Unit 8 Test- the Gilded Age Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best



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Unit 8 Test- The Gilded Age
Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. The late 19th century was called the _____ because under the surface of prosperity lurked troubling issues.

a.

Gilded Age

b.

New Age

c.

Golden Age

d.

Tarnished Age

e.

Populist Age


____ 2. Which of the following was outlawed by the Sherman Antitrust Act?



a.

monopolies

b.

stock dividends

c.

segregation

d.

anarchists

e.

political machines


____ 3. Which of the following were “push” factors for immigration?



a.

religious persecution and required military service

b.

farming and industry

c.

large cities and tenements

d.

readily available food and jobs

e.

hearing America was the “Land of Opportunity”


____ 4. Which of the following were “pull” factors for immigration between 1880 and 1920?



a.

farming industry

b.

religious freedom and jobs

c.

large cities and tenements

d.

mandatory military service

e.

genocide and famine

____ 5. Andrew Carnegie was the head of the



a.

railroad.

b.

steel industry.

c.

oil industry.

d.

meat packing industry.

e.

steamboat industry.


____ 6. On the East Coast, most European immigrants arrived through



a.

Ellis Island.

b.

Angel Island.

c.

Boston.

d.

Seattle.

e.

Philadelphia

____ 7. Which of the following would cause an immigrant to be sent back to his or her homeland?



a.

disease

b.

poverty

c.

religious beliefs

d.

lack of education

e.

little money


____ 8. The New Immigrants who came to the United States after 1880



a.

had experience with democratic governments.

b.

arrived primarily from Germany, Sweden, and Norway.

c.

were culturally different from previous immigrants.

d.

received a warm welcome from the Old Immigrants.

e.

represented nonwhite racial groups.


____ 9. When immigrants settled in the cities, which of the following did most experience?



a.

lush parks and play areas

b.

clean and safe streets

c.

life in crowded tenements

d.

well-paying jobs

e.

little discrimination

____ 10.

According to the graph, which was the first year in which more Americans lived in urban areas than in rural areas?

a.

1860

b.

1890

c.

1910

d.

1920

e.

1930

____ 11. New York's notoriously corrupt Boss Tweed was finally jailed under the pressure of



a.

New York Times exposés and the cartoons of Thomas Nast.

b.

federal income tax evasion charges.

c.

the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.

d.

New York City's ethics laws.

e.

testimony by Tweed's partners in crime.



Use the excerpt and your knowledge of social studies to answer questions 12

and 13.
“Tammany was beat in 1901 because the people were deceived into believing’ that it worked dishonest graft. They didn’t draw a distinction between dishonest and honest graft, but they saw that some Tammany men grew rich, and supposed they had been robbin’ the city treasury or levyin’ blackmail on disorderly houses, or workin’ in with the gamblers and lawbreakers. As a matter of policy, if nothing else, why should the Tammany leaders go into such dirty business, when there is so much honest graft lyin’ around when they are in power? Did you ever consider that? Now, in conclusion, I want to say that I don’t own a dishonest dollar. If my worst enemy was given the job of writin’ my epitaph when I’m gone, he couldn’t do more than write: “George W. Plunkitt. He Seen His Opportunities, and He Took ’Em.”

—George W. Plunkitt, 1905
____ 12. According to Plunkitt, why was Tammany “beat” in 1901?

a.

People believed that only obvious, dishonest graft occurred.

b.

Government robbery and blackmail were at an all-time high.

c.

Newspaper reporters wrote stories exposing the corrupt acts of government.

d.

Despite their corruption, Tammany officials went bankrupt.

e.

Thomas Nast’s cartoons made the public aware of Tammany Hall’s corrupt acts.


____ 13. What might have been an example of honest graft by Tammany officials?



a.

blackmail

b.

robbery

c.

patronage

d.

gambling

e.

tax evasion


____ 14. After the Civil War, one way business leaders tried to eliminate competition was by



a.

forming monopolies or trusts

b.

developing overseas markets

c.

increasing the prices of their products

d.

paying high wages to their workers

e.

providing health care to their workers


____ 15. Which of the following monopolistic techniques can best describe the following scenario? A business leader's company controls all aspects of an industry, from raw material to final product.



a.

Horizontal Integration

b.

Vertical Integration

c.

Trust Integration

d.

Diagonal Integration

e.

Four-corners Integration


____ 16. To form monopolies and trusts, smaller firms often



a.

took over large corporations.

b.

asked the federal government for less regulation.

c.

bought up all their shareholders’ stock.

d.

were bought out by large corporations.

e.

closed up shop and went out of business


____ 17. What were the “bread and butter issues” unions such as the American Federation of Labor and Knights of Labor fought for?



a.

to stop corrupt political organizations

b.

to introduce new inventions

c.

to help improve wages, working hours, and conditions

d.

to prosecute anarchists

e.

to stop monopolies


____ 18. John D. Rockefeller was the tycoon of the



a.

railroad.

b.

steel industry.

c.

oil industry.

d.

steamboat industry.

e.

meat packing industry.


____ 19. Social Darwinists believed that



a.

there should be eugenic biological breeding to produce a superior human race.

b.

life consists of competitive struggles in which only the strong survive.

c.

the American frontier stopped people from rebelling in the United States.

d.

society owed a basic standard of living to even its weakest members.

e.

fitness to survive and thrive could be proven through physical competition.


____ 20. Many wealthy American industralists of the late 19th century used the theory of Social Darwinism to



a.

support the labor union movement.

b.

justify monopolistic actions.

c.

promote the creation of labor unions.

d.

encourage charitable organizations to help the poor.

e.

promote legislation establishing a minimum wage.


____ 21. “. . . This, then, is held to be the duty of the man of Wealth: First, to set an example of modest,

unostentatious living, shunning display or extravagance; to provide moderately for the

legitimate wants of those dependent upon him; and after doing so to consider all surplus revenues which come to him simply as trust funds, which he is called upon to administer, and strictly bound as a matter of duty to administer in the manner which, in his judgment, is best calculated to produce the most beneficial results for the community— . . .”

Andrew Carnegie, “Wealth,” North American Review, June 1889
According to this passage, the responsibility of the wealthy is to

a.

invest in future industry to increase wealth.

b.

share their excess wealth with the community.

c.

maintain a lifestyle consistent with their wealth.

d.

influence government to assist all people.

e.

keep it all for themselves.

____ 22. Which of the following was not a problem workers faced in the early 20th century?



a.

Poor wages

b.

Few working hours

c.

Dangerous conditions

d.

No health insurance

e.

No job security


____ 23. Which factor most limited the growth of labor unions during the late 1800’s?



a.

Workers saw no need to fix their safe working conditions.

b.

Most factory workers were satisfied with their wages.

c.

The Federal Government declared that unions were illegal.

d.

Workers preferred to negotiate with factory owners as individuals rather than as members of a group.

e.

Most employers were very hostile toward workers’ efforts to organize.


____ 24. Which of the following was not a tactic used by unions to protect the workers



a.

Boycotts

b.

Strikes

c.

Continued work

d.

Peaceful negotiations


____ 25. Which term best describes United States government economic policy during the era of the rise of big business (1865-1900)?



a.

Communism

b.

Mercantilism

c.

Marxism

d.

Welfare-state capitalism

e.

Laissez-faire capitalism


____ 26. According to the theory of laissez faire, the economy functions best when the government



a.

subsidizes business so that it can compete worldwide.

b.

regulates businesses for the good of the majority.

c.

owns major industries.

d.

does not interfere in business.

e.

provides unemployment compensation to workers who can’t find jobs.


____ 27. One reason John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and J. P. Morgan were sometimes called robber barons was because they



a.

robbed from the rich to give to the poor.

b.

made unnecessarily risky investments.

c.

used ruthless business tactics against their workers and competitors.

d.

stole money from the federal government.

e.

allowed their workers to form labor unions.



____ 28. Which statement describes a result of the Industrial Revolution in the United States?



a.

Farm production decreased.

b.

Slavery in the South increased.

c.

The population of the cities decreased.

d.

Immigration to the United States decreased.

e.

Cities grew upward and outward.


____ 29. What is the main idea of the cartoon?





a.

Government policies have created a recession.

b.

Americans support the activities of trusts.

c.

Good government has saved the country from trusts.

d.

Trusts are a threat to the nation.

e.

The government is a threat to the sustainability of trusts.


____ 30. Andrew Carnegie and JD Rockefeller are sometimes referred to as “Captains of Industry” because



a.

they exploited their workers.

b.

they eliminated competition within their industries.

c.

they “gave back” by sharing their wealth with their communities.

d.

they encouraged labor unions to form within their companies.

e.

they created monopolies.

____ 31. America’s first billion dollar corporation was



a.

General Electric (GE)

b.

Standard Oil

c.

American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T)

d.

The Union Pacific Railroad

e.

United States Steel



Use the following graph to answer the question.

____ 32. In which decade did the number of women employed in manufacturing increase most?

a.

1860s- 1870s

b.

1870s- 1880s

c.

1880s-1890s

d.

1890s-1900

e.

None of the above


____ 33. What social problem did Upton Sinclair’s novel The Jungle describe?



a.

the struggles of black Americans

b.

the living and working conditions in Chicago’s stockyards

c.

the ruthless business methods of John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil

d.

the conflict between California farmers and the Southern Pacific Railroad

e.

the ruthless business methods of Andrew Carnegie and US Steel


____ 34. Many Progressives who followed Walter Rauschenbusch’s Social Gospel program believed that



a.

government should not regulate business

b.

Christianity should be the basis of social reform.

c.

laws shortening the workweek were unconstitutional.

d.

child labor encouraged discipline and a strong work ethic.

e.

None of the above


____ 35. Many Progressive reformers targeted city officials who built corrupt organizations called



a.

trusts

b.

commissions

c.

municipal services

d.

political machines

e.

philanthropists


____ 36. Which political party did Woodrow Wilson represent in the 1912 presidential election?



a.

the Socialist Party

b.

the Progressive Party

c.

the Republican Party

d.

the Congressional Government Party

e.

the Democratic Party



Use the information below to answer the following question.

____ 37. What fields did Progressives aim to reform?

a.

education

b.

workplace conditions

c.

government

d.

all of the above

e.

none of the above


Matching
Match the definitions with the letter of the correct term or person. You will not use all the terms.

a.

Angel Island

b.

unions

c.

tenement

d.

Gospel of Wealth

e.

Ellis Island

____ 38. formed to focus on workers’ issues such as wages and working hours.


____ 39. the location on the west coast at which most Asian immigrants entered the United States
____ 40. a rundown building divided into a number of apartments to house several families
Match the definitions with the letter of the correct term or person. You will not use all the terms and people.

a.

Gospel of Wealth

b.

muckrakers

c.

settlement house

d.

Square Deal

e.

trusts

____ 41. socially conscious writers who dramatized the need for reform


____ 42. a community center that provided social services to the urban poor
____ 43. Theodore Roosevelt’s plan for fair government
Short Answer

Answer the following short answer questions in no more than a paragraph. Please write in complete sentences.
44. What factors led to the successful expansion of industry in the United States?

45. What were the main factors leading to the rise in immigration, and what did immigrants experience when they arrived in the United States?



46. Explain the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th Amendments. What did each of them do?


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