Break-up of the Soviet Union

  • Fall of the Berlin Wall

  • End of apartheid in South Africa

  • Human rights advocacy in areas of conflict or ravaged by war, i.e. Marshall Plan, Darfur

 

INFLUENCES OF WOMEN IN WORLD HISTORY



  • Mother Teresa (1910-1997) –Humanitarian who established the Sisters of Charity in Calcutta, India, to assist the power.  Was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979.

  • Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) – Prime Minister of India who increased food production through the Green Revolution

  • Margaret Thatcher (1925 - ) – Prime Minister of Great Britain who revitalized that nation’s economy and defeated Argentina in the war over the Falkland Islands.

  • Golda Meir (1898-1978) – Prime Minister of Israel who led her nation through the 1973 Yom Kippur War with Egypt and Syria.

THE INFLUENCE OF ISLAM ON LAW AND GOVERNMENT IN THE MUSLIM WORLD

  • Islamic law – Shari’a;  regulates family life, moral conduct, and business matters

    • Religious matters are not separate from criminal or civil matters

    • Islamic judges (qadis) apply the law and imams interpret the law

    • Regulation of human behavior:  prayer 5 times daily, fasting, articles of faith, mandatory charity, hajj pilgrimage to Mecca

    • Dietary and clothing restrictions

    • Requirement of paying a tax (zakat) to help the poor

    • Interpretation of Shari’a varies between Sunni and Shi’a sects of Islam

EFFECTS OF NEW MILITARY TECHNOLOGY ON WORLD WAR I, WORLD WAR II, AND THE COLD WAR

  • Cold War

    • Hydrogen bomb – had 1000 times the power of an atomic bomb

    • Napalm – incendiary weapon used extensively in Korean and Vietnam conflicts

    • Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs):  long range guided missiles used to deliver nuclear warheads

    • Satellites – Improved communications and espionage

    • Rocketry – Promoted the exploration of space

ROLES OF VARIOUS FORMS OF TECHNOLOGY AND MEDICAL ADVANCEMENTS IN DEVELOPING THE MODERN GLOBAL ECONOMY AND SOCIETY

  • Telecommunications

    • Development of mass communication and information industries including satellites, computers, the Internet that allow people to transmit information and business transactions quickly and cheaply

      • Television broadcasts of news and popular shows to different areas of the world in short amounts of time spread culture

  • Computer

    • Smaller computers developed as a result of the space program where equipment had to be downsized for space capsules, (e.g., silicon chips replace vacuum tubes)

    • Variety of consumer products used computers and silicon chips as part of production – telephone, microwave ovens, automobiles

    • Computers and the Internet allow people to transmit information and business transactions quickly and cheaply

  • Transportation

    • Modern airplanes, (e.g., Concorde, make world travel faster and easier)

    • Bullet trains

    • Supertankers accelerate ocean trade

    • Interstate highways in the United States

  • Medical Advancements:

    • Penicillin

    • Laser and ultrasound improves surgery

    • Medical imaging – CAT scans and MRIs provide three-dimensional images of regions of the body

    • Genetic engineering and cloning that introduces new genes into an organism





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