Unit 4: Mexican Texas Colonization Through Rebellion against Spanish Rule in the Early 1800s



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Battle of Gonzales – This was the first battle of the Texas Revolution on October 2, 1835. Citizens of Gonzales would not give up a cannon that was given to them by the Mexican government to protect them from Indians. A militia led by John H. Moore flew a flag over it that said “Come and Take It”. Lieutenant Francisco Castaneda led 100 men to Gonzales to take the cannon. The Texas militia fired the cannon on October 2 at the Mexican soldiers, a battle began, and so did the Texas Revolution.

  • Battle of San AntonioAfter Gonzales, more Texas volunteers join the army and the Texans go on to take Goliad. Led by Stephen F. Austin, they head to San Antonio de Bexar to defeat General Cos. The Texans don’t have any heavy cannon to attack them, so they lay siege to San Antonio for nearly two months. Just when the Texans were to give up, Ben Milam and Frank Johnson lead the Texans in a surprise attack and force Mexican troops into the Alamo. General Cos surrenders and vows to never return to Texas again. Texans think the war is over, but Santa Anna is gathering his army to head towards Texas.

  • The Alamo – Sam Houston ordered the Alamo to be destroyed. James Bowie and James Neill decided that the Alamo was too important. James Bowie (led volunteers) and William B. Travis (led regulars) began to recruit supporters. One of those supporters was the famous David Crockett, a Congressman from Tennessee. Santa Anna arrived unexpectedly in San Antonio on February 23. The Texans didn’t think he would lead his army through harsh, winter conditions. The Texans moved into the Alamo and for 13 days were bombarded by the Mexican cannon fire. During this time, Travis wrote a letter “To the People of Texas and All Americans in the World”. He signs it “Victory or Death”, meaning that Texans will die fighting for victory. His purpose was to recruit men to help the Texans trapped in the Alamo. Only 32 men from Gonzales responded and arrived at the Alamo to help. The fall of the Alamo occurred on the morning of March 6, 1836. 1800 Mexican troops fought against approximately 189 Texans for about 3 hours. All Texans were killed (Including Travis, Bowie, and Crockett), and approximately 600 Mexican soldiers were also killed (1/4 of the Mexican Army). The fall of the Alamo is devastating news to Texans everywhere.
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