Parts 1 and 2 Vocabulary Review, Students will respond to matching and true/false.
1. Before the Revolutionary War, the American colonists decided to boycott, or refuse to buy, British goods.
2. A caudillo was a military officer who gained power in Latin America after independence
3. A person with certain rights and responsibilities under a particular government is a citizen of that country.
4. A coup is the overthrow of a ruler or government by a group, which then takes power.
5. A criollo is someone who was born in Latin America, and had Spanish parents or grandparents.
6. A dependent colony relies only on the mother country for products and services.
7. One important Enlightenment idea was that government exists to protect the rights of the people. 8. A political movement is a large group of people who work together for political change.
9. The Spanish colonies did not havea social structure in which everyone shared basic rights and equality.
Possible Primary Source Question and Student Response/Practice - After reading Father Hidalgo’s statement answer the questions below it. This question will be worth
20 points. Students may want to prepare an answer based on the question below
“My children: a new dispensation comes to us today. Will you receive it? Will you free yourselves? Will you recover the lands stolen three hundred years ago from your forefathers by the hated Spaniards? We must act at once…Will you defend your religion and your rights as true patriots? … Death to bad government! Death to gachupines [peninsulares]!” Source: Father Miguel Hidalgo,
Grito de Dolores, September 16, 1810. What is Father Hidalgo suggesting and who is it directed to? Support your response with evidence from the preceding primary source. Do you agree with Father Hidalgo’s stance?
1822: Brazil gains independence from Portugal.
1833: Jamaica slaves rebel against owners.
Latin American and Caribbean Independence Timeline
1810: Father Hidalgo calls for Mexicans to fight the Spanish for independence
1828: Uruguay gains independence.
1821: Mexicans end Spain’s rule to form their own independent country.
Part 3: Use the timeline as a guide to answer the following questions.
12. According to this time line, what country was last to gain independence?
13. How long after Paraguay gained its independence did Brazil gain independence?
14. How could events in Haiti influence Jamaican slaves nearly 30 years later?
Part 4 Revolution and Independence
Students will have questions from this section in all parts of the test
A. Haiti was the first European colony in Latin America to win independence from a mother country in Europe. In this case, the European country was France.
B. Like most of the Latin American countries, Haiti’s independence was extremely violent. What made Haiti’sindependencedifferent was that it was executed by the slaves themselves. Toussaint Louverture was the slave who led the revolt.
C. The Haitian Revolution is not an example of how non-violence can result in positive change. However, Brazil won its independence in a non-violent manner from Portugal and not from Spain.
D. Brazil was once a colony of Portugal. In 1807, its king escaped the invading Napoleon in Europe by staying in the New World, Brazil. Once Napoleon was conquered, he returned to Portugal, leaving his son, Dom Pedro, in charge.
E. There was discontent by Brazilian people towards Portugal and Dom Pedro sided with the people of Brazil. He declared independence for Brazil in 1822 and defeated the remaining loyal Portuguese armies by 1824.
F. Most countries of Latin America relied on some form of revolution and violence. However, Brazil was not an example of a violent overthrow of government. After its independence it set up a two house parliament and granted freedom of speech to its people, who also Civil Rights most Latin American countries did not have.
G. Other than Brazil, Latin American countries were ruled by caudillos after independence. Caudillos did not care at all for the well-being of the people of their countries. The caudillos were concerned mainly with getting rich and holding power.
Part 5 - Students will be expected to answer 2 Open Ended Questions. They will be worth 7 points each. One question will be based on comparing methods of gaining independence. Another question will be to explain why some countries were able to be successful while others were led to more violent leaders.
The United States did not fall victim to violent overthrows or coups as was the case in most Latin American countries. Before, during and after the Revolutionary War (1775 - 83), American leaders banded together to work out the grievances of each colony; their needs and concerns, and by 1788, the colonies approved the framework of the government as the Constitution of the United States. The Founding Fathers also developed a Bill of Rights which addressed the rights/personal freedoms of the people. Due to the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, America had a successful democratic government after its revolution, whereas Latin American countries, save Brazil, struggled after their independence.
*Canada was a Dominion of Great Britain, but was granted its own central democratic government. Canada developed for over a hundred years. They gained their independence from Great Britain through petition, unheard of in most Latin American countries. As a result of the British North American Act of 1867, Canada had its own central government.
Latin America was often the heat of the moment and leadership was taken by the powerful with little regard for the people. Brazil was the notable exception as most newly formed independent governments of Latin America were taken over by corrupt caudillos.
Part 6 - Map Skills: Use the map above to answer the next 5 questions.
20. Between which two lines of latitude do you find the island of Aruba (south central Caribbean Sea)?
21. Give the absolute location of San Juan, Puerto Rico?
22. Of Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Bahamas, the island(s) found furthest west? South?
23. Which country is north of Cuba? Name one country south of Aruba?
24. Name the island located at 24 degrees north latitude and 75 degrees west longitude.