Unit 7 Political Revolutions 1750-1914



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UNIT 7

Political Revolutions 1750-1914

  • How did the Enlightenment influence political revolutions?

  • How do absolute and limited rulers differ.

  • How did the ideas of the Enlightenment influence European rulers?

  • How did the ideas of the thinkers of the Enlightenment influence the development of democratic-republican governments?

  • A revolution that brings positive changes has a global impact.
    —    How did the ideas of Locke and Rousseau influence the men who wrote the Declaration of Independence?
    —    Was the American war for independence a revolution?
    —    How did American independence influence the revolutionary governments in European and Latin American counties?
    —    How is the French Revolution different from the American Revolution?
    —    What contributions did Napoleon Bonaparte make toward the growth of democracy in Europe?
    —    How did the success of the American Revolution have a profound effect on the thoughts and actions of other countries?
    —    How was Europe altered after the Napoleonic wars?

Focus Vocabulary

  • Imperialism – the policy, practice, or advocacy of extending the power and dominion of a nation especially by direct territorial acquisitions or by gaining indirect control over the political or economic life of other areas

  • Monarchy – undivided rule or absolute sovereignty by a single person

  • Political Revolution –  the overthrow of one government and its replacement with another

  • Political Philosophy – a theory or set of theories regarding a sphere of political thought. Political is a word that derives from the Greek word “politikos” which pertains to polis (a city state)

  • Sovereignty –  freedom from external control

  • Constitutionalism –  adherence to or government according to constitutional principles

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 1750 TO 1914

  • Enlightenment (Age of Reason)

    • People look for laws to govern human behavior; government’s power comes from the consent of the governed

    • Scientific Revolution promotes application of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society including government

    • Hobbes – social contract theory – people create government and give up their rights to a strong ruler in exchange for law and order – absolute monarchy

    • Locke – people have the natural ability to govern their own affairs and look after the welfare of society; endowed with the natural rights of life, liberty and property; people can overthrow a government that does not protect these rights

    • Philosophes – apply reason to all aspects of life including truth, nature, happiness, progress, and liberty

    • Montesquieu – separation of powers – three branches of government and checks and balances on these powers

    • Rousseau – individual freedom

    • Mary Wollstonecraft –  women deserve the same rights as men

    • Impact of the Enlightenment

      • European monarchies make reforms

      • Inspiration for the American and French Revolutions

      • Belief in progress through social equality and improvements in education

      • More secular outlook that questioned religious beliefs and teachings of the church

      • Importance of the individual:  as people turned away from the church, they looked towards themselves for guidance

CAUSES, CHARACTERISTICS, AND CONSEQUENCES OF AMERICAN AND FRENCH REVOLUTIONS

  • American Revolution (1775-1783)

    • Causes

      • Ideas from the Glorious Revolution – limited monarchy, written bill of rights (English Bill of Rights)

      • Ideas from the Enlightenment – all people have rights and governments are responsible for protecting these rights; people have the right to remove governments that fail to do so

      • Enlightenment focuses on a more secular outlook on religion and calls for greater religious tolerance

      • Belief that “rights as Englishmen” were being violated – “No taxation without representation”

      • Desire to participate in parliament

      • British polices related to the American colonies, especially concerning the imposition of taxes

      • The Americans declared independence in the Declaration of Independence expressing ideas about liberty, equality, and democracy.

    • Characteristics – revolution started by the merchant class as a protest against British taxation without representation; many colonists remained loyal to Great Britain; success due to alliances with France and Spain; British overconfidence and difficulty in fighting a long-distance war

    • Consequences

      • America became independent

      • U.S. Constitution (1789) included the ideas of constitutionalism, separation of powers, and popular sovereignty

      • The Bill of Rights was added as the first 10 amendments

      • The success and ideas of the American Revolution inspired the French to start their own revolution.

  • French Revolution (1789-1795)

    • Causes

      • Influences from the Enlightenment and the American Revolution

      • Inequality in the class system (1st, 2nd, 3rd estates)

      • Abuses of the nobility and the kings

      • Debt and high taxes

      • Crop failures cause the price of bread to rise beyond the ability of the peasants to pay (starvation)

    • Characteristics – originates with the lower classes as opposed to the merchants starting the American Revolution; characterized by extreme violence – Reign of Terror, guillotine, executions of nobility including Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette

    • Consequences

      • The “Declaration of the Rights of Man” was published

      • A Parliament was established and peasants were freed

      • King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were beheaded along with others during the Reign of Terror

      • Chaos in government resulted in Napoleon and the army coming to power and creating the French Empire

IMPACT OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE AND NAPOLEONIC WARS ON EUROPE AND LATIN AMERICA

  • France

    • Order restored after French Revolution

    • Economy improved through an efficient tax collection system and a national bank

    • Lycées set up as government-run public schools to train students as potential government officials

    • Roman Catholic Church recognized as the majority church of France through the Concordat of 1801 with Pope Pius VII and rejected church control over national affairs

    • Napoleonic Code established a uniform set of laws in France but limited freedom of speech and of the press in addition to restricting women’s rights

  • Other parts of Europe

    • Annexation of the Austrian Netherlands and parts of Italy

    • Puppet government in Switzerland

    • War against the Third Coalition – Britain, Austria, Russia, Sweden, later Prussia

    • Britain retains naval supremacy after French defeat at Trafalgar Continental System – economic blockade against Britain unsuccessful

    • Invades Spain and names his brother Joseph as king

    • Attempts to invade Russia but is turned back by the harsh winter weather

    • Defeated at Leipzig by the Third Coalition and sent into exile on Elba

    • Returns to power but is defeated at Waterloo; exiled to St. Helena

  • Congress of Vienna: restore order and establish collective security in Europe after Napoleon’s defeat (Klemens von Metternich)

    • Weaker countries around France strengthened in order to contain France

      • Kingdom of the Netherlands created from Austrian Netherlands and Dutch Republic

      • German Confederation of 39 German states headed by Austra

      • Switzerland recognized as an independent nation

      • Kingdom of Sardinia annexes Genoa

  • Balance of power restored by reducing France to its original holdings while Britain and Prussia gain power

  • Legitimacy of royal families restored as monarchs return to power in France, Spain, and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

  • Conservative monarchs create the Holy Alliance and the Concert of Europe as a way to help each other if revolutions break out

  • Beginnings of nationalistic movements in Germany, Italy, and Greece

  • Latin America

    • Establishment of Haiti as an independent republic after French troops sent by Napoleon are decimated by yellow fever

    • Independence movement in Spanish colonies begins when Napoleon conquers Spain in 1808 and replaces King Ferdinand VII with Joseph Bonaparte. Spanish creoles in the colonies have no loyalty and argue that power shifts to the people. Independence movements continue after Ferdinand is restored to the Spanish throne in 1814.

INFLUENCE OF THE AMERICAN AND FRENCH REVOLUTIONS ON LATIN AMERICA

  • American Revolution demonstrated that colonies could successfully win independence from a European power.

  • Both the American and French Revolutions had written declarations that specifically address the rights of man.

  • American government allowed a free market to flourish.

  • French Revolution was the uprising of the common man.

  • Ideas from the Enlightenment and travels to France and the United States influenced Simon Bolivar to start a revolution against Spanish rulers in Colombia and Venezuela.

  • American and French Revolutions also inspire revolutions led by Jose de San Martin in Argentina, Chile, and Peru, as well as the Mexican Revolution led by Miguel Hidalgo.

INFLUENCE OF ABSTRACT CONCEPTS ON POLITICAL REVOLUTIONS

  • Separation of powers – the belief that power should not rest in the hands of one or few, but should be delegated

  • Checks and balances – measures designed to prevent one branch of government from becoming more powerful than the others

  • Liberty – freedom, the ability to make choices; not to be oppressed by the government or by any social or economic classes

  • Equality – the belief that all men (individuals) are equal in regards to their political rights

  • Democracy – an ideal of governing where the people make political decisions. This ideal has taken many forms, such as the direct democracy of Greece and the Roman Republic where elected representatives speak and vote on behalf of the people.

  • Popular sovereignty – the concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, or abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation.

  • Human rights – include inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, as well as freedom of speech, religion, and the press. While each government or culture determines the rights for their society, human rights tend to cross cultural barriers.

  • Constitutionalism – the idea that the basic principles and laws of a government should be organized and administered through compliance with a written or unwritten constitution

  • Nationalism – devotion to the interests or culture of one's nation; the belief that nations will benefit from acting independently rather than collectively, emphasizing national rather than international goals; aspirations for national independence in a country under foreign domination

CAUSES OF THE FEBRUARY (MARCH) AND OCTOBER REVOLUTIONS OF 1917 IN RUSSIA, THEIR EFFECTS ON THE OUTCOME OF WORLD WAR I, AND THE BOLSHEVIK ESTABLISHMENT OF THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS

  • Causes of the 1917 Revolutions in Russia

    • Widespread discontent among all classes of Russian society

    • Agitation from revolutionaries

    • Weak leadership of Czar Nicholas II

    • Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1905

    • Bloody Sunday (1905) results in the deaths of nearly 1,000 unarmed workers and their families who march on the palace in St. Petersburg to protest better working conditions and are fired on by Russian soldiers

PLACES, REGIONS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO MAJOR ERAS AND TURNING POINTS

  • Absolute Monarchies in Europe:  Prussia, Nantes, Paris, Versailles, Austria, Vienna, St. Petersburg

  • American Revolution –  Philadelphia

  • French Revolution – France, Paris

  • Napoleonic Wars – Austerlitz, Trafalgar, Elba, Waterloo

  • Latin America in the 19th Century:  Haiti, Gran Colombia, Venezuela, Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Brazil

  • The British Empire – Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand

  • Imperialism – Africa, Belgian Congo, Nigeria, South Africa, French West Africa, Dutch East Indies, French Indochina, India, Suez Canal, Panama Canal, Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hawaii

POLITICAL SYSTEMS

  • Absolute monarchy:  king or queen who has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of society (Louis XIV of France)

  • Limited monarchy:  laws limit the power of a ruler (constitutional monarchy) (England after the Glorious Revolution)

PROCESS BY WHICH DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN GOVERNMENT EVOLVED

  • English Civil War (although the English Civil War predates this unit, the English Bill of Rights can be compared to the U.S. Bill of Rights.

    • English Bill of Rights (1689)  based on Locke’s philosophy on how government’s purpose is to protect people’s rights

  • Enlightenment thinkers (Philosophers)

    • Baron de Montesquieu

    • John Locke (English Bill of Rights comes as a result of Locke’s theories and influences the U.S. Bill of Rights)

    • Thomas Hobbes

    • Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    • Voltaire

IMPACT OF POLITICAL AND LEGAL IDEAS FROM HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS

  • English Bill of Rights

    • Limitations on absolute monarch

    • No suspension of Parliament’s laws

    • No levying of taxes without Parliament’s

    • No suspension of freedom of speech in Parliament

    • Citizens have right to petition king with grievances

  • Declaration of Independence

    • Unalienable rights – life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness

    • Governments established to protect these rights

    • People have the right to change or abolish a government that does not protect their rights

  • U.S. Constitution

    • Powers divided among three branches of government

    • Checks and balances between the three branches of government

    • Federal system of government where power is divided between the state and national governments

    •  Creation of representative government

    • Limits on the powers of government

    • Popular election of executive and legislators

    • Bill of Rights that protects personal freedoms, including those of speech, religion, the press, and of petition

  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    • Men are born and remain free and equal in rights that include liberty, property, security, and freedom from oppression

    • Governments have the goal of preserving these rights

    • Freedom of religion, freedom of speech, equal justice to all citizens

    • “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”

POLITICAL PHILOSOPHIES OF SPECIFIC INDIVIDUALS

  • John Locke – governments have contact with the people; governments must protect their citizen’s life, liberty and property, and should they fail to do so, they can and should be replaced

  • Thomas Hobbes – men should put their faith (create a contract) in a government to provide stability for their lives, since people have lives that are “cruel, nasty, brutish and short.”

  • Charles de Montesquieu – power should be balanced between three branches of officials (separation of powers)

  • Jean Jacques Rousseau – the general will, usually defined as the majority, should determine the laws of the nation

  • John Calvin – government and religion should be interrelated; divinity and worship should be applied to uphold the laws of man

  • Thomas Jefferson – people are born with certain God-given rights that cannot be taken away; people have the right to rebel against an unjust ruler

  • William Blackstone – people have the right to property as “sole and despotic dominion which one man claims and exercises over the external things of the world.”

HOW PEOPLE CAN SUPPORT OR CHANGE THEIR GOVERNMENT

  • Support:

    • Voting

    • Registering others to vote

    • Paying taxes

    • Recruitment in the military

  • Change:

    • Revolution:  United States, France, Glorious Revolution in England, Spanish colonies in Latin America, Russia

KEY PERSONS WHO SUCCESSFULLY SHIFTED POLITICAL THOUGHT

  •  William Wilberforce (1759-1833) – British politician who successfully led the movement to abolish slavery in Great Britain In 1807, the Slave Trade Act of 1807 led to the end of the African slave trade. Shortly before his death in 1833, Parliament passed the Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 that ended slavery in most of the British Empire.







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