Unit 4 The American Revolution

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UNIT 4 The American Revolution

Paul Revere 1735–1818

Paul Revere's famous midnight ride is one of the legends of the Revolution. He and other alarm riders sped through the night to warn Patriots that British troops were on the move. page 251


History Makers

Mercy Otis Warren 1728–1814

This playwright used her skills as a writer to support the cause of freedom. Her plays made fun of British leaders and complained about how the British treated the colonies. page 250

Samuel Adams 1722–1803

What weapon did this famous Patriot use against the British? His sharp mind. Adams got Patriots together and secretly planned the Boston Tea Party, which enraged the British. page 235


UNIT 4 Almanac

North America, 1770


Connect to Today

Farming in 1770s

1770s Estimated number of farmers in 13 colonies: 1,350,000

Farming Today

Today Estimated number of U.S. agricultural workers: 3,300,000


Chapter 7 Causes of the Revolution

Vocabulary Preview


In 1754, representatives from the colonies met in a congress at Albany to discuss how to fight France. The members of a congress gather to discuss important issues. page 229


Colonists refused to buy or use British goods. Protesters who joined the boycott of British tea dumped crates of it into Boston Harbor. page 236

Chapter Timeline



George Washington was in charge of all the colonial soldiers. He was the commander of the Continental Army. page 254


Congress sent the Olive Branch Petition to King George. This petition asked for peace. page 254


Core Lesson 1 The French and Indian War






Vocabulary Strategy


A congress is a meeting of representatives. The word part con- means together. At a congress, representatives gather together.


Sequence Note the events of the French and Indian War in order.

Build on What You Know Do you often work as part of a group? Sometimes you can get more done that way. When Britain and its colonies went to war with France, some people felt that the colonies would be stronger if they worked together.

War Between France and Britain

Main Idea Great Britain and France fought for control of eastern North America.

Britain and France both had colonies in North America. (In the 1700s, Britain became another name for England.) The two countries had been enemies for hundreds of years and had fought many wars. In the 1750s, they went to war again. This time, they fought over the Ohio River Valley.

The Ohio River Valley is the land around the Ohio River. This river flows 1,000 miles from the Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi River. Many American Indians lived in the valley. They traded furs with the French in exchange for guns and other goods. The French wanted to have this trade all to themselves. They built forts to keep out the British.

British colonists wanted to trade furs and farm the land around the Ohio River. In 1754, the governor of Virginia ordered a young officer named George Washington to lead an army into the valley. A larger French army met them and defeated Washington's soldiers. After this defeat, the British government sent a stronger army to North America, and Britain went to war against France.


Choosing Sides

The war that began in the Ohio River Valley was called the French and Indian War. It spread through eastern North America. Britain and its colonists fought against France and its American Indian allies. An ally is a person or group that joins with another to work toward a goal.

Most American Indian nations were allies of the French. They included the Delaware, Ottawa, and Shawnee. France was their trading partner. To the French, trade was more important than settlement. Unlike the British, the French did not send many settlers to North America.

Some American Indian nations, such as the Mohawk, were allies of the British. The Mohawk had traded with the British for many years and had formed close ties.

George Washington The French and Indian War was his first experience in battle. This picture shows him at the capture of a French fort.

Benjamin Franklin's Albany Plan

Albany Plan Benjamin Franklin used this cartoon to tell colonists that working together was the only way to defeat the French. SKILL Reading Visuals What do the initials stand for in the cartoon?

In 1754, representatives from the colonies held a meeting to discuss how to fight France. Because they met in Albany, New York, the meeting was called the Albany Congress. A congress is a group of representatives who meet to discuss a subject. Representatives to a congress often vote on important issues.

Benjamin Franklin was at the Albany Congress. He had a plan to unite the colonies, known as the Albany Plan of Union. Franklin believed the colonies could fight better if they worked together. In his plan, each colony would keep its own government. The colonies would also have an overall government to solve problems that affected them all, such as wars. The colonies did not accept the plan. They were not ready to join together under one government.

REVIEW What was the Albany Plan?


Victory for Britain

Main Idea Britain gained new land in the French and Indian War, but it also had new problems.

New Lands By 1763, Britain gained control of French lands in North America. SKILL Reading Maps Describe how the map of North America changed between 1750 and 1763.

Britain was losing the French and Indian War until 1757, when William Pitt became the leader of Britain's Parliament, or government. Pitt was determined to win the war. He sent many ships and soldiers to North America, where they helped capture French forts. In 1759, a British army defeated the French near Quebec, which was a center of French power in Canada. The next year, Britain captured Montreal, another French city.

By 1763, France was ready to make peace with Britain. The two countries signed an agreement called the Treaty of Paris. As the map above shows, the treaty gave Britain control of Canada and most of the land east of the Mississippi River.

Troubles After the War

After the Treaty of Paris, British soldiers stayed in the Ohio River Valley. The American Indians who lived there wanted the British to leave. Pontiac (PAHN tee ak), an Ottawa chief, led American Indians in a war against the British, which was known as Pontiac's Rebellion. A rebellion is a fight against a government. Pontiac's warriors attacked British forts around the Great Lakes. Britain quickly defeated Pontiac's army. The rebellion lasted less than a year.

To prevent any more fighting with American Indians, Britain made a proclamation, or an official public statement. The Proclamation of 1763, as it was called, said that colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains. Britain recognized the Indian nations' rights to their land.


Many colonists were upset by the Proclamation of 1763. Now that the French were gone, colonists wanted to farm and settle in the Ohio River Valley. Colonists were also tired of British soldiers living among them. They no longer wanted the soldiers for protection.

As disagreements grew, colonists were willing to speak out. During the Great Awakening, 20 years before, colonists had challenged some of their church leaders. The colonists disagreed with them about religious ideas. After 1763, colonists began working together to oppose the decisions of their government as well.

REVIEW Why were colonists upset with Britain after the French and Indian War?

Pontiac This Ottawa chief was determined to drive out the British. But without French support, he could not win.
Lesson Summary

Britain won control of the Ohio River Valley in the French and Indian War. Afterward, Pontiac's Rebellion caused Britain to make the Proclamation of 1763 to stop colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains.

Why It Matters …

After the French and Indian War, colonists began to disagree with Britain's rule of the colonies.

Lesson Review

  1. VOCABULARY Choose the correct word to complete each sentence.

ally congress proclamation

In Albany, the colonies held a to discuss how to fight France.

The Mohawk nation was an of Britain.

  1. READING SKILL Look at the sequence of events of the French and Indian War. What events were most important for Britain's success?

  2. MAIN IDEA: Economics Why did British colonists want to control the Ohio River Valley?

  3. MAIN IDEA: Geography Where did the Proclamation of 1763 divide British territory?

  4. PEOPLE TO KNOW What role did George Washington play in the French and Indian War?

  5. TIMELINE SKILL Which happened first, the Battle of Quebec or Pontiac's Rebellion?

  6. CRITICAL THINKING: Cause and Effect What problems did Pontiac's Rebellion cause?

SPEAKING ACTIVITY Think about the advantages and disadvantages of the colonies joining together. Prepare a short speech to argue for or against the Albany Plan of Union.


Extend Lesson 1 Biography George Washington 1732–1799

George Washington didn't know much about war. In 1755, he had been an army officer for only a year. He was 23 years old and hadn't had much success. Now he and British soldiers, led by General Braddock, were heading toward Fort Duquesne (doo KAYN), located on the Ohio River. General Braddock planned to seize the fort from the French.

Suddenly, shots rang out. A surprise attack! French soldiers and their American Indian allies had been waiting for the British. A tough battle followed.Washington helped lead injured soldiers to safety. After the battle, he found that his jacket was marked by bullet holes.

Three years later,Washington joined another British army. This time, the British soldiers weren't beaten, and they captured Fort Duquesne. Washington had learned from his experiences, and his bravery made him a hero in Virginia. Years later, he would apply his experience to a great challenge. He would lead an army against the British and create a new nation.

Major Achievements

1754–1763 Fights in French and Indian War.

1775 Leads colonial army against British.

1783 Wins Revolutionary War


1789 Elected United States President


Core Lesson 2 Early Conflicts with Britain








Vocabulary Strategy


Lawmakers can repeal a law that people don't want any more. Two synonyms for repeal are “take back?? or “call off.??


Problem and Solution Note problems the colonists had with Britain and the solutions they found.

Build on What You Know You know you have to pay for things you buy. Governments have to pay the money they owe, too. The British government had to find ways to raise the money it had spent on the French and Indian War.

Britain Needs Money

Main Idea The British government tried to raise money in the colonies to pay for the French and Indian War.

Winning the French and Indian War cost Britain a great deal of money. Britain had paid for thousands of soldiers to fight in North America. It also kept soldiers in the Ohio River Valley to protect the land it had won. King George III and the British Parliament decided that American colonists should help pay the costs of the war.

Britain planned to raise money by collecting taxes. A tax is money that people pay to their government in return for services. Britain usually taxed goods that colonists imported. These were goods brought from outside the colonies. When colonists bought imported goods such as cloth, some of the money they paid went to the British government.

King George III When George III became king at the age of 22, his country was already winning the French and Indian War.


New Taxes

Tax Stamps The Stamp Act put a tax on almost everything that was printed. To buy newspapers, calendars, and even playing cards, colonists had to pay for a tax stamp.

In 1764, Britain created a new tax with a law called the Sugar Act. This act taxed not only sugar, but many other imported goods such as coffee and cloth. Some merchants avoided paying the tax by smuggling, which means to import goods illegally. Merchants secretly brought the goods into the colonies so British officials could not tax them. In 1765, Parliament created another tax called the Stamp Act. This act taxed anything printed on paper.

Colonists were upset by the new taxes, because they could not take part in passing tax laws. Many believed that their local elected representatives, not Parliament, should pass tax laws for the colonies. American colonists had no representatives in the British Parliament, but did have representatives in their local governments.

Patrick Henry, a member of Virginia's House of Burgesses, made an angry speech against the Stamp Act. He said Britain was using its power unfairly. People all over the colonies heard about his speech, and many agreed with him.

Protests Colonists held protests to show how much they hated the Stamp Act.

Across the colonies, groups formed and called themselves the Sons of Liberty. Liberty means freedom from being controlled by another government.

Samuel Adams was an important leader of the Sons of Liberty in Boston. Adams and the Sons of Liberty organized protests against the Stamp Act. A protest is an event at which people complain about an issue.

Sometimes the Sons of Liberty and other groups used violence to resist the Stamp Act. Colonists wrecked the homes of a few British officials and beat up tax collectors.

REVIEW What was the goal of Samuel Adams and other Sons of Liberty?


Conflict Over Taxes

Main Idea Britain canceled the Stamp Act but then tried to pass new taxes.

In October 1765, nine colonies sent representatives to a meeting in New York City called the Stamp Act Congress. This congress decided that only the colonial governments could tax the colonists.

Merchants in large port cities such as New York and Philadelphia agreed to hold a boycott of British goods. In a boycott, a group of people refuses to buy, sell, or use certain goods. Colonists stopped buying British cloth and other goods. The boycott was a way of hurting British trade. The merchants hoped that the boycott would force the British government to cancel the Stamp Act.

The boycotts and protests worked. Parliament agreed to repeal the Stamp Act in 1766. To repeal a law means to cancel it.

The Townshend Acts

Although the British government repealed the Stamp Act, it still needed money. In 1767, Parliament created new taxes to pay for the services of British governors and soldiers in the colonies.

The new taxes, called the Townshend Acts, put a tax on the tea, glass, lead, paints, and paper that the colonies imported. Colonists were just as angry about the Townshend Acts as they had been about the Stamp Act.

Colonists in Boston threatened to use violence against British tax officials. After an angry mob injured several people, the British government sent soldiers to protect its tax officials. Many people in Boston did not want British soldiers in their city.

Boycott Colonial merchants in port cities refused to buy or sell goods brought from Britain by ship. SKILL Reading Graphs Pounds are British money. How much did the value of imports decrease between 1764 and 1766?


Daughters of Liberty

Deborah Franklin Even wealthy women, including the wife of Benjamin Franklin, made their own cloth during the boycott.

In response to the Townshend Acts, colonists held a boycott of the British goods they bought the most. Instead of importing British goods, such as cloth, the colonists made their own. Organizations of women known as the Daughters of Liberty wove their own cloth and used it to make clothes. These women did chores early in the morning, gathered to weave all day, and then returned home to do more chores. Because of their hard work, colonists did not have to buy as much British cloth.

During the boycotts, British merchants lost money. Parliament decided to remove the taxes from glass, lead, paints, and paper. The tax on tea remained, though. Parliament wanted to show that it still had the power to tax the colonies.

Colonists felt that Britain should not even tax tea unless the colonies had representatives in Parliament. Although most of the taxes had been repealed, anger towards the British government continued to grow.

REVIEW Why did the British Parliament pass the Townshend Acts?
Lesson Summary

Why It Matters …

American colonists wanted only their own elected representatives to pass taxes on them. This idea is important to people in the United States today.

Lesson Review

  1. VOCABULARY Show that you know the meaning of tax, boycott, and repeal. Write a paragraph using the words.

  2. READING SKILL Why were boycotts an effective solution to the problem of taxes?

  3. MAIN IDEA: Economics Why did Britain create the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act?

  4. MAIN IDEA: Citizenship Why did colonists protest Britain's new taxes?

  5. PEOPLE TO KNOW Who was Samuel Adams, and what did he do to oppose the Stamp Act?

  6. TIMELINE SKILL About how long after the Stamp Act were the Townshend Acts passed?

  7. CRITICAL THINKING: Summarize What did the colonists do to protest British taxes?

ART ACTIVITY Think about why Britain created the Stamp Act and why the colonists hated it. Make a pamphlet to persuade colonists to obey or oppose the Stamp Act.


Extend Lesson 2 Economics Taxes in the Colonies

It is two in the afternoon on September 12, 1769. Anna and Tom Hart run an inn near New York City. They are working together on a letter to the British governor of New York. They want to tell him that they oppose the Townshend Acts. These new taxes have made some important items more expensive for them. The Harts are upset because they had no voice in creating the taxes. Colonists have no representatives in Parliament, so they cannot take part in decisions that affect them.

Paint Better-quality paint comes from Britain, but the tax on it makes the price higher. To avoid the tax, the Harts painted this furniture and the walls with paints made in the colonies.

Tea Like many other colonists, the Harts love British tea. Now, they refuse to drink it because of the British tax on it. This is Dutch tea, smuggled in from the Caribbean.


Glass When Tom and Anna need to replace a broken windowpane, they find that the Townshend Acts make glass more expensive.

Paper The Harts need lots of paper to keep track of their business, but there is a tax on paper from Britain.


Core Lesson 3 Conflicts Grow






Vocabulary Strategy


Delegate comes from a word meaning “to send.?? A delegate is someone you send in your place.


Predict Outcomes As you read, predict what the colonists will do to complain to George III about taxes.

Build on What You Know Today, you can find out what is happening in the world from radio, television, newspapers, or the Internet. In colonial America, however, it was harder to learn about the news. Colonial leaders decided they needed better ways to share news.

Trouble in Boston

Main Idea Events in Boston created more trouble between the colonists and the British government.

Remember that Britain had sent soldiers to protect its officials in Boston. The people of Boston did not want British soldiers in their city. Frustrated colonists often fought with the soldiers.

On March 5, 1770, a fight began when a crowd of people in Boston argued with a British soldier. The crowd yelled insults and threw snowballs. More soldiers arrived, and suddenly one of them fired a shot. Then several other soldiers fired their guns. Five colonists were killed. One of them was Crispus Attucks, an African American sailor who is remembered today as a hero. Afterward, angry colonists called the fight a massacre. A massacre is the killing of many people.

Crispus Attucks One of the five men killed during the Boston Massacre was Crispus Attucks. He was a sailor who had escaped from slavery.


Colonists Take Action

The Boston Massacre Paul Revere made this image of the Boston Massacre. SKILL Primary Sources How close is this picture to the truth?

  1. Title Revere's title begins with the words “The Bloody Massacre.??

  2. Soldiers British soldiers are shown taking aim and firing as a group.

  3. Colonists Colonists are not shown attacking the soldiers. They do not look like an angry crowd.

Paul Revere, a Son of Liberty and a Boston silversmith, created a picture of the Boston Massacre. It showed British soldiers shooting at colonists who are peaceful, not angry. The Sons of Liberty used the picture to convince colonists that British soldiers were dangerous.

The soldiers at the Boston Massacre were put on trial. John Adams, an important Boston lawyer, defended the soldiers at their trial. He wanted to show Britain that colonial courts were fair. Adams tried to prove that the soldiers had been protecting themselves from the crowd. Six soldiers were found innocent, and two were lightly punished.

At the time of the Boston Massacre, news traveled slowly. Samuel Adams wanted more colonists to know what was happening around the colonies. In 1772, Adams and other colonial leaders in Boston set up Committees of Correspondence to share news with the other colonies. Correspondence is written communication.

Soon every colony had Committees of Correspondence. They sent each other letters about what the British were doing and what actions colonists could take.

REVIEW What was the importance of the Committees of Correspondence?


The Boston Tea Party

Main Idea Colonists worked together to oppose British taxes and laws.

Boston Tea Party A crowd of colonists watched as Sons of Liberty, dressed up to look like Mohawk Indians, emptied 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor.

In 1773, Parliament passed the Tea Act. This law allowed the East India Company of Britain to sell tea in America at a very low price. For years, merchants had avoided paying taxes by smuggling tea into the colonies from other countries. The Tea Act made taxed tea even cheaper than smuggled tea.

If colonists bought the inexpensive tea, they would be paying a British tax at the same time. They did not believe that Parliament should tax them without their agreement. They also did not want only one company to control the tea trade.

Boston merchants would not sell the East India Tea. It sat unloaded on the ships in Boston Harbor. British officials refused to allow the tea to go back to Britain. Colonists decided to get rid of the unwanted tea.

On the night of December 16, 1773, several dozen Sons of Liberty boarded the ships illegally. They threw the tea into the harbor. This event is known as the Boston Tea Party.

The Boston Tea Party shocked the British. Parliament, led by Lord Frederick North, passed laws called the Coercive Acts to punish colonists in Massachusetts. To coerce means to force. The colonists called these laws the Intolerable Acts. Intolerable means unbearable.

The laws stopped trade between Boston and Britain, ended most town meetings, and gave Britain more control over the colony's government. British soldiers returned to Boston. Bostonians had to quarter the soldiers. To quarter people is to give them food and shelter.

Committees of Correspondence spread news of the Intolerable Acts. People throughout the colonies were furious with Britain. They felt the laws were too harsh.


The First Continental Congress

Colonists agreed to hold a meeting to discuss the Intolerable Acts. They sent delegates to meet in Philadelphia. A delegate is someone chosen to speak and act for others. On September 5, 1774, delegates from every colony except Georgia met. The meeting became known as the First Continental Congress.

The congress wrote a letter to the British government and the American colonists. The letter said that colonists should have the same freedoms as other British citizens. It asked King George III and Parliament to stop taxing colonists without their agreement and to repeal the Intolerable Acts.

The delegates decided to meet again in May if the king refused their demands. In the meantime, the colonists stopped trade with Britain. They began to train for battle in case war with Britain broke out.

The king made plans to send more soldiers to Boston. He declared that the colonists had begun a rebellion.

REVIEW Why did the First Continental Congress meet?

Lesson Summary

  • British soldiers killed several colonists in the Boston Massacre.

  • Committees of Correspondence helped different colonies stay in touch.

  • In 1773, colonists dumped tea into Boston Harbor to protest the Tea Act.

  • Britain passed the Intolerable Acts in response to the Boston Tea Party.
Why It Matters …

Disagreement over taxes increased conflict between colonists and the British government.

Lesson Review

  1. VOCABULARY Show that you know what the words delegate and correspondence mean. Use the words in a paragraph about the First Continental Congress.

  2. READING SKILL Review the prediction you made as you read. What was the actual outcome?

  3. MAIN IDEA: Economics What is one reason some colonists did not like the Tea Act?

  4. MAIN IDEA: History What was one important effect of the Tea Act on the colonists?

  5. PEOPLE TO KNOW Why did John Adams defend in court the British soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre?

  6. TIMELINE SKILL How many years after the Boston Massacre did the First Continental Congress meet?

  7. CRITICAL THINKING: Synthesize Paul Revere's drawing of the Boston Massacre is on page 241. Describe what a British drawing of the event might have looked like.

WRITING ACTIVITY The First Continental Congress tried to persuade King George III to repeal the Intolerable Acts. Write a letter to King George III that the delegates might have written, explaining why he should repeal the Intolerable Acts.


Extend Lesson 3 Literature Emma's Journal

by Marissa Moss

When ten-year-old Emma Millar is sent to Boston to help her Aunt Harmony, she decides to write and illustrate a journal. The year is 1774, and British troops have blockaded Boston Harbor.

July 18, 1774

Emma Millar – 10 years old

The Boston “Tea Party??

The house is hush and still. I should be asleep, like everyone else, but I am too excited, so I have taken my journal to the windowsill and write by the light of the full moon. Tomorrow I leave our farm in Menetomy and go to Boston, such a big, bustling city. I have never been there, but Daddy says 'tis a fine, fancy city, with cobbled streets, stores heaped with rich goods, and not one church but nine! I would go with all my heart if Daddy, Mamma, or even my little sister, Mercy, should stay with me, but I will be alone. Except, of course, for Aunt Harmony — 'tis for her sake I go. She has no serving girl since the British blockaded Boston. (This past winter Americans dumped British tea into the harbor to protest the new tea tax. Daddy called it a “tea party,?? but with the blockade as punishment, no one feels festive now.)


All of Aunt's boarders but one, Thankful Bliss, have left as well, fearful of the British troops that have taken over the city. I should think I should be fearful, too, but Daddy says we are good subjects of the King and have no cause to fret, especially not 10-year-old girls.

The city is as lively and fashionable as Daddy said. People dressed in London styles stroll the clean streets, and vendors hawk pies, eggs, and butter despite the blockade.

July 23, 1774

I woke in a strange room in a strange house to the sounds of fife and drum as the regulars drilled on the common. How I long for birdsong and the peaceful chirping of crickets! I miss the fresh country air and my dear Mamma and Daddy, Mercy, and my brothers, John, Paul, and Duncan. I feel out of place in this big, strange city, and out of sorts in this house.

I got this engraving from Mr. Revere when I took a spoon to his shop to be repaired. Boston, once full of merchantships, is now empty except for British warships.


July 28, 1774

Dr. Joseph Warren came to tea today. Aunt is very proud of her tea service as 'twas made by Paul Revere, a fine silversmith, and, like Dr. Warren, a noted Son of Liberty. I call it tea, but we drink coffee or chocolate — Aunt is a staunch Whig and boycotts all British goods.

Dr. Warren is a fine, handsome gentleman, elegantly dressed and wearing a brown tie wig (which I much prefer to powdered hair — how it makes me sneeze!). Aunt dotes on him, but Thankful distrusts him as she is a fierce Tory while he thinks the colonies should govern themselves without England's interference. Thankful says the patriots are “low rabble?? who want mob rule, but Dr. Warren is no ruffian. He is charming and interesting. Talking with him I feel I understand the world better. (And elsewhere it seems such a muddle. Are we British or American? What does it mean to be a Whig or a Tory? Dr. Warren says we can support the King but must first stand up for ourselves.)

Hairstyles of the illustrious and wealthy

September 15, 1774

I have found a friend in Amos, our neighbor. He fishes in the harbor (but the regulars allow it only so long as he sells most of his catch to them). He is so cheery and full of news, I relish his visits. It has been near 3 months since I left home and I miss my family terribly, so I asked Amos if he could take me for a short visit. (Aunt said 'twas fine with her.)


But when we came to the city gates, the sentries refused to let us pass without a permit. Off we went to military headquarters to procure the needed document, but all I procured was a stiff back from sitting on a hard bench, waiting, waiting, waiting. Finally Major Small deigned to see me and I begged to leave to see my family. He did not even glance my way but said, “No.??

After waiting so long, I could not leave it at that. “But why, sir??? I protested. “I am a mere child. What danger can I be to His Majesty's army???

“I said no,?? he repeated, and this time he did look at me, glaring, “because you are saucy and do not know your place. Is it the air you breathe that makes you colonists so impertinent? Even a young maid dares to sass an officer? Out with you — you have wasted enough of my time!??

I dared not murmur a word. I ran out, crying. Would I never see Mamma and Daddy again? Was Boston a city or a prison?

Amos said 'twas our timing that was bad — the regulars just seized some fieldpieces from the militia in Cambridge and in response guns were stolen from the British battery in Boston (right under the sentries' noses!). The officers now suspect everyone of preparing for an armed rebellion. Will arms really be taken up?

The soldiers are called lobsterbacks because of their red uniforms.


Skillbuilder Reading and Thinking skills Identify Causes and Effects




Historians want to know what happened in the past. They also want to know why it happened. They look for the causes and effects of events. A cause is an event or action that makes something else happen. An effect is another event or action that is a result of the cause.

Some events have more than one cause. Some have more than one effect.

Many times, an effect can cause another event or action.


Apply Critical Thinking

Learn the Skill

Step 1: Look for clue words that signal causes and effects. Words such as because, since, led to, and the reason why signal causes. Words such as so, therefore, after this, and as a result signal effects.

Step 2: Identify the cause of an event. Check to see if there is more than one cause.

Step 3: Identify the effect. Check to see if there is more than one effect. Think about whether any of the effects then become causes.

Practice the Skill

Reread pages 242-243 of Lesson 3. Copy and fill out a diagram like the one below. Then answer the following questions.

  1. What was one cause of the Intolerable Acts?

  2. What was one effect of the Intolerable Acts?

  3. Explain in a few sentences how you identified the causes and effects.

Apply the Skill

Organize the major events on pages 228-231 of Lesson 1. Place the Proclamation of 1763 at the center of the chart. Then fill in the causes and effects. Make sure you have at least one cause and one effect.


Core Lesson 4 War Begins







Vocabulary Strategy


A militia is an army of ordinary people. It comes from the same word as military.


Cause and Effect Note causes of the war between Britain and the colonies.

Build on What You Know When Britain and France could not agree on control of the Ohio River Valley, they went to war. What do you think happened when Britain and the colonists disagreed and could not get along anymore?

Moving Toward War

Main Idea Conflict between the colonists and Britain led to the Battles of Lexington and Concord.

In 1775, many colonists felt that the Intolerable Acts were too harsh. There were more than 3,000 British soldiers in Boston. The British navy blocked Boston Harbor to keep ships from entering or leaving Boston.

Patriots spoke out against the British government. Colonists who opposed British rule called themselves Patriots. Mercy Otis Warren was a Patriot writer. She wrote plays criticizing British officials in Boston. In Virginia, Patrick Henry, another Patriot, said that he was eager for a war with Britain. Many colonists shared his views.

Throughout the colonies, militias prepared for war. A militia is a group of ordinary people who train for battle. Most of the men in the militia were farmers.

Militia The men in militias did not have much training, but they were willing to fight to defend their homes.


Paul Revere's Ride

Paul Revere This map shows the routes taken by Paul Revere and other Patriots to sound the alarm in Lexington and Concord.

British leaders were worried about the militias. General Thomas Gage, the new British governor of Massachusetts, had orders to stop any possible rebellion. He learned that Patriots were storing gunpowder and cannons in Concord, about 20 miles from Boston. Gage decided to send soldiers to destroy the supplies. The soldiers would march at night to take the Patriots by surprise.

General Gage could not keep his plan secret. Patriots in Boston soon knew what was planned. They used lanterns in the tower of Boston's Old North Church to warn Patriots outside the city that British soldiers were coming. Two Patriots also rode out to warn the militia. One rider was Paul Revere, the silversmith. The other was William Dawes.

On the night of April 18, 1775, an army of 700 British soldiers set off for Concord. Revere and Dawes galloped ahead, alerting sleeping minutemen along the way. Minutemen were militia with special training. They had to be ready for battle at a minute's notice.

Racing through the night, Revere told the minutemen, “The Regulars are coming out!?? Regulars was a word for British soldiers. Other riders, such as Samuel Prescott, helped Revere and Dawes spread the alarm.

British soldiers captured Revere in Lexington, but Dawes and Prescott escaped. Prescott rode on to Concord. The soldiers later released Revere.

REVIEW Why did General Gage send British soldiers to Concord?


The First Battles

Main Idea Colonists and British soldiers fought two battles in Massachusetts.

The British soldiers reached Lexington just before sunrise on April 19. A small group of minutemen were waiting there. A British officer told the minutemen to leave. As the minutemen turned to go, someone fired a shot. No one knows whether the shot came from a British soldier or a colonist. Both sides began shooting. When they stopped, eight colonists were dead and nine were wounded. Only one British soldier had been hurt. The British marched on to Concord.

As the British searched Concord for hidden weapons, more minutemen gathered nearby. Fighting soon started.

The minutemen forced the British to turn back toward Boston. Many years later, the poet Ralph Waldo Emerson called this event

“the shot heard 'round the world.??

The British soldiers were in a dangerous situation on the way back. Patriots from the towns between Concord and Boston, as well as towns farther north and south, were ready. As the British marched back to Boston, colonists shot at them from behind trees and stone walls. More than 250 British soldiers were wounded or killed before the British reached Boston.

News of the Battles of Lexington and Concord spread quickly. More and more militias arrived in Boston. Soon thousands of armed colonists surrounded the city. The British in Boston were trapped.

April 19, 1775 Battles of Lexington and Concord

1 A.M. Paul Revere and others warn the minutemen that British soldiers are marching to Concord.

5 A.M. Minutemen clash with the British at Lexington. The minutemen are forced to flee. The drum on the left was used by the minutemen at Lexington.


Bunker Hill

After the Patriot militia surrounded Boston, they had time to plan. Militia leaders decided to build a fort on Bunker Hill, across the Charles River from Boston. From there, they could fire cannons at the British soldiers in Boston.

When the militia reached Bunker Hill, they chose to build their fort on Breed's Hill instead. It was closer to Boston. They worked through the night of June 16, building a fort with dirt walls six feet high. The next morning, the surprised British attacked the fort.

More than 2,000 British soldiers began to march up Breed's Hill. William Prescott, a Patriot leader, told the militia,

“Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes.??

When the British were close enough, the militia in the fort began shooting. Many soldiers fell, and the British were forced back. Minutes later, the British attacked again and were turned back. The third time the British attacked, the Patriots ran out of gunpowder. The British finally captured the fort, but more than half of their soldiers were hurt or killed.

The battle was called the Battle of Bunker Hill, although it was fought on Breed's Hill. The British won, but the Patriots had proved that they could fight well. One British general said that winning another battle like it “would have ruined us.?? They could not afford to lose so many soldiers.

REVIEW Why was the Battle of Bunker Hill important for the colonists?

8 A.M. Colonists and British soldiers begin shooting at each other at the Old North Bridge in Concord. The British turn back after several of their soldiers are killed.

Noon The British begin to march back to Boston. During their long march, thousands of minutemen shoot at them from behind trees and stone walls. The British soldiers finally reach safety in Charlestown at 7 P.M.


A Colonial Army

Main Idea The Second Continental Congress prepared for a war against Britain.

Remember that the First Continental Congress had sent a list of demands to the British government. When Britain refused to meet their demands, the colonial delegates gathered again in Philadelphia in the spring of 1775. This meeting became known as the Second Continental Congress.

The delegates knew that they might soon be at war with Britain. They needed more than an untrained militia to win a war against the British. They needed an army. The militia only fought for a few months at a time. Soldiers in an army fight until a war is over.

Washington in Command Washington became commander of the Continental Army in 1775. He used the writing case below while he was leading the army.

Congress decided to create a new army called the Continental Army. The members of the Continental Army would be trained soldiers, like the British.

Congress looked for a commander for the new Continental Army. A commander is the officer in charge of an army. In June of 1775, they chose George Washington. Washington had fought in the French and Indian War. People knew he was a brave and skilled soldier. Washington rode to Boston to organize the Continental Army.

The Olive Branch Petition

Many delegates to the Second Continental Congress did not want war with Britain. They only wanted to be treated fairly. Congress made one more try at peace with Britain. In July of 1775, the delegates sent King George III the Olive Branch Petition. A petition is a written request from a number of people. The olive branch is a symbol of peace. The petition asked the king to help end the conflict. King George did not even read the Olive Branch Petition. Instead, he sent more soldiers to the colonies.


Ticonderoga This important fort was captured from the British by Patriot militia in 1775. Its cannons were hauled to Boston to help the Continental Army.

For the next nine months, the British army stayed in Boston. Washington spent that time turning the colonial militia into a real army. He also sent a trusted officer, Colonel Henry Knox, to Fort Ticonderoga in New York. Americans had captured the fort and its cannons earlier that year.

Knox and his soldiers dragged the cannons to Boston. When the cannons arrived, the British decided to leave Boston. On March 17, 1776, they sailed out of Boston Harbor. Forcing the British to leave Boston was a success for the Patriots, but the war was just beginning.

REVIEW What was the Olive Branch Petition?

Lesson Summary

British soldiers and colonists fought at Lexington and Concord, and again on Breed's Hill. The Second Continental Congress made George Washington commander of the new Continental Army. Congress also sent King George III the Olive Branch Petition in an attempt to make peace, but he ignored it.

Why It Matters …

Battles in Massachusetts were the beginning of the war to free colonists from British rule.

Lesson Review

  1. VOCABULARY Write a news report about the Battles of Lexington and Concord using the words Patriot, minutemen, and militia.

  2. READING SKILL Why were the Battles of Lexington and Concord a cause of war with Britain?

  3. MAIN IDEA: History What prepared the militia for the arrival of the British soldiers at Lexington?

  4. MAIN IDEA: Government Why did the Second Continental Congress send the Olive Branch Petition to King George III?

  5. PEOPLE TO KNOW What did Paul Revere do to help the Patriot cause?

  6. TIMELINE SKILL When did the battles of Lexington and Concord happen?

  7. CRITICAL THINKING: Compare and Contrast In what ways are a militia and an army alike? In what ways are they different?

WRITING ACTIVITY The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first fights between colonists and British soldiers. Write a description of what happened on April 19 from the point of view of a minuteman or a British soldier.


Extend Lesson 4 Geography Battle of Bunker Hill

Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes!?? A Patriot officer is said to have given this famous order as 2,000 British soldiers marched closer and closer up the hill. It was June 17, 1775. The Battle of Bunker Hill in Charlestown was the first major clash between large numbers of British soldiers and Patriot militia. The geography of Charlestown forced the British attackers to march uphill.Why did this make a difference?


Events of June 17th, 1775

  1. Patriot militia built a fort on Breed's Hill to fire on British ships and soldiers in Boston. They first planned to build their fort on Bunker Hill, but it was too far from Boston.

  2. Cannons on British ships could not destroy the Patriots' fort.

  3. The British in Boston fired red-hot cannonballs and set Charlestown on fire.

  4. Three times, British soldiers marched slowly uphill toward the fort. Hot, tired, weighed down by 125 pounds of gear, the British soldiers were easy targets for Patriot gunfire.

  5. To save ammunition, the Patriots waited to shoot until the British soldiers were almost on top of them. The British only captured the fort when the Patriots ran out of bullets.


Chapter 7 Review and Test Prep

Visual Summary

1–4. Write a description of each event named below.

Facts and Main Ideas

TEST PREP Answer each question with information from the chapter.

  1. Geography What was the purpose of the Proclamation of 1763?

  2. Economics What was the Stamp Act?

  3. Economics Why did the British government need to tax the colonists?

  4. Government Why were colonists angry about British taxes?

  5. History Who was Paul Revere?

  6. History Why did the Second Continental Congress decide to form a colonial army?


TEST PREP Choose the correct word from the list below to complete each sentence.

ally, p. 229

liberty, p. 235

petition, p. 254

  1. Colonists opposed to the Stamp Act became members of the Sons of .

  2. The Mohawk nation was an of the British, not the French.

  3. Colonists at the Second Continental Congress sent one final to King George III.



Apply Skills

TEST PREP Reading and Thinking Skill Use the organizer below and what you have learned about causes and effects to answer each question.

  1. What was a cause of the Battles of Lexington and Concord?

  2. Committees of Correspondence formed.

  3. The British went to find military supplies in Concord.

  4. The British were forced out of Boston.

  5. The Continental Army was formed.

  6. What was a result of the Battles of Lexington and Concord?

  7. Committees of Correspondence formed.

  8. The British went to find military supplies in Concord.

  9. British troops were sent to Boston.

  10. The Continental Army was formed.

Critical Thinking

TEST PREP Write a short paragraph to answer each question.

  1. Infer Why do you think King George III did not accept the Olive Branch Petition?

  2. Compare and Contrast List ways in which the First and Second Continental Congresses were alike and different.


Use the Chapter Summary Timeline above to answer the question.

  1. How long after the Albany Congress did the First Continental Congress meet?


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