Rebellion against Spanish Rule in the Early 1800s – Philip Nolan, a filibuster and mustanger from the United States came to Texas in 1800 with Spanish approval, but Spain was suspicious of the U.S. taking control of Texas. In 1810, the Hidalgo Revolution called on Mexican people to revolt against Spain. He was unsuccessful and later executed. In 1812, Gutierrez-Magee Expedition led by Gutiérrez (follower of Father Hidalgo) and Magee (former U.S. soldier) organized the Republican Army of the North and proclaimed Texas independent of Spain. But the Spanish Royalist Army defeated the Republican Army of the North at the Battle of Medina in 1813, along the Medina River south of San Antonio. The expedition failed but encouraged others to free Texas and Mexico from Spanish rule. Galveston Pirates such as Jean Lafitte and Louis Michel Aury attacked Spanish ships in 1817. And James Long led a group from Mississippi to Nacogdoches where he declared Texas independent from Spain. While looking for military support, he was captured, taken to Mexico City, and shot.