New political, economic, and social structures emerge upon the collapse of existing political systems to provide protection and services to people in a society.
— What were the causes and effects of the spread of Christianity, the decline of Rome and the formation of medieval Europe from 600 to 1450?
— What was the impact of the fall of Rome on Western Europe?
— How did the development of Christianity act as a unifying social and political factor in medieval Europe and the Byzantine Empire?
— What are the characteristics of Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy?
— What were the major characteristics of and the factors contributing to the development of the political/social system of feudalism and the economic system of manorialism?
— How did Islam impact Europe politically, economically, and socially?
— How did Muslim, Christian, and Jewish societies in Europe interact?
— How did the Crusades, the Black Death, the Hundred Years' War, and the Great Schism contribute to the end of medieval Europe?
— What has been the impact of political and legal ideas contained in historic documents including Justinian’s Code of Laws and the Magna Carta?
— What are the political philosophies of significant individuals including Thomas Aquinas?
— What have been the historical origins, central ideas, and spread of major religious and philosophical traditions including Christianity and the development of monotheism?
Feudalism – the system of political organization prevailing in Europe from the 9th to about the 15th centuries having as its basis the relation of lords granting parcels of land known as fiefs to lesser knights who are known as vassals, who in turn, provide military service to the lord.
Manorialism – smallest economic social unit revolving around an estate, controlled by a lord, who gives land and protection to his serfs, who in turn give him their services.
Schism – a formal division in or separation from a church or religious body
Hundred Years’ War– a series of wars between England and France from 1337 through 1453
Explain --IMPACT OF FALL OF ROME ON WESTERN EUROPE
Disruption of trade that leads to collapse of businesses, destruction of economic centers, and scarcity of money as a result of invasions
Downfall of cities as centers of administration
Shift to a rural population as Roman citizens abandoned destroyed cities
Decline of learning since Germanic invaders could not read or write
Loss of a common language as Latin changes and different dialects develop
Change in the concept of government from one of loyalty to public government and written law shifts to governance through unwritten laws and traditions
Explain -- DEVELOPMENT OF CHRISTIANITY AS UNIFYING SOCIAL AND POLITICAL FACTOR IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE AND BYZANTINE EMPIRE
Constantine relocates the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire to Byzantium and renames it Constantinople
Justinian constructs the Hagia Sophia along with numerous other grand churches throughout his empire to show the close connection between church and state
Missionary Saints Cyril and Methodius Christianize Slavs to the north of the empire and develop the Cyrillic language to promote religion to the Slavs
Missionaries spread Christianity
Authority in medieval Europe based on the Church
Charlemagne crowned emperor by Pope Leo III, which shows the close connection between church and state
Shared beliefs in Christianity bond the people of medieval Europe
Church provided stability and security in times of frequent wars
Middle Ages seen as the “Age of Faith”
Church creates a system of justice (canon law) to regulate people’s conduct
Great Schism of 1054 divides the Eastern and Western Churches into Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church
Pope has authority over all other bishops, kings, and emperors
Services conducted in Latin
Priests cannot marry
Divorce is not permitted
Patriarch and other bishops lead the church as a collective group
Services conducted in Greek or local languages
Priests may marry
Divorce is allowed under certain circumstances
Describe --MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO FEUDALISM (POLITICAL AND SOCIAL) AND MANORIALISM (ECONOMIC)
Feudalism – Reciprocal military obligations between members of the warrior nobility in Medieval Europe
Characteristics – Lords grant parcels of land known as fiefs to lesser knights who are known as vassals, who in turn, provide military service to the lord. Chivalry and fealty between a lord and the vassal relationship
Contributing factors – Fall of the Roman Empire leaves a gap in protection and services to people, invaders overrun communities, people turn to lords for their protection
Manorialism – Smallest economic, social unit revolving around an estate, controlled by a lord, who gives land and protection to his serfs, who in turn give him their services. Land = wealth
Characteristics – Manors were self-sufficient where serfs raised and produced nearly everything needed for that community. The open field system allowed several families of serfs to farm strips of the same parcel of land. Living conditions for serfs were generally harsh on manors.
Contributing factors – Model of villas in the Roman Empire used to manage rural economies; decline in overland and sea trade after the fall of the Roman empire as well as threats from invaders also promoted the self-sufficiency of a manor
Explain -- POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF ISLAM ON EUROPE, ASIA, AND AFRICA
Moors occupy Spain for over 700 years and promote a golden age in art, literature, science, and mathematics
Defeat by the Franks at Tours in 732 stops the Muslim invasion of Europe
Describe -- INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MUSLIM, CHRISTIAN, AND JEWISH SOCIETIES IN EUROPE, ASIA, AND NORTH AFRICA
Muslim invasion of Spain in the 700s leads to a golden age in scientific and artistic achievements
Creation of the Muslim state of al-Andalus
Córdoba had eclectic mix of Muslim, Jewish and Christian populations that by 1100 resulted in a population of 500,000
Reconquista drives out the Muslims in the late 1400s
Muslim invasions of Eastern Europe between 600s and 900s lead disorder and suffering that forces people to look to local rulers for security. Leads to the rise of feudalism.
Inquisition in Spain leads to torture and expulsion of Muslims and Jews
Explain -- HOW THE CRUSADES, THE BLACK DEATH, THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR, AND THE GREAT SCHISM CONTRIBUTED TO END OF MEDIEVAL EUROPE
Failure lessened the power of the Pope
Casualties weakened the feudal nobility
Trade in spices and other goods from Southwest Asia lead to European desire for new trade routes that begins the Era of Exploration
Collapse of manorial system as productivity ends and serfs leave in search of work; peasant rebellions grow in response to nobles’ refusal to increase wages
Church loses prestige as it is unable to stop the plague through prayer and intervention
Hundred Years War
Emergence of nationalism and monarchs as national leaders in England and France
Instability in England after the Hundred Years War leads to the War of the Roses, which strengthens Parliament since it is called frequently by King Edward III to increase taxes to finance this new war; democracy advanced as Parliament gains greater “power of the purse”
Authority of the pope as head of the Church challenged by John Wycliffe, who believes that God is sole authority, and Jan Huss, who believes the authority of the Bible is higher than the pope’s authority. Beginning of challenges to the authority of the Catholic Church that leads to the Reformation.
Locate --PLACES, REGIONS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO MAJOR ERAS AND TURNING POINT
Byzantine Civilization – Byzantium/Constantinople, Black Sea
Middle Ages – France, Normandy, Charlemagne’s Empire, England, Hastings, Jerusalem, Holy Land, Paris, London, Holy Roman Empire
Identify --IMPACT OF POLITICAL AND LEGAL IDEAS FROM HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS