Unit 4 – Sectionalism, Civil War, & Reconstruction Comparison of the nation’s different regions: North, South, & West

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Unit 4 – Sectionalism, Civil War, & Reconstruction
Comparison of the nation’s different regions: North, South, & West

Life in the North:

1.) Prior to 1850, what was a main reason the North developed an economy increasingly based on manufacturing while the South continued to rely on an economy based on agriculture?

(1) Protective tariffs applied only to northern seaports.

(2) Geographic conditions supported different types of economic activity.

(3) Slavery in the North promoted rapid economic growth.

(4) Manufacturers failed to make a profit in the South..

2.) What economic change resulted from the transportation revolution before the Civil War?

(1) The Northeast became better connected to the western section of the country.

(2) Trade between the United States and Europe was sharply reduced.

(3) The system of slavery on southern plantations began to disappear.

(4) The federal government began to regulate new businesses
3.) Which statement best describes the economic differences between the North and South just prior to the Civil War?

(1) The Northern economy was primarily agricultural, while the Southern

economy was based on manufacturing.

(2) Jobs on plantations attracted more European immigrants to the South than to

the North.

(3) Transportation systems were more developed in the North than in the South.

(4) The Southern economy was more diversified than the Northern economy.
4.) In an outline, which main topic would include the other three?

(1) Erie Canal

(2) 19th-Century Internal Improvement

(3) Transcontinental Railroad

(4) National Road
5.) The completion of the Erie Canal in the early 19th century aided the economic development of the United States by

(1) Supplying water for the irrigation of western farms

(2) Lowering the cost of shipping goods from the Midwest to the Atlantic coast

(3) Providing a shipping route for cotton from the South to Europe

(4) Supplying waterpower for running factories and mills
6.) During the first half of the 19th century, the construction of canals and roads led to the

(1) Expansion of trade between Midwestern farmers and eastern merchants

(2) Growth of plantation agriculture in Texas and New Mexico

(3) Severe economic decline of the South

(4) Bankruptcy of several railroad companies in the Mississippi Valley
7.) What economic change resulted from the transportation revolution before the Civil War?

(1) The Northeast became better connected to the western section of the country.

(2) Trade between the United States and Europe was sharply reduced.

(3) The system of slavery on southern plantations began to disappear.

(4) The federal government began to regulate new businesses.
Life in the South:

8.) Before the Civil War, slavery expanded in the South rather than in the North because

(1) The Constitution contained a clause that outlawed the importation of slaves

into the Northern states

(2) Congress passed a law forbidding slavery in the North

(3) Northern states passed affirmative action legislation

(4) Geographic conditions in the South encouraged the development of large


9.) Because of fertile land and a long growing season, plantations in the thirteen colonies developed in?

(1) New England

(2) The Middle Atlantic region

(3) The South

(4) The upper Mississippi River valley
10.) In which section of early 19th-century America was the plantation system an important feature?

(1) New England

(2) The Middle Atlantic states

(3) The South

(4) The West
11) The climate and topography of the southeastern United States had a major impact on the history of the United States before 1860 because the region

(1) became the center of commerce and manufacturing

(2) developed as the largest domestic source of steel production

(3) was the area in which most immigrants chose to settle

(4) provided agricultural products that were processed in the North and in Europe
12) What was the primary reason that slavery became more widespread in the South than in the North?

(1) The abolitionist movement was based in the North.

(2) The textile industry was controlled by southern merchants.

(3) Opposition to slavery by the Anglican Church was stronger in the North.

(4) Geographic factors contributed to the growth of the southern plantation system.

Life in the West:

11.) What is the best title for this series of maps?

(1) Industrialization of the United States

(2) Sectional Conflicts in the United States

(3) Transportation Revolution in the United States

(4) Shifting Frontier of the United States

12.) In the mid-1800s, the growth of the populations of California and the western territories was mainly a result of the

(1) discovery of gold and silver

(2) opening of the Panama Canal

(3) migration of freedmen after the Civil War

(4) secession of the Southern states

13.) What was the primary result of road and turnpike development?

(1) Migration from east to west increased.

(2) Southern states became more industrialized.

(3) State government control of transportation was increased.

(4) Escape from slavery was made easier.

14.) During the first half of the 19th century, territorial expansion led to

(1) Increased tensions over slavery

(2) Improved relations with bordering nations

(3) Fewer conflicts with Native American Indians

(4) Decreased domestic demand for manufactured goods
15.) During the 1840s, abolitionists opposed annexation of new western territory because they

(1) Feared the admission of new slave states

(2) Wanted to limit the power of the national government

(3) Were concerned with the legal rights of Native American Indians

(4) Supported an isolationist foreign policy
16.) As the United States acquired more land between 1803 and 1850, controversy over these territories focused on the

(1) Need for schools and colleges

(2) Failure to conserve natural resources

(3) Expansion of slavery

(4) Construction of transcontinental railroads

Answer Key for Comparison of the nation’s different regions: North, South, & West:

1) 2 2) 1 3) 3 4) 2 5) 2 6) 1 7) 1 8) 4 9) 3 10) 3 11) 4 12) 1

13) 1 14) 1 15) 1 16) 4

Andrew Jackson

1.) President Andrew Jackson claimed that use of the spoils system increased democracy in the federal government because it

(1) Removed property-holding qualifications for voting

(2) Limited the role of the electoral college in presidential elections

(3) Allowed larger numbers of citizens to hold office

(4) Used nominating conventions to pick political party candidates

2.) During the presidency of Andrew Jackson, the spoils system resulted in

(1) Federal laws being nullified by the states

(2) Elected officials rewarding their supporters with government jobs

(3) All free males being given the right to vote

(4) The end of political corruption in the federal government
3.) The Articles of Confederation and the theory of nullification were both attempts to

(1) Strengthen the national government

(2) Form new political parties

(3) Protect states’ rights

(4) Strengthen the presidency
4.) As a result of President Andrew Jackson’s policies, Native American Indians were

(1) Relocated to reservations in Mexico

(2) Forcibly removed to areas west of the Mississippi River

(3) Gradually allowed to return to their ancestral lands

(4) Given United States citizenship
5) President Andrew Jackson used the spoils system to

(1) veto bills he disliked

(2) enforce Supreme Court decisions

(3) move Native American Indians off their traditional lands

(4) provide jobs to political party supporters

Answer Key for Andrew Jackson questions:

1) 3 2) 2 3) 3 4) 2 5)4


1.) From 1820 to 1865, the debates over nullification, protective tariffs, and the spread of slavery into the new territories concerned the constitutional issue of the

(1) Balance of power between the federal and state governments

(2) Balance between the rights of individuals and the need to maintain order

(3) Protection of the rights of ethnic and racial groups

(4) Separation of power between the executive and legislative branches

2.) William Lloyd Garrison, Harriet Tubman, and Harriet Beecher Stowe are best known for their efforts to

(1) Create free public schools

(2) Begin the temperance movement

(3) Expand the rights of women

(4) Oppose the practice of slavery
3.) Both the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and the Compromise of 1850 settled conflicts between the North and the South over

(1) Admission of states to the Union

(2) Supreme Court decisions

(3) Presidential election results

(4) Voting rights
4.) The Missouri Compromise (1820), the Compromise of 1850, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) were all efforts to

(1) End fighting between midwestern farmers and Native American Indians

(2) Encourage manufacturing in the West

(3) Increase the number of people who voted in presidential elections

(4) Settle disputes over the spread of slavery to the western territories
5.) In the Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, popular sovereignty was proposed as a way to

(1) Allow northern states the power to ban slavery

(2) Deny southern states the legal right to own slaves

(3) Allow settlers in new territories to vote on the issue of slavery

(4) Overturn previous Supreme Court decisions on slavery
6.) Before the Civil War, the principle of popular sovereignty was proposed as a means of

(1) Allowing states to secede from the Union

(2) Permitting voters to nullify federal laws

(3) Deciding the legalization of slavery in a new state

(4) Overturning unpopular decisions of the Supreme Court

7.) This poster from the 1850s appeared in response to the

(1) Passage of the fugitive slave law

(2) Start of the Civil War

(3) Issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation

(4) Enactment of the 13th Amendment

8.) One way that “Bleeding Kansas,” the Dred Scott decision, and John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry had a similar effect on the United States was that these events

(1) Ended conflict over slavery in the territories

(2) Eased tensions between the North and the South

(3) Contributed to the formation of the Whig Party

(4) Made sectional compromise more difficult

9.) Which heading best completes the partial outline below?


A. Nullification crisis

B. Kansas-Nebraska Act

C. Dred Scott v. Sanford

D. Election of Lincoln (1860)

(1) Foreign Policies of the United States

(2) Government Policies toward Native American Indians

(3) Consequences of Manifest Destiny

(4) Causes of Sectional Conflict
10.) Which phrase best completes the title for the partial outline shown below?

I. Reasons for the ______________________

A. Increasing sectionalism

B. Disagreements over states’ rights issues

C. Breakdown of compromise

D. Election of 1860

(1) Start of the Revolutionary War

(2) Adoption of the Bill of Rights

(3) Failure of the Whiskey Rebellion

(4) Secession of Southern States from the Union

11.) “. . . Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!”

— Daniel Webster, 1830

The principle expressed in this statement was also reflected in

(1) Thomas Jefferson’s call for nullification of the Alien and Sedition Acts

(2) Federalist Party threats during the War of 1812

(3) John Calhoun’s defense of States rights

(4) Abraham Lincoln’s attitude toward Southern secession
12.) “A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free.”

— Abraham Lincoln, 1858

According to this quotation, Abraham Lincoln believed that

(1) Slavery was immoral and should be abolished immediately

(2) Sectional differences threatened to destroy the Union

(3) The Southern states should be allowed to secede

(4) To save the nation, the North should compromise with the South on slavery

13.) “A house divided against itself cannot stand. . . . I do not expect the Union to be dissolved; I do not expect the house to fall; but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other. . . .”

— Abraham Lincoln, 1858

The “divided house” referred to in this speech was caused primarily by

(1) Expansionism

(2) War with Mexico

(3) Slavery

(4) The suffrage movement

14.) The election results shown on this map most clearly reflect the influence of

(1) Nationalist motives

(2) Political stability

(3) Sectional differences

(4) Ethnic conflicts
15) Abolitionists in the pre–Civil War period were most likely to support the

(1) removal of the Cherokee Indians from Georgia

(2) passage of the Fugitive Slave Act

(3) activities of the Underground Railroad

(4) use of popular sovereignty in the territories

16) Which Supreme Court decision created the need for a constitutional amendment that would grant citizenship to formerly enslaved persons?

(1) Marbury v. Madison

(2) McCulloch v. Maryland

(3) Worcester v. Georgia

(4) Dred Scott v. Sanford

17) Which term refers to the idea that settlers had the right to decide whether slavery would be legal in their territory?

(1) nullification

(2) sectionalism

(3) popular sovereignty

(4) southern secession
18) The Supreme Court decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) was significant because it

(1) allowed slavery in California

(2) outlawed slavery in the Southern States

(3) upheld the actions of the Underground Railroad

(4) ruled that Congress could not ban slavery in the territories
19) Which person’s action was most closely associated with the abolitionist movement?

(1) William Lloyd Garrison’s publication of The Liberator

(2) Booker T. Washington’s commitment to African American education

(3) Thurgood Marshall’s legal argument in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

(4) Martin Luther King, Jr.’s leadership of the Birmingham march

Answer key for Sectionalism:

1) 1 2) 4 3) 1 4) 4 5) 3 6) 3 7) 1 8) 4 9) 4 10) 4 11) 4 12) 2

13) 3 14) 3 15) 3 16) 4 17) 3 18) 4 19)1

During the Civil War

1.) As the Civil War began, President Abraham Lincoln stated that his primary goal was to

(1) end slavery

(2) Set new national boundaries

(3) Increase congressional powers

(4) Preserve the Union

2.) Which statement is best supported by the data in the table?

(1) The Confederate troops lost the Civil War as a result of their higher numbers

of injuries and fatalities.

(2) The Union army had better generals during the Civil War.

(3) The Civil War had more casualties than any other war.

(4) More soldiers died from disease than from wounds.

3.) I. Actions Taken by President Abraham Lincoln During the Civil War

A. Increased the size of the army without congressional authorization

B. Arrested and jailed anti-Unionists without giving a reason

C. Censored some anti-Union newspapers and had some editors and

publishers arrested

Which statement is most clearly supported by these actions of President Lincoln?

(1) Wartime emergencies led President Lincoln to expand his presidential powers.

(2) President Lincoln was impeached for violating the Constitution.

(3) Checks and balances effectively limited President Lincoln’s actions.

(4) President Lincoln wanted to abolish the Bill of Rights.

4.) How did the power of government change during the Civil War and the Great Depression?

(1) Presidential powers were expanded.

(2) Congress exerted greater leadership.

(3) The Supreme Court expanded civil liberties.

(4) Power shifted from the federal government to the states.
5.) One similarity in the presidential administrations of Abraham Lincoln, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Lyndon Johnson is that each

(1) Maintained a foreign policy of neutrality

(2) Expanded the power of the presidency

(3) Removed Supreme Court Justices from office

(4) Decreased the size of the military

6.) “Lincoln Suspends Writ of Habeas Corpus”

Supreme Court Rules for Government in Draft Resister Case”

Relocation of Japanese Americans Upheld by Supreme Court”

These headlines illustrate that during wartime

(1) the liberties of individuals can be restricted

(2) the role of the government in regulating the economy increases

(3) most Americans support participation in wars

(4) new job opportunities are created by increased demand
7.) The Civil War affected the northern economy by

(1) Causing a severe depression

(2) Increasing unemployment rates

(3) Decreasing demand for agricultural products

(4) Stimulating industrialization
8.) The North’s rapid economic growth during the Civil War was stimulated by

(1) the elimination of taxes on defense industries

(2) a reduction in the number of immigrants

(3) increased government demand for many products

(4) enslaved persons filling industrial jobs
9.) What was a major result of the Civil War?

(1) States now had the right to secede from the Union.

(2) Congress passed an amendment to provide for the direct election of senators.

(3) The power of the central government was strengthened.

(4) The judiciary became the dominant branch of the federal government.
10.) The purpose of the Homestead Act of 1862, which provided free federal land, was to

(1) encourage settlement of the West

(2) set up reservations for Native American Indians

(3) establish land-grant agricultural colleges

(4) assist in the construction of transcontinental railroads
11.) The Homestead Act of 1862 helped the development of the West by

(1) providing free land to settlers

(2) granting land for construction of transcontinental railroads

(3) allowing slavery to spread to the territories

(4) placing Native American Indians on reservations
12.) Which region of the United States was most directly affected by the passage of the

Homestead Act?

(1) Atlantic Coast

(2) Rocky Mountains

(3) Appalachian Mountains

(4) Great Plains

13.) The Homestead Act was important in the growth of the West because it

(1) set aside reservations for Native American Indians

(2) created the Department of Agriculture to aid farmers

(3) encouraged settlement of the Great Plains

(4) provided land to build a canal system
14.) In the late 19th century, the federal government aided the growth of transcontinental railroads by

(1) legalizing rate rebates for large shippers

(2) providing free land for laying railroad tracks

(3) requiring standard-gauge tracks on all interstate lines

(4) forcing small lines to consolidate into large systems
Base your answer to question 15 on the quotation below and on your knowledge of social studies.

. . . With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation’s wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.

— Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address, March 4, 1865
15) This statement reveals President Lincoln’s support for

(1) a new peace treaty with Great Britain

(2) universal male suffrage

(3) a fair and generous peace

(4) harsh punishment for Confederate leaders

16) Which situation was the most immediate result of Abraham Lincoln’s election to the presidency in 1860?

(1) Kansas and Nebraska joined the Union as free states.

(2) A constitutional amendment was adopted to end slavery.

(3) Missouri entered the Union as a slave state.

(4) Several Southern States seceded from the Union.

17) The data shown in the graphs best support the conclusion that the North

(1) was better prepared economically to fight the Civil War

(2) lagged behind the South in bank deposits

(3) produced more agricultural products than the South

(4) lacked several important resources to fight the war
18) The South won many battles and the Civil War lasted four years. These two facts support the conclusion that

(1) the Underground Railroad was important to the Southern cause

(2) factors other than those shown in the graphs were important

(3) the North was more dependent on foreign aid than the South

(4) personal wealth was a key factor in determining the outcome of the war

Answer Key for During The Civil War:

1) 4 2) 4 3) 1 4) 1 5) 2 6) 1 7) 4 8) 3 9) 3 10) 1 11) 1 12) 4 13) 3

14) 2 15)3 16)4 17)1 18)2


Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan:

1.) Which statement most accurately describes President Abraham Lincoln’s plan for

Reconstruction after the Civil War?

(1) Southerners should be made to pay for their rebellion.

(2) The Union should be restored as quickly as possible.

(3) African Americans should be given free land.

(4) War damages should be collected through military occupation.
2) What was the primary goal of President Abraham Lincoln’s post–Civil War policy?

(1) establishing military districts in the South

(2) extending land ownership to African American men

(3) restoring Southern representation in Congress

(4) arresting military leaders of the Confederacy

Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan:

3) The underlying reason for the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson was

(1) The Credit Mobilier scandal

(2) A power struggle with Congress over Reconstruction

(3) His refusal to appoint new justices to the Supreme Court

(4) His policies toward Native American Indians

4) One similarity shared by President Andrew Johnson and President Bill Clinton is that both

(1) Served only one term as president

(2) Were impeached but not convicted

(3) Had no vice president

(4) Came to office after the death of a president

5) Which statement about the impeachment trials of both President Andrew Johnson and President Bill Clinton is most accurate?

(1) The House of Representatives failed to vote for articles of impeachment.

(2) Only President Johnson was convicted and removed from office.

(3) Only President Clinton was convicted and removed from office.

(4) The Senate failed to convict either president.

Congressional (Radical Republicans’) Reconstruction Plan:

6) What is the main idea of this cartoon from the Reconstruction Era?

(1) Southern society was oppressed by Radical Republican policies.

(2) Military force was necessary to stop Southern secession.

(3) United States soldiers forced women in the South to work in factories.

(4) Sharecropping was an economic burden for women after the Civil War.

7) Which congressional action led to the Southern viewpoint expressed in this cartoon?

(1) Passage of the Homestead Act

(2) Strengthening of the Fugitive Slave Laws

(3) Military occupation of the former Confederate States

(4) Ending the Freedmen’s Bureau
How Freedmen were affected in the South:


8) The institution of slavery was formally abolished in the United States by the

(1) Compromise of 1850

(2) Emancipation Proclamation of 1863

(3) Creation of the Freedmen’s Bureau in 1865

(4) Ratification of the 13th amendment in 1865

9) Constitutional amendments adopted during Reconstruction were intended to

(1) Provide legal and political rights for African Americans

(2) End property and religious qualifications for voting

(3) Correct problems with the electoral college system

(4) Limit the number of terms of the president
10) “No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges . . . of citizens . . . nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law. . ”

The major purpose of these provisions of the 14th Amendment was to

(1) Limit the power of the federal government

(2) Expand the civil rights of women

(3) Maintain competition in business

(4) Protect the rights of African Americans

11) The 14th and 15th Amendments, passed during Reconstruction, resulted in

(1) Equal rights for women in the United States

(2) Expanded rights for Native American Indians on reservations

(3) Increased individual rights for African Americans

(4) Additional rights for Southern segregationists
12) Which newspaper headline would have appeared during the Reconstruction Period after the Civil War?

(1) “Jim Crow Laws End”

(2) “Former Slaves Made Citizens”

(3) “Supreme Court Issues Dred Scott Decision”

(4) “Emancipation Proclamation Issued”
13) Which leader founded a vocational training institution in the late 1800s to improve economic opportunities for African Americans?

(1) George Washington Carver

(2) Frederick Douglass

(3) W. E. B. Du Bois

(4) Booker T. Washington
14) Booker T. Washington stated that the best way for formerly enslaved persons to advance themselves in American society was to

(1) Leave their farms in the South and move to the North

(2) Run for political office

(3) Pursue economic gains through vocational training

(4) Form a separate political party
15) One idea that both Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois supported is that

(1) African Americans should have increased civil rights

(2) Vocational training was the best approach to education

(3) Immigration was responsible for racial segregation

(4) Jim Crow laws were needed to help African Americans
16) In which area did the views of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois differ most?

(1) The need to stop violence against African Americans

(2) The speed with which full equality of the races should be achieved

(3) The need to integrate the armed forces

(4) The idea of including white Americans in their political action organizations

Base your answers to question 17 on the statements below and on your knowledge of social studies.

Speaker A: The [African American] demands equality — political equality, industrial equality,

and social equality; and he is never going to be satisfied with anything less.

Speaker B: Equal but separate accommodations for the white and colored races is for the

preservation of the public peace and good order.

Speaker C: Vocational training will provide the means for African Americans to gain the

civil liberties they deserve.

Speaker D: The best answer for the equality of the [African American] lies in a return to his

homeland in Africa.

17) Which speaker most strongly agrees with the beliefs of W. E. B. Du Bois?

(1) A

(2) B

(3) C

(4) D

18) “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. . . .”

— 15th Amendment, Section 1, United States Constitution, 1870

Which actions did Southern States take to keep African Americans from exercising the rights guaranteed in this amendment?

(1) Suspending habeas corpus and denying women the right to vote

(2) Collecting poll taxes and requiring literacy tests

(3) Establishing religious and property-holding requirements for voting

(4) Passing Black Codes and establishing segregated schools

19) In the ten years following the Civil War, a large numbers of former slaves earned a living by becoming

(1) Conductors on the Underground Railroad

(2) Workers in Northern factories

(3) Sharecroppers on Southern farms

(4) Gold miners in California
20) What effect did the system of sharecropping have on the South after the Civil War?

(1) It kept formerly enslaved persons economically dependent.

(2) It brought investment capital to the South.

(3) It encouraged Northerners to migrate south.

(4) It provided for a fairer distribution of farm profits.
21) Following the Civil War, many Southern states enacted Black Codes to

(1) Provide free farmland for African Americans

(2) Guarantee equal civil rights for African Americans

(3) Restrict the rights of formerly enslaved persons

(4) Support the creation of the Freedmen’s Bureau
22) During Reconstruction, the Black Codes passed by Southern states were attempts to

(1) Provide land to former slaves

(2) Punish former Confederate leaders

(3) Repeal the Jim Crow laws

(4) Deny equal rights to African Americans

Base your answers to questions 23 on the statements below and on your knowledge of social studies.

Speaker A: The [African American] demands equality — political equality, industrial equality,

and social equality; and he is never going to be satisfied with anything less.

Speaker B: Equal but separate accommodations for the white and colored races is for the

preservation of the public peace and good order.

Speaker C: Vocational training will provide the means for African Americans to gain the

civil liberties they deserve.

Speaker D: The best answer for the equality of the [African American] lies in a return to his

homeland in Africa.

23) Which speaker would most likely support the Jim Crow laws that emerged in the 1890s?

(1) A

(2) B

(3) C

(4) D
24) In the South, the passage of Jim Crow laws in the 1870s and 1880s led directly to the

(1) Racial integration of public schools

(2) Decline of the Democratic Party

(3) Organization of the Ku Klux Klan

(4) Segregation of public facilities
25) Southern states attempted to limit the impact of constitutional amendments passed during the Reconstruction Era by

(1) Passing Jim Crow laws

(2) Ending racial discrimination

(3) Seceding from the Union

(4) Fighting the Civil War

26) “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their


This statement is part of the

(1) Missouri Compromise

(2) Kansas-Nebraska Act

(3) Dred Scott decision

(4) 13th amendment to the Constitution

The End of Reconstruction & beyond:
27) Following Reconstruction, the term New South was most often used to describe

(1) Changes in the Southern economy

(2) New attitudes in race relations

(3) The growth of the Republican Party in the South

(4) The decline of the sharecropping system
28) During the late 1800s, Southern voters solidly supported the Democratic Party primarily because Democrats

(1) Favored a stronger national government

(2) Led efforts to advance civil right

(3) Opposed the Jim Crow legal system

(4) Disliked the Reconstruction programs of the Republicans
29) How were the presidential elections of 1876 and 2000 similar?

(1) The winner of the popular vote lost the electoral vote.

(2) Third-party candidates did not affect the outcome.

(3) The outcome of the election was decided by Congress.

(4) The winner was decided by the Supreme Court.

30) Which criticism of the electoral college system is illustrated by the information in the table?

(1) Presidential electors frequently do not vote for the person they were pledged to support.

(2) A person can win the presidency without winning the most popular votes.

(3) The vote of the people in each state has little relationship to the election outcome.

(4) Minor-party candidates often receive too many electoral votes.

31) Which change is most often proposed to correct the problem shown by the table?

(1) Adopt a constitutional amendment to elect the president by popular vote

(2) Pass a law requiring state electors to vote for the candidate with the most

popular votes

(3) Place limits on the number of political parties allowed in presidential elections

(4) Allow the elected members of Congress to select the president

32) The Jim Crow laws, upheld by the Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), provided for

(1) Free land for former slaves

(2) Separate public facilities based on race

(3) Racial integration of public schools

(4) Voting rights for African-American males

33) The Jim Crow legal system, which expanded in the South after Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), was based on the Supreme Court’s interpretation of the

(1) Due process clause of the 5th Amendment

(2) States’ rights provision of the 10th Amendment

(3) Equal protection clause in the 14th Amendment

(4) Voting rights provision in the 15th Amendment

34) In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Supreme Court ruled that

(1) States may not secede from the Union

(2) Racial segregation was constitutional

(3) Slaves are property and may not be taken from their owners

(4) All western territories should be open to slavery
35) The Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) had a major impact on the lives of African Americans because it ruled that

(1) Segregation was illegal in educational institutions

(2) Voting was a right guaranteed by the Constitution

(3) Separate but equal public facilities were legal

(4) Military occupation of the South was unconstitutional
36) What was the decision of the Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)?

(1) Black Codes were unconstitutional.

(2) The citizenship principle established in Dred Scott v. Sanford was repealed.

(3) The 15th amendment failed to guarantee the right to vote to all males.

(4) Racial segregation did not violate the equal protection provision of the 14th


37) The passage of Jim Crow laws in the South after Reconstruction was aided in part by

(1) a narrow interpretation of the 14th amendment by the United States Supreme Court

(2) a change in the southern economy from agricultural to industrial

(3) the growth of Republican-dominated governments in the South

(4) the rise in European immigration to the South
38) What was a common purpose of the three amendments added to the United States

Constitution between 1865 and 1870?

(1) extending suffrage to Southern women

(2) reforming the sharecropping system

(3) granting rights to African Americans

(4) protecting rights of Southerners accused of treason

39) The Radical Republicans in Congress opposed President Abraham Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction because Lincoln

(1) called for the imprisonment of most Confederate leaders

(2) rejected the idea of harsh punishments for the South

(3) planned to keep Northern troops in the South after the war

(4) demanded immediate civil and political rights for formerly enslaved persons

40) During the Reconstruction Era (1865–1877), the 15th amendment was adopted to grant African Americans

(1) educational opportunities

(2) economic equality

(3) freedom of speech

(4) voting rights

41) Which action marked the end of Reconstruction in the United States?

(1) ratification of the 14th amendment

(2) withdrawal of federal troops from the South

(3) creation of the Freedmen’s Bureau

(4) impeachment of President Andrew Johnson

Answer Key for Reconstruction:

1) 2 2) 2 3) 2 4) 2 5) 4 6) 1 7) 3 8) 4 9) 1 10) 4 11) 3 12) 2 13) 4 14) 3 15) 1 16) 2 17) 3 18) 2 19) 3 20) 1 21) 3 22) 4 23) 2 24) 4 25) 1 26)4 27)1 28) 4 29) 1 30) 2 31) 1 32) 2 33) 3 34) 2 35) 3 36) 4 37)1 38) 3 39) 2 40)4 41)2

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