Unit 5: Study Notes Era in History: Mexican National
Nationalism—Representation is important to a democratic government
Immigration—There are many reasons people immigrate to other countries.
Leadership—leaders have many responsibilities.
Vocabulary Constitution—a written statement outlining the basic laws or principles by which a country or organization is governed.
Empresario—an agent who makes all arrangements to bring settlers to a colony.
Filibuster—an adventurer who engages in a private rebellious activity in a foreign country.
Immigration—the act of people moving to another country to settle.
Representative government—a representative government is one that allows its citizens to elect other citizens to make decisions for a large group of citizens. This allows the business of government to get done.
Tejano—a person of Mexican descent living in Texas
Defining Characteristics of the Mexican National Era
Mexican Constitution of 1824—Constitution written after Mexico’s independence from Spain; the republic took the name of United Mexican States, and was defined as a representative federal republic with Catholicism as the official religion; it created the state of Coahuila y Tejas, merging the two provinces.
Old Three Hundred—Original 300 families allowed to move to Texas under Austin’s grant from Spain.
Moses Austin—first American to work with the Spanish government to settle Americans in Texas.
Stephen F. Austin—first American to recruit and settle Americans in Texas/Mexico. He settled 300 families and was known as an empresario. This led to the colonization of other American settlers in Texas/Mexico.
Erasmo Seguin Sr.—helped Moses Austin obtain approval from Spanish officials to settle American colonists in Texas.
Martin DeLeon—a Mexican empresario who settled 200 Mexican families in South Texas (between the Lavaca and Guadalupe River). He and his wife founded the town of Victoria in 1824.
Empresarios— an agent who makes all arrangements to bring settlers to a colony.
Agriculture— the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock; a large-scale farming enterprise; the federal department that administers programs that provide services to farmers (including research and soil conservation and efforts to stabilize the farming economy); created in 1862
San Felipe de Austin-- San Felipe de Austin, on the west bank of the Brazos River, was founded in 1824 by Stephen F. Austin as the unofficial capital of his colony; it became the first urban center in the Austin colony.
Battle of Medina—Fought August 18, 1813, along the Medina River south of San Antonio between the republic forces of the Gutierrez-Magee expedition and the Spanish royalist army; The Republic army lost miserably, but it encouraged others to participate in the revolution.
1821—Mexico independent from Spain—important date to know.
1821—Stephen F. Austin continues his father’s dream by settling 300 families from the United States. They are known as the “Old Three Hundred.” There were three requirements for settlement (must convert to Catholicism; must become a Spanish/Mexican citizen; must be of good, moral character)
1823-1825—National Colonization Laws
1824—Mexican Constitution of 1824
1825-1830—30 Empresario Contracts granted
Individuals, Issues, Events Related to Mexico Becoming an Independent Nation and Impact on Texas
Texas involvement in the fight for independence
Philip Nolan—a filibuster from the United States that was sent to Texas with Spanish approval, but Spain was suspicious of the U.S. taking control of Texas
Gutierrez-Magee Expedition—Jose Bernardo Gutierrez (follower of Father Hidalgo) and Augustus Magee (former U.S. soldier) organized the Republic of the North and proclaimed Texas independent of Spain, but were defeated. It encouraged others to free Texas and Mexico from Spanish rule.
Galveston Pirates—Jean Lafitte and other pirates attacked Spanish ships
Long Expedition—Dr. James Long led a group from Mississippi to Nacogdoches where he declared Texas independent from Spain. While looking for military support, he was captured, taken to Mexico city, and shot.
Jose Gutierrez de Lara
Leader of the Mexican Republican Army of the North and opposed Spanish Rule
Joined Agustus Magee and his men, which became known as the Gutierrez-Magee Expedition
Merger stated in the Mexican Federal Constitution of 1824
Texas was not organized as a separate state because of its small population
State Colonization Law of 1825
Law that set up guidelines to the colonization of Coahuila y Tejas
Allowed Stephen F. Austin and other empresarios to receive land grants in Texas
1821—colonists could bring slaves to Texas and buy land depending on the number of slaves brought.
Mexico offered full citizenship to free blacks, including land ownership and other privileges.
1823—the sale or purchase of slaves was forbidden in Texas, and required that the children of slaves be freed when they reached age fourteen.
1827—the legislature of Coahuila y Tejas outlawed the introduction of additional slaves and granted freedom at birth to all children born to a slave.
1829—Mexico abolished slavery, but it granted an exception to Texas.
1830—importation of slaves was illegal in Texas.
Contributions of Significant Individuals During the Mexican Settlement of Texas
Moses Austin (1820)—first American to work with the Spanish government to settle Americans in Texas
Stephen F. Auston (1821)—first American to recruit and settle Americans in Texas/Mexico. He settled 300 families and was known as an empresario. This led to the colonization of other American settlers in Texas/Mexico; known as the Father of Texas
Erasmo Sequin—helped Moses Austin obtain approval from Spanish officials to settle American colonists in Texas
Martin De Leon—a Mexican empresario who settled 200 Mexican families in South Texas (between the Lavaca and Guadalupe River). He and his wife founded the town of Victoria in 1824
Green DeWitt (1831)—an important American empresario who settled 166 familes in the area near present-day Gonzales
Purposes for the Methods of Settlement in Texas
To lay claim to Texas
Missions, presidios, and civil settlements
Economic opportunities—large ranches and small businesses
Geographic Distribution and Patterns in Texas During the 19th, 20th, and 21st Centuries
Suggested question for the Mexican National Period
What do you think will be the impact of the Texas colonist settling so far from Mexico City?
What happened with Mexico being so far away from Spain?
How people from racial, ethnic, and religious groups attempt to maintain cultural heritage while adapting to the larger Texas culture:
Maintained food, music, traditions, language, and religion over many generations
Celebrations practiced in new world
What are 3 characteristics of the Mexican National Era? (Students are given a multiple choice question with 4 answer choices. Students are asked to identify which characteristic out of the 4 choices given is NOT a characteristic of the Mexican National Era.)
Use the information in the box and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
He is the second most successful empresario.
He established the town of Gonzales
His colony became prosperous in farming and ranching.
Who is described above?
Stephen F. Austin
These tests are not easy tests. These test require the students to apply the information learned in class within different critical thinking scenarios. It is not a basic matching/fill in the blank style test.