Unit 5 – The Age of Big Business Types of Business Systems

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Unit 5 – The Age of Big Business
Types of Business Systems

1. Which type of business organization is being criticized in this cartoon?

(1) monopoly

(2) multinational corporation

(3) partnership

(4) proprietorship

2. What is the main idea of this cartoon?

(1) The Standard Oil Company was a harmful monopoly.

(2) The best way to develop major industries was to form proprietorships.

(3) Government regulations were strangling the Standard Oil Company.

(4) Foreign competition in the oil industry was hurting American companies.

3. Which economic concept is best illustrated by the cartoon?

(1) supply and demand

(2) mercantilism

(3) monopoly

(4) trade

4. The term business monopoly can best be described as

(1) the most common form of business in the United States

(2) government control of the means of production

(3) an agreement between partners to manage a corporation

(4) a company that controls or dominates an industry
5. In the late 19th century, owners of big businesses generally embraced Social Darwinism because it reinforced their belief that

(1) economic success demonstrates fitness to lead

(2) business monopolies are contrary to the social order

(3) all wealth should be returned to society

(4) economic competition should be regulated

6. The 19th-century philosophy of Social Darwinism maintained that

(1) the government should have control over the means of production and the marketplace

(2) all social class distinctions in American society should be eliminated

(3) economic success comes to those who are the hardest working and most competent

(4) wealth and income should be more equally distributed

7. “The growth of a large business is merely survival of the fittest. The American beauty rose can be produced in the splendor and fragrance which bring cheer to its beholder only by sacrificing the early buds which grow up around it. This is not an evil tendency in business. It is merely the working out of a law of nature and a law of God. . . .

— John D. Rockefeller, Jr.

Which concept is described by this passage?

(1) communism

(2) Populism

(3) utopian socialism

(4) Social Darwinism

8. During the late 1800s, the principles of Social Darwinism were used to justify

(1) support for unlimited immigration

(2) desegregation of public facilities

(3) the use of strikes by organized labor

(4) the accumulation of great wealth by industrialists

9. Which idea of the late 1800s is most closely associated with this cartoon?

(1) regulated capitalism

(2) graduated income tax

(3) Social Darwinism

(4) the Gospel of Wealth

10. Which 19th-century business practice does this cartoon illustrate?

(1) forming cooperatives

(2) establishing trade zones

(3) creating monopolies

(4) expanding global markets

11. According to the cartoon, how was the United States in the 1990s similar to the United States in the 1890s?

(1) Little need existed for government regulation.

(2) Investment in the stock market decreased.

(3) The price of petroleum products decreased.

(4) Business consolidation was accepted practice.

12. Industrialists of the late 1800s contributed most to economic growth by

(1) supporting the efforts of labor unions

(2) establishing large corporations

(3) encouraging government ownership of banks

(4) opposing protective tariffs

Answers for Types of Business Systems:

1) 1 2) 1 3) 3 4) 4 5) 1 6) 3 7) 4 8) 4 9) 3 10) 3 11) 4 12) 2

Types of Economic Systems and the Rise of Big Business

1. During the late 1800s, leaders of big business gave the greatest support to the passage of

(1) antitrust laws

(2) higher tariff rates

(3) immigration restrictions

(4) railroad regulation

2. The growth of big business in the late 1800s resulted in

(1) a reduction in child labor

(2) the elimination of the middle class

(3) the widening of the economic gap between rich and poor

(4) a shift in transportation investment from railroads to canals

3. What is the main idea of this cartoon?

(1) Big business greatly influenced the actions of the Senate.

(2) The Senate had to continue to pass legislation to support conservation efforts.

(3) The Senate needed more financial support from monopolies.

(4) Relations between industry and the Senate benefited the general public.

4. During the late 1800s, business leaders formed trusts mainly to

(1) reduce prices

(2) eliminate competition

(3) improve worker productivity

(4) establish overseas factories

5. In the late 1800s, the creation of the Standard Oil Trust by John D. Rockefeller was intended to

(1) protect small, independent oil firms

(2) control prices and practices in the oil refining business

(3) increase competition among oil refining companies

(4) distribute donations to charitable causes

6. During the 19th century, New York was one of the most powerful states in the nation because it

(1) became the financial and industrial center of the nation

(2) led the nation in achieving political reforms

(3) produced more presidents than any other state

(4) offered more civil liberties than any other state

7. During the 19th century, the completion of the Erie Canal and the transcontinental railroads

contributed to the industrial growth of the United States by

(1) making the movement of goods easier and cheaper

(2) protecting the United States from low-priced foreign imports

(3) encouraging subsistence farming

(4) connecting the United States to markets in Mexico and Canada

8. One factor that furthered industrialization in the United States between 1865 and 1900 was the

(1) development of the airplane

(2) expansion of the railroads

(3) mass production of automobiles

(4) widespread use of steamboats

Answers for Rise of Big Business:

1) 2 2) 3 3) 1 4) 2 5) 2 6) 1 7) 1 8) 2

Government Role in Business

1. In the late 1800s, the theory of laissez-faire capitalism was used by many industrialists to

(1) petition the government for assistance during times of financial crisis

(2) oppose colonial expansion in Africa and Asia

(3) argue against government regulation of business practices

(4) defend limits on the number of immigrants allowed to work in factories

2. In the late 1800s, supporters of laissez-faire capitalism claimed that government regulation of

business would be

(1) essential to protect the rights of consumers

(2) necessary to provide jobs for the unemployed

(3) useful in competing with foreign nations

(4) harmful to economic growth

3. During the second half of the 19th century, government commitment to the principles of laissez- faire capitalism contributed to

(1) healthy and positive competition between businesses

(2) the growth of small business firms

(3) friendly working relationships between labor and management

(4) economic domination by business trusts

4. During the late 1800s, the defenders of Social Darwinism would most likely have supported

(1) labor unions

(2) progressive income taxes

(3) laissez-faire capitalism

(4) environmental conservation

5. Which factor most influenced the growth of the United States economy between 1865 and 1900?

(1) development of the sharecropping system

(2) success of organized labor

(3) governmental policy of laissez faire

(4) restrictions on immigration

6. In the late 1800s, many business practices of the railroads led to

(1) an increase in the unemployment rate

(2) an increase in the demand for government regulation

(3) a decrease in the demand for raw materials

(4) a decrease in the variety of products available for consumers

7. “Transportation being a means of exchange and a public necessity, the government should own and operate the railroads in the interest of the people.” (1892)

Which group showed the greatest support for this idea?

(1) western farmers

(2) union leaders

(3) factory owners

(4) railroad owners

8. The Supreme Court cases of Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific R.R. v. Illinois (1886) and United States v. E. C. Knight Co. (1895) were based on laws that were intended to

(1) limit the power of big business

(2) support farmers’ efforts to increase the money supply

(3) maintain a laissez-faire approach to the economy

(4) improve working conditions for immigrants
9. Both the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act were

(1) inspired by the effectiveness of earlier state laws

(2) designed to protect business from foreign competition

(3) declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in the late 1800s

(4) passed by the federal government to regulate big business

10. The Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act were attempts by Congress to

(1) regulate the activities of big business

(2) protect consumers against unsafe products

(3) impose government regulations on agricultural production

(4) bring transportation activities under government ownership

11. The Clayton Antitrust Act was passed to

(1) restore business competition

(2) end stock market speculation

(3) prosecute corrupt labor unions

(4) break up city political party machines

12. The Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act were passed by Congress to

(1) increase safety in the workplace

(2) promote fair hiring practices

(3) improve working conditions

(4) protect the interests of small businesses

13. The Sherman Antitrust Act and the Clayton Antitrust Act were passed in an effort to

(1) promote the formation of new trusts

(2) maintain competition in business

(3) increase business investment

(4) limit the activities of foreign corporations

14. Both the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Clayton Antitrust Act were passed in response to the problem of

(1) companies refusing to hire minority workers

(2) businesses choosing to hire illegal immigrants

(3) unsafe working conditions in factories

(4) business combinations limiting competition

15. During the 20th century, federal prosecutions of corporations such as Standard Oil, AT&T, and Microsoft were based on alleged violations of

(1) stock market practices

(2) environmental regulations

(3) labor union protections

(4) antitrust laws

Answers for Government Role in Business:

1) 3 2) 4 3) 4 4) 3 5) 3 6) 2 7) 1 8) 1 9) 4 10) 1 11) 1 12) 4 13) 2

14) 4 15) 4

Captains of Industry v. Robber Barons

1. Mark Twain labeled the late 1800s in the United States the “Gilded Age” to describe the

(1) end of the practice of slavery

(2) absence of international conflicts

(3) extremes of wealth and poverty

(4) achievements of the labor movement

2. One reason John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and J. Pierpont Morgan were sometimes called robber barons was because they

(1) robbed from the rich to give to the poor

(2) made unnecessarily risky investments

(3) used ruthless business tactics against their competitors

(4) stole money from the federal government

3. The term robber baron was used to criticize the

(1) tactics of big-business leaders

(2) corruption of government officials

(3) dishonesty of carpetbaggers

(4) unskilled labor of illegal immigrants

4. Business leaders John D. Rockefeller, J. P. Morgan, and Cornelius Vanderbilt were referred

to as robber barons primarily because they

(1) bought titles of nobility from foreign governments

(2) were ruthless in dealing with competitors

(3) stole money from state and local governments

(4) gained all of their wealth by illegal means

Base your answers to questions 5 and 6 on the speakers’ statements below and on your knowledge of social studies.

Speaker A: “When demand ran high, and markets were scarce, he showed little mercy,

broke his contracts for delivery and raised prices.”

Speaker B: “The man of wealth must hold his fortune ‘in trust’ for the community and

use it for philanthropic and charitable purposes.”

Speaker C: “It is cruel to slander the rich because they have been successful. They have

gone into great enterprises that have enriched the nation and the nation has enriched them.”

Speaker D: “The fruits of the toil of millions are boldly stolen to build up colossal

fortunes for the few, unprecedented in the history of mankind.”

5. Which two speakers would most likely label late 19th-century industrialists as robber barons?

(1) A and B

(2) A and D

(3) B and C

(4) C and D

6. The most valid conclusion that can be drawn from the different viewpoints of these speakers is that industrialists of the late 19th century

(1) benefited and harmed society

(2) treated their workers fairly

(3) used illegal means to gain wealth

(4) generally opposed the free-enterprise economic system

7. What is the main idea of the cartoon?

(1) Government policies have created a recession.

(2) Americans support the activities of trusts.

(3) Good government has saved the country from trusts.

(4) Trusts are a threat to the nation.

8.“The man who dies rich dies disgraced.” Andrew Carnegie carried out the ideas expressed in this statement by

(1) funding numerous libraries and educational institutions

(2) serving many years in the federal government

(3) investing his fortune in several new industries

(4) promoting programs to benefit the wealthy

Base your answers to questions 9 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies.

. . . This, then, is held to be the duty of the man of Wealth: First, to set an example of modest,

unostentatious living, shunning display or extravagance; to provide moderately for the legitimate wants of those dependent upon him; and after doing so to consider all surplus revenues which come to him simply as trust funds, which he is called upon to administer, and strictly bound as a matter of duty to administer in the manner which, in his judgment, is best calculated to produce the most beneficial results for the community— . . .” — Andrew Carnegie, “Wealth,” North American Review, June 1889

9. According to this passage, the responsibility of the wealthy is to

(1) invest in future industry to increase wealth

(2) share their excess wealth with the community

(3) maintain a lifestyle consistent with their wealth

(4) influence government to assist all people

10. A significant contribution to the industrialization of the United States was Henry Ford’s development of

(1) the assembly line

(2) electric-powered vehicles

(3) the first holding company

(4) a new process for making steel

11. Henry Ford produced a more affordable car primarily because his company

(1) paid workers lower wages than its competitors paid

(2) used foreign-made parts

(3) developed a less expensive method of production

(4) offered a variety of options to buyers

Answers for Captains of Industry v. Robber Barons:

1) 3 2) 3 3) 1 4) 2 5) 2 6) 1 7) 4 8) 1 9) 2 10) 1 11) 3

Other Effects of Industrialization

1. What major trend related to population occurred during the industrialization boom of the late


(1) Immigration decreased.

(2) Suburbanization decreased.

(3) Urbanization increased.

(4) Migration to rural areas increased.

2. Which major population shift in the late 1800s occurred as a result of industrialization?

(1) northerners to the Sun Belt

(2) rural residents to urban areas

(3) working class people from the cities to the suburbs

(4) African Americans from the North to the South

3. Which statement about population distribution in the United States between 1860 and 1920 is best supported by the graph?

(1) Rural population declined after 1910.

(2) Many Americans migrated from urban to rural areas.

(3) Immigration played a limited role in urban growth.

(4) The population of cities grew at a faster rate than that of rural areas.

4. Which group’s numbers increased the most as a result of the Industrial Revolution?

(1) skilled craftsmen (3) urban middle class

(2) landed aristocracy (4) owners of small farms

5. In the second half of the 19th century, agriculture in the United States was transformed most by the

(1) increase in prices paid for farm products

(2) decline in the population growth rate of the United States

(3) decline in demand for agricultural products

(4) increase in the use of farm machinery benefited the general public.

6. The changes in American agriculture during the late 1800s led farmers to

(1) grow fewer cash crops for export

(2) request an end to agricultural tariffs

(3) demand a reduced role for government in agriculture

(4) become more dependent on banks and railroads

7. In the last half of the 1800s, which development led to the other three?

(1) expansion of the middle class

(2) growth of industrialization

(3) formation of trusts

(4) creation of labor unions

8. Which statement describes a result of the Industrial Revolution in the United States?

(1) Farm production decreased.

(2) Slavery in the South increased.

(3) The population of the cities decreased.

(4) Immigration to the United States increased.

9. During the late 1800s, industrialization in the United States led to

(1) the growth of the middle class

(2) an overall decline in labor union membership

(3) the creation of affirmative action programs

(4) a decrease in the use of natural resources

10. In the 19th century, protective tariffs, subsidies for railroads, and open immigration showed that the federal government followed a policy of

(1) support for economic development

(2) noninterference in the free-market system

(3) regulation of unfair business practices

(4) support for organized labor

11. Which pair of circumstances represents an accurate cause-and-effect relationship?

(1) more jobs in factories  migration of African Americans from the South to northern


(2) establishment of Jim Crow laws  beginning of Reconstruction

(3) Dred Scott decision  passage of the Fugitive Slave Law

(4) closing of the frontier  completion of the transcontinental railroad

12. Which development led to the other three?

(1) growth of tenements and slums

(2) shift from a rural to an urban lifestyle

(3) rapid industrial growth

(4) widespread use of child labor

Answers for Other Effects of Industrialization:

1) 3 2) 2 3) 4 4) 3 5) 4 6) 4 7) 2 8) 4 9) 1 10) 1 11) 2 12) 4


1. Which group would most likely have favored government action to address the issue shown in the cartoon?

(1) bankers

(2) unions

(3) industrialists

(4) railroad owners

2. During the late 1800s, what was the main reason labor unions had difficulty achieving gains for workers?

(1) Communists had taken control of the major unions.

(2) The government supported business efforts to limit the powers of unions.

(3) Most unions had been organized by big business.

(4) Most workers were satisfied with working conditions.

3. During the late 1800s, a major reason labor unions had difficulty achieving their goals was that

(1) government supported business over labor

(2) industrialization created better working conditions

(3) there was a shortage of new workers

(4) businesses promoted labor officials to management positions

4. During the late 19th century, Samuel Gompers, Terence Powderly, and Eugene Debs were leaders in the movement to

(1) stop racial segregation of Native American Indians

(2) limit illegal immigration

(3) gain fair treatment of Native American Indians

(4) improve working conditions
5. The slogan “Eight hours for work, eight hours for sleep, eight hours for what we will” was used in the late 1800s to promote a major goal of

(1) farmers

(2) politicians

(3) industrialists

(4) organized labor

6. What is the main idea of this cartoon from the 1800s?

(1) Labor is gaining power over big business.

(2) Most Americans support the labor movement.

(3) Business has advantages over labor.

(4) Government should support the expansion of railroads.

7. The American Federation of Labor responded to the situation shown in the cartoon by

(1) organizing skilled workers into unions

(2) encouraging open immigration

(3) forming worker-owned businesses

(4) creating a single union of workers and farmers

8. One similarity between the actions of Samuel Gompers and Cesar Chavez is that both leaders

(1) organized workers to strive for better conditions

(2) relied on the use of force to gain minority rights

(3) advocated federal regulation of railroad rates

(4) worked to improve consumer product safety

9. During the late 19th century, which practices were used by employers against workers?

(1) boycotts and lockouts

(2) picketing and walkouts

(3) blacklists and yellow-dog contracts

(4) mass rallies and sit-down strikes

10. In a United States history textbook, the terms bread and butter unionism, Gospel of Wealth, and mechanization would most likely be found in a chapter entitled

(1) Reconstruction (1865–1877)

(2) Industrialization (1870–1900)

(3) Imperialism (1898–1905)

(4) The Roaring Twenties (1920–1929)

11. In the late 19th century, the major argument used by labor union leaders against immigrants was that immigrants

(1) took jobs from United States citizens

(2) contributed little to enrich American life

(3) placed financial drains on social services

(4) refused to assimilate into American culture

12. In the late 1800s, the Granger movement tried to improve conditions for farmers by

(1) lowering the rate of inflation

(2) strengthening the gold standard

(3) forcing railroads to lower their rates

(4) making labor unions stronger

13. The main purpose of this 1886 poster was to

(1) oppose immigrants who took jobs from American workers

(2) support nativist calls for limitations on labor unions

(3) organize a protest against acts of police brutality against workers

(4) show support for police actions against foreign revolutionaries

14. “Labor Leaders Executed for Causing Haymarket Riot”

State Militia Called In To End Homestead Strike”

1,000 Jailed as Silver Miners Protest Wage Cuts”

Which statement about labor unions in the late 1800s is illustrated by these headlines?

(1) Strikes by labor unions usually gained public support.

(2) The government frequently opposed labor union activities.

(3) Labor union demands were usually met.

(4) Arbitration was commonly used to end labor unrest.

Answers for Unions:

1) 2 2) 2 3) 3 4) 4 5) 4 6) 3 7) 1 8) 1 9) 3 10) 2 11) 1 12) 3 13) 3

14) 2


1. Why did the United States follow a policy of open immigration during much of the 1800s?

(1) Many United States citizens wanted to live abroad.

(2) The United States had a shortage of labor.

(3) Prosperous conditions in Europe resulted in fewer immigrants coming to the U.S.

(4) Immigrants provided United States industry with investment capital.

2. During the early 1800s, the United States placed few restrictions on immigration because

(1) the Constitution did not allow restrictions

(2) labor unions welcomed the new workers

(3) southern landowners needed additional workers

(4) the industrial economy was creating new jobs

Base your answers to questions 3 and 4 on the speakers’ statements below and on your knowledge of social studies.

Speaker A: “Our nation has grown and prospered from the ideas and labor of immigrants. The

nation has been enriched by immigrants from different nations who brought new ideas and lifestyles, which have become part of American culture.”

Speaker B: “United States industries are competing with established European manufacturers.

To prosper, American industries need the vast supply of unskilled labor that is provided by immigrants.”

Speaker C: “Immigrants are taking jobs at low wages without regard for long hours and

workers’ safety. American workers must unite to end this unfair competition.”

Speaker D: “Immigrants arrive in American cities poor and frightened. They are helped to find

jobs or housing. These newcomers should show their gratitude at voting time.”

3. Which speaker is most clearly expressing the melting pot theory?

(1) A

(2) B

(3) C

(4) D

4. Speaker D is expressing an opinion most like that of a

(1) labor union member

(2) religious leader

(3) factory owner

(4) political party boss

5. Between 1880 and 1900, most immigrants coming to the United States settled in the cities

along the east coast because

(1) many factory jobs were available in the East

(2) little farmland remained to be settled in the Midwest

(3) most immigrants came from the cities of Europe

(4) city laws afforded special rights and protections for immigrants

6. After 1880, a major new source of labor for American factories was

(1) western farmers who moved back to eastern cities

(2) young women who worked until they married

(3) formerly enslaved persons fleeing from the South

(4) immigrants from southern and eastern Europe

7. Between 1870 and 1920, the federal government placed few restrictions on immigration primarily because it wanted to

(1) sell land in the West

(2) recruit men for the military

(3) ensure that there would be workers for the factories

(4) avoid offending foreign governments

8. The “new immigrants” to the United States between 1890 and 1915 came primarily from

(1) southern and eastern Europe

(2) northern and western Europe

(3) East Asia

(4) Latin America

9. What was the experience of most of the “new immigrants” who arrived in the United States from southern and eastern Europe in the late 1800s and early 1900s?

(1) They lived in urban areas and most held low paying jobs.

(2) They obtained free land in the West and became farmers.

(3) They became discouraged with America and returned to their homelands.

(4) They were easily assimilated into mainstream American culture.

10. Between 1890 and 1915, the majority of immigrants to the United States were labeled “new immigrants” because they were

(1) considered physically and mentally superior to earlier immigrants

(2) forced to settle in the cities of the Midwest

(3) from China, Japan, and other Asian countries

(4) culturally different from most earlier immigrants

11. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, where did most of the immigrants to the United States settle?

(1) urban centers of the Northeast

(2) plantations of the New South

(3) mining areas of the Far West

(4) farming regions of the Great Plains

Base your answers to questions 12 and 13 on the statements below that discuss immigration laws in the early 20th century, and on your knowledge of social studies.

Speaker A: A literacy test as a requirement for immigration to the United States is

reasonable. Great numbers of uneducated workers take jobs and good wages from our workers.

Speaker B: Requiring literacy of immigrants is unfair. It will keep people out because

they lacked the opportunity to gain an education.

Speaker C: A literacy test will allow more people from northern and western Europe to

enter. They are similar to the majority of the United States population.

Speaker D: Literacy is not an issue. The real purpose of this law is to discriminate

against immigrants from certain parts of the world.

12. Supporters of literacy tests to restrict immigration would most likely favor the views of


(1) A and C

(2) B and C

(3) B and D

(4) A and B

13. The immigrants referred to by Speaker D were mainly from

(1) Canada and Mexico

(2) South America

(3) western Europe

(4) southern and eastern Europe

14. Which action by the federal government during the late 1800s is an example of nativism?

(1) passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act

(2) creation of tribal reservations in the East

(3) grants of financial aid to western farmers

(4) support for the construction of transcontinental railroads

15. Which expression most accurately illustrates the concept of nativism?

(1) “Help Wanted — Irish Need Not Apply”

(2) “Go West, young man.”

(3) “America — first in war and peace”

(4) “The only thing we have to fear, is fear itself.”

16. Which action is an example of nativism in the 1920s?

(1) widespread violation of Prohibition laws

(2) efforts to improve living conditions for Native American Indians

(3) passage of laws restricting immigration

(4) provision of credit to farmers

17. Which event represents an expression of nativism during the 1920s?

(1) trial of John Scopes for teaching evolution

(2) adoption of a quota system to limit immigration

(3) Charles Lindbergh’s solo transatlantic flight

(4) rise in popularity of spectator sports

18. Which factor contributed most to the growth of nativist attitudes in the United States in the years immediately following World War I?

(1) the establishment of national Prohibition

(2) a decline of organized religions

(3) the increase in the number of settlement houses

(4) the large numbers of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe

19. The influence of nativism during the 1920s is best illustrated by the

(1) increase in the popularity of the automobile

(2) emergence of the flappers

(3) expansion of trusts and monopolies

(4) growth of the Ku Klux Klan

20. The Gentlemen’s Agreement, literacy tests, and the quota system were all attempts by Congress to restrict

(1) immigration

(2) property ownership

(3) voting rights

(4) access to public education

21. One way in which the Chinese Exclusion Act, the Gentlemen’s Agreement, and the

National Origins Act were similar is that all were expressions of

(1) imperialism

(2) nativism

(3) militarism

(4) Manifest Destiny

22. Which pair of events illustrates an accurate cause-and-effect relationship?

(1) Sacco and Vanzetti trial  ratification of the woman suffrage amendment

(2) rebirth of the KKK  formation of the Populist Party

(3) Red Scare  demand for limits on immigration

(4) high food prices  start of the Great Depression

23. The data in the chart support the idea that the immigration laws of 1921 and 1924 were

primarily designed to

(1) stop illegal entry into the country

(2) admit skilled workers

(3) encourage immigration from southern Europe

(4) reduce immigration from specific regions

24. The United States adopted the immigration policies shown in the chart mainly because of

(1) pressures from nativists and labor unions

(2) hardships caused by the Great Depression

(3) prejudices generated during World War II

(4) threats from other nations to stop migration to the United States

25. A major goal of the immigration acts of the 1920s was to

(1) allow unlimited immigration from Southeast Asia

(2) assure equal numbers of immigrants from all nations

(3) favor wealthy and well-educated immigrants

(4) use quotas to limit immigration from southern and eastern Europe

26. The intent of the United States immigration laws of the 1920s was to

(1) increase economic opportunities for recent immigrants

(2) encourage cultural diversity

(3) restore an open-door policy toward immigration

(4) restrict immigration through the use of quotas

27. The Red Scare, the National Origins Acts of the 1920s, and the verdict in the Sacco and Vanzetti trial are examples of negative American attitudes toward

(1) immigrants

(2) business leaders

(3) African Americans

(4) labor union leaders

28. During the 1990s, an increase in Mexican immigration to the United States was caused by

the immigrants’ desire for

(1) greater political freedom

(2) bilingual education

(3) better economic opportunities

(4) religious freedom

29. According to the cartoonist, the United States has

(1) an ethnically diverse population

(2) an overly restrictive immigration policy

(3) a national requirement that high school students learn foreign languages

(4) a census report printed in languages that are spoken in the United States

30. Over the past twenty years, an objective of United States immigration policy has been to

(1) reduce the number of illegal immigrants

(2) keep out immigrants from former communist nations

(3) return to an open immigration policy

(4) encourage emigration from Western Europe

Answers for Immigration:

1) 2 2) 4 3) 1 4) 4 5) 1 6) 4 7) 3 8) 1 9) 1 10) 4 11) 1 12) 1 13) 4

14) 1 15) 1 16) 3 17) 2 18) 4 19) 4 20) 1 21) 2 22) 3 23) 4 24) 1 25) 4 26) 4 27) 1 28) 3 29) 1 30) 1

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