How did the Enlightenment influence political revolutions?
How do absolute and limited rulers differ.
How did the ideas of the Enlightenment influence European rulers?
How did the ideas of the thinkers of the Enlightenment influence the development of democratic-republican governments?
A revolution that brings positive changes has a global impact.
— How did the ideas of Locke and Rousseau influence the men who wrote the Declaration of Independence?
— Was the American war for independence a revolution?
— How did American independence influence the revolutionary governments in European and Latin American counties?
— How is the French Revolution different from the American Revolution?
— What contributions did Napoleon Bonaparte make toward the growth of democracy in Europe?
— How did the success of the American Revolution have a profound effect on the thoughts and actions of other countries?
— How was Europe altered after the Napoleonic wars?
Imperialism – the policy, practice, or advocacy of extending the power and dominion of a nation especially by direct territorial acquisitions or by gaining indirect control over the political or economic life of other areas
Monarchy –undivided rule or absolute sovereignty by a single person
Political Revolution – the overthrow of one government and its replacement with another
Political Philosophy – a theory or set of theories regarding a sphere of political thought. Political is a word that derives from the Greek word “politikos” which pertains to polis (a city state)
Sovereignty – freedom from external control
Constitutionalism – adherence to or government according to constitutional principles
CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 1750 TO 1914
Enlightenment (Age of Reason)
People look for laws to govern human behavior; government’s power comes from the consent of the governed
Scientific Revolution promotes application of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society including government
Hobbes – social contract theory – people create government and give up their rights to a strong ruler in exchange for law and order – absolute monarchy
Locke – people have the natural ability to govern their own affairs and look after the welfare of society; endowed with the natural rights of life, liberty and property; people can overthrow a government that does not protect these rights
Philosophes – apply reason to all aspects of life including truth, nature, happiness, progress, and liberty
Montesquieu – separation of powers – three branches of government and checks and balances on these powers
Mary Wollstonecraft – women deserve the same rights as men
Impact of the Enlightenment
European monarchies make reforms
Inspiration for the American and French Revolutions
Belief in progress through social equality and improvements in education
More secular outlook that questioned religious beliefs and teachings of the church
Importance of the individual: as people turned away from the church, they looked towards themselves for guidance
CAUSES, CHARACTERISTICS, AND CONSEQUENCES OF AMERICAN AND FRENCH REVOLUTIONS
American Revolution (1775-1783)
Ideas from the Glorious Revolution – limited monarchy, written bill of rights (English Bill of Rights)
Ideas from the Enlightenment – all people have rights and governments are responsible for protecting these rights; people have the right to remove governments that fail to do so
Enlightenment focuses on a more secular outlook on religion and calls for greater religious tolerance
Belief that “rights as Englishmen” were being violated – “No taxation without representation”
Desire to participate in parliament
British polices related to the American colonies, especially concerning the imposition of taxes
The Americans declared independence in the Declaration of Independence expressing ideas about liberty, equality, and democracy.
Characteristics – revolution started by the merchant class as a protest against British taxation without representation; many colonists remained loyal to Great Britain; success due to alliances with France and Spain; British overconfidence and difficulty in fighting a long-distance war
America became independent
U.S. Constitution (1789) included the ideas of constitutionalism, separation of powers, and popular sovereignty
The Bill of Rights was added as the first 10 amendments
The success and ideas of the American Revolution inspired the French to start their own revolution.
French Revolution (1789-1795)
Influences from the Enlightenment and the American Revolution
Inequality in the class system (1st, 2nd, 3rd estates)
Abuses of the nobility and the kings
Debt and high taxes
Crop failures cause the price of bread to rise beyond the ability of the peasants to pay (starvation)
Characteristics – originates with the lower classes as opposed to the merchants starting the American Revolution; characterized by extreme violence – Reign of Terror, guillotine, executions of nobility including Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
The “Declaration of the Rights of Man” was published
A Parliament was established and peasants were freed
King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were beheaded along with others during the Reign of Terror
Chaos in government resulted in Napoleon and the army coming to power and creating the French Empire
Conservative monarchs create the Holy Alliance and the Concert of Europe as a way to help each other if revolutions break out
Beginnings of nationalistic movements in Germany, Italy, and Greece
Establishment of Haiti as an independent republic after French troops sent by Napoleon are decimated by yellow fever
Independence movement in Spanish colonies begins when Napoleon conquers Spain in 1808 and replaces King Ferdinand VII with Joseph Bonaparte. Spanish creoles in the colonies have no loyalty and argue that power shifts to the people. Independence movements continue after Ferdinand is restored to the Spanish throne in 1814.
INFLUENCE OF THE AMERICAN AND FRENCH REVOLUTIONS ON LATIN AMERICA
American Revolution demonstrated that colonies could successfully win independence from a European power.
Both the American and French Revolutions had written declarations that specifically address the rights of man.
American government allowed a free market to flourish.
French Revolution was the uprising of the common man.
Ideas from the Enlightenment and travels to France and the United States influenced Simon Bolivar to start a revolution against Spanish rulers in Colombia and Venezuela.
American and French Revolutions also inspire revolutions led by Jose de San Martin in Argentina, Chile, and Peru, as well as the Mexican Revolution led by Miguel Hidalgo.
INFLUENCE OF ABSTRACT CONCEPTS ON POLITICAL REVOLUTIONS
Separation of powers – the belief that power should not rest in the hands of one or few, but should be delegated
Checks and balances – measures designed to prevent one branch of government from becoming more powerful than the others
Liberty – freedom, the ability to make choices; not to be oppressed by the government or by any social or economic classes
Equality – the belief that all men (individuals) are equal in regards to their political rights
Democracy – an ideal of governing where the people make political decisions. This ideal has taken many forms, such as the direct democracy of Greece and the Roman Republic where elected representatives speak and vote on behalf of the people.
Popular sovereignty – the concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, or abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation.
Human rights – include inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, as well as freedom of speech, religion, and the press. While each government or culture determines the rights for their society, human rights tend to cross cultural barriers.
Constitutionalism – the idea that the basic principles and laws of a government should be organized and administered through compliance with a written or unwritten constitution
Nationalism – devotion to the interests or culture of one's nation; the belief that nations will benefit from acting independently rather than collectively, emphasizing national rather than international goals; aspirations for national independence in a country under foreign domination
CAUSES OF THE FEBRUARY (MARCH) AND OCTOBER REVOLUTIONS OF 1917 IN RUSSIA, THEIR EFFECTS ON THE OUTCOME OF WORLD WAR I, AND THE BOLSHEVIK ESTABLISHMENT OF THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS
Causes of the 1917 Revolutions in Russia
Widespread discontent among all classes of Russian society
Agitation from revolutionaries
Weak leadership of Czar Nicholas II
Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1905
Bloody Sunday (1905) results in the deaths of nearly 1,000 unarmed workers and their families who march on the palace in St. Petersburg to protest better working conditions and are fired on by Russian soldiers
PLACES, REGIONS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO MAJOR ERAS AND TURNING POINTS
Absolute Monarchies in Europe: Prussia, Nantes, Paris, Versailles, Austria, Vienna, St. Petersburg
John Calvin – government and religion should be interrelated; divinity and worship should be applied to uphold the laws of man
Thomas Jefferson – people are born with certain God-given rights that cannot be taken away; people have the right to rebel against an unjust ruler
William Blackstone – people have the right to property as “sole and despotic dominion which one man claims and exercises over the external things of the world.”
HOW PEOPLE CAN SUPPORT OR CHANGE THEIR GOVERNMENT
Registering others to vote
Recruitment in the military
Revolution: United States, France, Glorious Revolution in England, Spanish colonies in Latin America, Russia
KEY PERSONS WHO SUCCESSFULLY SHIFTED POLITICAL THOUGHT
William Wilberforce (1759-1833) – British politician who successfully led the movement to abolish slavery in Great Britain In 1807, the Slave Trade Act of 1807 led to the end of the African slave trade. Shortly before his death in 1833, Parliament passed the Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 that ended slavery in most of the British Empire.