Unit 8a global Conflicts 1914 to wwii



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UNIT 8A

Global Conflicts 1914 to WWII
Global economic interdependence can lead to positive and negative effects.
—    What were the major causes of World War I?
—    What were the major effects of World War I?

Ideas influence political changes.



—    What were the causes and effects of the Russian Revolution?

World wars have serious repercussions.
—    What were the causes and effects of World War II?
—    What are the historic origins and characteristics of fascism?
—    What World War II outcomes contributed to the Cold War?


FOCUS VOCABULARY

  • Alliance – an association to further common interests of the members and in this context, nations

  • Militarism – a policy of aggressive military preparedness

  • Nationalism – loyalty and devotion to a nation with a sense of national consciousness exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations or supranational groups

  • Interdependence – mutual dependence, as in between two or more countries

  • Communism – a system in which goods are owned in common and are available to all as needed

  • Fascism – a political philosophy, movement, or regime that exalts nation and often race above the individual and that stands for a centralized autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader that uses forcible suppression of opposition

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 1914 TO THE PRESENT

  • World War I

    • Causes

      • Imperialism:  European nations compete for colonies in Africa and Asia.  France and Germany nearly go to war over Morocco in 1905 and 1911.  Distrust grows among rivals.

        • Nationalism – Competition for industrial dominance develops between Great Britain and Germany; territorial disputes over Alsace-Lorraine after the Franco-Prussian War promote rivalry between France and Germany; Austria-Hungary and Russia compete for dominance of the Balkan Peninsula, where independence movements of various Slavic people develop.

        • Militarism –  Increasing nationalism led to a European arms race;

        • Alliance System – Alliances between the great powers of Europe were complicated and shifted constantly during the last half of the 19th century.  Two major alliances at the outbreak of World War I in 1914 – Triple Entente:  Great Britain, France, and Russia vs. Triple Alliance:  Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy

    • Political impact

      • Sole responsibility of starting World War I placed on Germany

      • Loss of German territory in Europe – return of Alsace-Lorraine to France; extension of French border to Rhine River

      • German colonies in Africa and the Pacific were declared mandates administered by the League of Nations

      • Creation of the League of Nations including the five allied powers and 32 neutral nations; Germany and Russia excluded

      • Limits on the size of German army

      • Germany forbidden to have an air force or to purchase/build submarines

    • Economic impact

      • Germany prohibited from importing or manufacturing war materials and weapons

      • Germany forced to pay over $30 billion in war reparations over 30 years

      • Severe inflation and economic disaster affect Germany after the war since large amounts of paper money printed to pay off war debts

    • Social Impact

      • Total war – belligerents use all available resources against their enemies

        • Mobilization of large numbers of soldiers that results in their removal from production jobs

        • Food rationing

        • Use of propaganda to divert attention to the war effort

        • Changes in government policy to address wartime economics

      • Trench warfare:  Western Front in France; little gains for each side resulting in high casualties for both sides

        • Modern military technology – airplanes, poison gas, machine guns, armored tanks, larger artillery

        • High casualty rates – 8.5 million soldiers killed, 21 million soldiers wounded; countless civilian deaths due to starvation, disease, and slaughter

  • World War II – Causes and Effects

    • German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, leads to Great Britain and France’s declarations of war on Germany; the invasion is also the first use of the German blitzkrieg (“lightning war”) that incorporates fast-moving airplanes and tanks.

    • German invasion of the Soviet Union (1941-1943) also known as Operation Barbarossa, results in the unsuccessful German sieges of Leningrad and Moscow.  The harsh Russian winter halts further invasion in Russia.  Germans besiege Stalingrad in 1942 and are forced to surrender the following year.  The Soviet army then begins to push westward into Europe.

    • The Holocaust:  Genocide of over 6 million Jews and other groups throughout Europe considered by Germany to be inferior.  Known as “The Final Solution” and resulted in the extermination of these people in death camps.

    • Japanese imperialism:  Plans for a Pacific empire that included China that would allow Japan to solve its economic problems through the provision of raw materials and markets for its goods as well as providing more room for its growing population. Manchuria and China invaded in the 1930s.  The Philippines, Malaya, Singapore, the Dutch East Indies, and Burma are all occupied after the start of World War II.

    • Attack on Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941) by Japan leads the United States to declare war on Japan.  This results in a declaration of war on the United States by Germany and Italy.

    • Normandy landings (June 6, 1944 – “D-Day”) by Allied forces on the coast of France lead to a German retreat. As a result, France and the Low Countries are liberated and Allied troops push eastward into Germany that leads to German surrender in 1945.

    • Dropping of atomic bombs (August 6 and 9, 1945) by U.S. on Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki leads to Japan’s surrender.

CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I

  • Imperialism – European nations compete for colonies in Africa and Asia.  France and Germany nearly go to war over Morocco in 1905 and 1911.  Distrust grows among rivals.

  • Nationalism – Competition for industrial dominance develops between Great Britain and Germany; territorial disputes over Alsace-Lorraine after the Franco-Prussian War promote rivalry between France and Germany; Austria-Hungary and Russia compete for dominance of the Balkan Peninsula, where independence movements of various Slavic people develop.

  • Militarism – Increasing nationalism led to a European arms race;

  • Alliance System – Alliances between the great powers of Europe were complicated and shifted constantly during the last half of the 19th century.  Two major alliances at the outbreak of World War I in 1914:

  • Triple Entente – Great Britain, France, and Russia

  • Triple Alliance (Central Powers) – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire (and Bulgaria)

MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF WORLD WAR I

  • Total war – belligerents use all available resources against their enemies

    • Mobilization of large numbers of soldiers that results in their removal from production jobs

    • Food rationing

    • Use of propaganda to divert attention to the war effort

    • Changes in government policy to address wartime economics

  • Trench warfare – Western Front in France; little gains for each side resulting in high casualties for both sides

  • Modern military technology:  airplanes, poison gas, machine guns, armored tanks, larger artillery

  • High casualty rates:  8.5 million soldiers killed, 21 million soldiers wounded; countless civilian deaths due to starvation, disease, and slaughter

POLITICAL IMPACT OF FOURTEEN POINTS AND THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES

  • Political Impact of Fourteen Points (Woodrow Wilson)

    • End to secret treaties

    • Free trade

    • Freedom of the seas

    • Reduced national armies and navies

    • Adjustment of colonial claims

    • Self-determination for new nations in Europe:  Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Austria, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Turkey

    • General association of nations that would protect each other

  • Treaty of Versailles   (“Peace built on quicksand”)

    • Political impact

      • Sole responsibility of starting World War I placed on Germany

        • Loss of German territory in Europe – return of Alsace-Lorraine to France; extension of French border to Rhine River

        • German colonies in Africa and the Pacific were declared mandates administered by the League of Nations

        • Creation of the League of Nations including the five allied powers and 32 neutral nations; Germany and Russia excluded

        • Limits on the size of German army

        • Germany forbidden to have an air force or to purchase/build submarines

        • Britain and France divide the Ottoman Empire/Arab lands (Sykes Picot Agreement)

    • Economic impact

      • Germany prohibited from importing or manufacturing war materials and weapons

      • Article 231 (“War Guilt Clause”):  Germany forced to pay over $30 billion in war reparations over 30 years

      • Severe inflation and economic disaster affect Germany after the war since large amounts of paper money printed to pay off war debts

      • United States implements the Dawes Plan in 1924 to loan $200 million to strengthen the German economy and implement a more realistic schedule of reparations

      • United States rejects Treaty of Versailles and signs a separate peace with Germany.

CAUSES OF THE FEBRUARY (MARCH) AND OCTOBER REVOLUTIONS OF 1917 IN RUSSIA, THEIR EFFECTS ON THE OUTCOME OF WORLD WAR I, AND THE BOLSHEVIK ESTABLISHMENT OF THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS

  • Causes of the 1917 Revolutions in Russia

    • Widespread discontent among all classes of Russian society

    • Agitation from revolutionaries

    • Weak leadership of Czar Nicholas II

    • Heavy Russian losses in World War I

    • Strikes and riots including the protest riot in March 1917 over food and fuel shortages that leads to the abdication of the czar

  • Effects on the outcome of World War I

    • Civil unrest due to war-related food and fuel shortages lead to Nicholas II’s abdication in March 1917

    • War-weariness in Russia – 5.5 million casualties by 1917 although the provisional government pledged continued participation on the Allies’ side

    • Germans arrange for Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin to return to Russia to stir unrest for the provisional government

    • When Lenin seizes power in November 1917, he offers Germany a truce

    • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) ends Russia’s participation in World War I and results in the losses of the Baltic States, Finland, and Poland that emerge as independent nations after the Treaty of Versailles is signed

    • War threat on the Eastern Front is eliminated for Germany, which moves its forces to the Western Front and mounts one last unsuccessful attempt to overrun France

  • Bolshevik Establishment of the USSR

    • Lenin topples the provisional government led by Alexander Kerensky in November 1917

    • All Russian farmland distributed to peasants

    • Workers’ groups known as soviets take control of factories

    • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with German ends Russian involvement in World War I

    • Civil war with White Army and its Western allies between 1918 and 1920 land the widespread famine that follows leads to over 15 million Russian deaths before the White Army is defeated

    • To revive the economy, Lenin launches the New Economic Policy (NEP) that allows a limited amount of capitalism for farmers and small businesses while major industries, banks, and communications are under state control

    • To prevent nationalism from spreading among Russia’s many ethnic groups, the country is organized into several smaller republics with a central government in Moscow.  Emergence of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922.

    • Bolshevik party renamed Communist party

    • Power struggle develops between Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky after Lenin’s death in 1924 with Stalin emerging as the new leader

INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CAUSES OF THE GLOBAL DEPRESSION

  • Political

    • Impact of World War I – United States emerged as a major creditor and financier of post-War restoration. Germany was burdened with massive war reparations. Britain and France needed to rebuild. US banks were more than willing to loan money. However, once US banks began failing ... the banks not only stopped making loans, they wanted their money back. This put pressure on European economies, which had not fully recovered from WWI, contributing to the global economic downturn.

    • Protectionism – Series of tariffs passed by the U.S. Congress between 1913 and 1930 to protect American business against European competition; Smoot-Hawley Tariff of 1930 led to 66% decline in global trade between 1930 and 1934.

  • Economic

    • Stock Market Crash of 1929 - $30 billion loss in four days

    • Bank failures resulting from farmers’ inability to pay back loans

    • Overproduction of business and farm goods in the United States

    • Uneven distribution of wealth in the United States

    • Lessened demand for consumer goods

INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE OF GOVERNMENTS TO THE GLOBAL DEPRESSION

  • United States

    • Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal:  Government spending would create jobs and start a recovery

      • Public works projects

      • Government agencies that gave financial help to businesses and farms

      • Welfare and relief programs including Social Security

      • Regulations to reform the stock market and banking

  • Great Britain

    • The National Government:  multi-party coalition led by Ramsay MacDonald, Stanley Baldwin, and Neville Chamberlain

      • High protective tariffs

      • Increased taxes

      • Regulation of currency

      • Lowered interest rates

  • France

    • The Popular Front (1936):  Coalition of moderates, Socialists, and Communists

      • Workers reforms including pay increases, 40 hour work week, paid holidays

      • Unemployment remains high as price increases offset wage increases

    • Scandinavian countries

      • Cooperative community action including public works projects

      • Pensions for the elderly

      • Increased unemployment insurance and housing subsidies

      • All citizens taxed to pay for benefits

      • All of these models resulted in keeping democratic governments intact.

EMERGENCE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF TOTALITARIANISM

  • Emergence

    • Joseph Stalin – Soviet Union (1924)

    • Benito Mussolini – Italy (1922)

    • Adolf Hitler – Germany (1933)

    • Mao Zedong – China (1949)

    • Kim Il Jung – North Korea (1948)

  • Characteristics

    • Dictatorship and absolute rule

    • Dynamic leader who unites people towards a common goal and expects unconditional loyalty and uncritical support

    • Ideology glorifies the aims of the state and justifies government actions

    • State control over all aspects of society including business, religion, family life, education, and the arts

    • State control over the individual including denial of all civil liberties

    • Dependence on mass technology including mass communication to spread propaganda and advanced military weapons

    • Organized violence that uses force such as police terror (Stalin’s Great Purge) and targeting of groups such as national minorities (Jews in Germany) and political opponents

ROLES OF VARIOUS WORLD LEADERS PRIOR TO AND DURING WORLD WAR II

  • Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) – Fascist dictator of Italy during World War II

  • Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) – Nazi dictator of Germany during World War II

  • Hideki Tojo (1884-1948) – Prime Minister of Japan

  • Joseph Stalin (1878-1953) – Communist dictator of the Soviet Union

  • Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945) – President of the United States

  • Winston Churchill (1874-1964) – Prime Minister of the United States 

  • Hitler, Mussolini, Tojo – Leaders of the Axis Powers

  • Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin – Leaders of the Allied Powers; Yalta Conference in 1945 to determine outcome of Europe after World War II

MAJOR CAUSES AND EVENTS OF WORLD WAR II

  • German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, leads to Great Britain and France’s declarations of war on Germany; the invasion is also the first use of the German blitzkrieg (“lightning war”) that incorporates fast-moving airplanes and tanks.

  • German invasion of the Soviet Union (1941-1943) also known as Operation Barbarossa, results in the unsuccessful German sieges of Leningrad and Moscow.  The harsh Russian winter halts further invasion in Russia. Germans besiege Stalingrad in 1942 and are forced to surrender the following year.  The Soviet army then begins to push westward into Europe.

  • The Holocaust – Genocide of over 6 million Jews and other groups throughout Europe considered by Germany to be inferior.  Known as “The Final Solution” and resulted in the extermination of these people in death camps.

  • Japanese imperialism – Plans for a Pacific empire that included China that would allow Japan to solve its economic problems through the provision of raw materials and markets for its goods as well as providing more room for its growing population. Manchuria and China invaded in the 1930s.  The Philippines, Malaya, Singapore, the Dutch East Indies, and Burma are all occupied after the start of World War II.

  • Attack on Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941) by Japan leads the United States to declare war on Japan.  This results in a declaration of war on the United States by Germany and Italy.

  • Normandy landings (June 6, 1944 – “D-Day”) by Allied forces on the coast of France lead to a German retreat.  As a result, France and the Low Countries are liberated and Allied troops push eastward into Germany that leads to German surrender in 1945.

  • Dropping of atomic bombs (August 6 and 9, 1945) by U.S. on Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki leads to Japan’s surrender.

HOW THE END OF WORLD WAR II LED TO THE COLD WAR

  • Yalta Conference (1945)

    • F.D. Roosevelt, W. Churchill, and J. Stalin address dealing with interim governments at the end of the war in Europe

    • Stalin’s aims differ from the other Allied powers in that he wanted a buffer in Eastern Europe against invasion from the West

    • Eastern European nations would have communist-friendly governments

    • Soviet satellite nations with communist governments installed in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania

    • Germany divided into two sections with East Germany under communist control

    • Churchill – “….an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.”

    • Stalin – communism and capitalism cannot exist in the same world

  • Containment

    • New U.S. President Harry Truman adopts foreign policy of containment that blocks communism and prevents its spread

    • Truman Doctrine (1947) – U.S. aid to Turkey and Greece to prevent spread of Communism to these two countries

    • Marshall Plan (1947) – aid to Western Europe for economic recovery and prevention of spread of Communism to this region; spurred by Soviet takeover of Czechoslovakia

    • Berlin Airlift (1948) – after Allied withdrawal from Germany, Soviets close off Berlin to the West; Allies drop food and medicine through an airlift that leads to the removal of the Soviet blockade of this city

PLACES, REGIONS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO MAJOR ERAS AND TURNING POINTS

  • World War I – Triple Alliance/Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria), Triple Entente (Great Britain, France, Russia), Sarajevo, Serbia, Balkan Peninsula, Belgium, Marne River, Western Front, Eastern Front, Gallipoli, Brest-Litovsk, Versailles, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria, Yugoslavia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania

  • Russian Revolution and The Stalin Era:  Russia, St. Petersburg, Petrograd, Leningrad, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Moscow, Siberia, Stalingrad

  • The World Between World Wars:  Weimer Republic, Manchuria, Nanking, Ethiopia, Spain, Third Reich, Rhineland, Sudetenland, Munich

  • World War II – Allied Powers (Great Britain, France, Russia, the United States), Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, Japan), Poland, Polish Corridor, Dunkirk, North Africa, Pearl Harbor, Pacific War Theater, Philippines, Midway, Guadalcanal, Auschwitz, Dachau, El Alamein, Stalingrad, Normandy, Battle of the Bulge, Berlin, Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Yalta, Nuremberg

ORIGINS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCISM

  • Origins

    • Italy – 1922 with rise of power of Benito Mussolini (“Il Duce”)

      • Italy disappointed in not getting large territorial gains in the 1919 Paris Peace Conference

      • Rising inflation and unemployment led to social unrest

      • Italian upper and middle class feared a communist revolution as in Russia and wanted a strong leader

      • Industrial leaders fear a workers’ revolt

      • Italian democratic government unable to resolve these issues

      • Mussolini and the Black Shirts march on Rome and demand King Victor Emmanuel III to put him in charge of the government

    • Fascism spreads to Germany (Hitler) and Spain (Franco) in the 1930s

  • Characteristics

    • No clearly defined theory or program

    • Sense of extreme nationalism

    • Strict obedience to national authoritarian leader

    • Belief that nations had to struggle through war – peaceful nations would be conquered

    • Specific uniforms and salutes

    • Mass rallies to spread propaganda

    • Existence of only the leader’s political party

    • No individual rights

    • The state was supreme

    • Focus on national instead of international movements

    • Society had a stratified class system where each level had a specific place and function

POLITICAL SYSTEMS

  • Totalitarianism:  government control over every aspect of public and private life; the citizen has to completely (totally) subject him or herself to the state authority (Stalin and the U.S.S.R.)

SIGNIFICANCE OF LEAGUE OF NATIONS

  • League of Nations

    • Based on Wilson’s Fourteen Points and the Treaty of Versailles

    • International peace-keeping organization

    • Consisted of 32 Allied and neutral nations

    • Germany and Russia excluded

    • Five Allied powers – U.S., Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan – were permanent members of the Executive Council

    • U.S. Senate refused to ratify Treaty of Versailles because of the League of Nations and preferred an isolationist policy

    • U.S. never joined the League of Nations

    • League of Nations protests Japan, Germany, and Italy’s invasions of non-belligerent countries in the 1930s but does not have the power or military troops to enforce its decisions

    • League dissolved in 1946 after the end of World War II

EXAMPLES OF GENOCIDE

  • The Holocaust (6 million deaths)

    • Deterioration of conditions for Jews in Germany in the 1930s and 1940s, including the Nuremberg Laws (1935), the establishment of ghettos and concentration camps, and the program of genocide

    • Short-term and long-term effects of the Holocaust on the Jewish people and how this actually led to the re-establishment of the Jewish nation.

EFFECTS OF NEW MILITARY TECHNOLOGY ON WORLD WAR I, WORLD WAR II, AND THE COLD WAR

  • World War I

    • Poison gas:  caused blinding, blistering, and death by choking

    • Machine guns:  improved during WWI; large numbers of casualties at one time made it difficult for forces to advance and created stalemates

    • Tanks:  armored vehicles that moved across wide areas but did not promote the fast-moving war that was planned

    • Airplanes:  photo reconnaissance, dropping of bombs, warfare in the air

    • Submarines (U-boats):  unrestricted warfare on naval ships

    • Flame throwers:  used to flush soldiers out of trenches

  • World War II

    • Jet fighters and bombers:  improved and increased bombing raids

    • Aircraft carriers:  Warships of deploying and recovering aircraft; acted as floating airbases

    • Amphibious vehicles:  Tanks, trucks, and landing crafts used when landing on beaches

    • Tanks:  Improved since World War I with strong firepower and armor

    • Ballistic missiles (V-1 flying bombs):  guided warheads

    • Helicopters

    • Radar: use of electromagnetic waves to detect objects like airplanes and ships that improves communication and espionage

    • Sonar:  use of sound propagation to detect underwater submarines

    • Atomic bomb:  Manhattan Project developed nuclear fission warheads dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that accelerated the end of World War II

    • Non-military technology:  synthetic rubber and penicillin

ROLES OF VARIOUS FORMS OF TECHNOLOGY AND MEDICAL ADVANCEMENTS IN DEVELOPING THE MODERN GLOBAL ECONOMY AND SOCIETY

  • Telecommunications

    • Split-second communication via radio (mobile radios)

    • Transportation

      • Airplanes

      • Trains (from coal to fuel)

      • Automobiles (roads)

  • Medical Advancements

  • Antibiotics

CONTRIBUTIONS OF SCIENTISTS AND INVENTORS

  • Albert Einstein (1879-1955) - one of the most well-known and visionary physicists in the history of science. Theory of relativity; Nobel Prize for Physics (1921)






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