Evaluate the impact the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton Expositions, Tom Watson and the Populists, Rebecca Latimer Felton, the 1906 Atlanta Riot, the Leo Frank Case, and the county unit system had on Georgia during this period.
The “New South” was a movement that emphasized the need for Georgia to rely, not on agriculture, but on business&industry. It was, therefore, concerned with changing Georgia economically.
Three men dominated the Democratic Party and Georgia politics during the New South era. They emphasized the need for farmers to diversify(growing crops other than cotton) and for the state to look to industry as a means to attain prosperity. Because they were so powerful, they were called the BourbonTriumvirate(after the powerful French ruling family). The three members of this group were:
JosephBrown- the Civil War Governor of Georgia
JohnB.Gordon- a popular Civil War General, and later the leader of Georgia’s branch of the Ku Klux Klan.
AlfredH.Colquitt- a licensed Methodist minister
For the next 120 years, Georgia would be dominated by the DemocraticParty.
In order to showcase Georgia’s new focus on business, Georgia hosted the InternationalCottonExposition(ICE)on three occasions, in 1881, 1887 and 1895 (the 1887 event was the largest).
The influential newspaper editor of the AtlantaConstitutionwho supported the New South leaders and was called the “voice of the New South,” was HenryGrady.
Farmers resisted this new emphasis on industry and formed an organization, the FarmersAlliance, in order to protect their interests. They later formed a political party, called the People’s(Populist)Party. The leader of this party in Georgia was TomWatsonwho, in 1890, startled the Democrats by winning election to the U.S. House of Representatives.
In 1922, when Senator Thomas Watson died in office, he was replaced by RebeccaLatimerFelton(for only 24 hours), the first female U.S. Senator in history.
The controversial election campaign of 1906 sparked a great deal of racial tension in Georgia. When sensational newspaper articles insisted that black men had assaulted white women, the Atlantaraceriotbroke out, lasting for several days and resulting in the death in as many as 40 African-Americans.
In 1913, a Jewish factory supervisor was accused of murdering a young girl, Mary Phagan, who worked in the factory. Though there was little evidence, the supervisor was found guilty and was later murdered by a lynch mob. This incident was known as the LeoFrankcase. It illustrates anti-Semitism(hatred of the Jews).
In 1917, Georgia adopted the countyunitsystemin which counties would receive no more than 3 votes, regardless of population, for certain state offices. This system kept power in the hands of rural farmers. Later, the Federal Courts ruled that it was unconstitutional, violating the “equalprotection” clause of the 14th Amendment.
Analyze the denial of rights to African-Americans through Jim Crow laws, Plessy