Unit 2 Review Topics to study

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Unit 2 Review

Topics to study
1. Know what the Magna Carta of 1215 was and what it established?

From England. It established the principle of limited government, in which the power of the King, or government, was limited. The document provided for protection against unjust punishment and against the loss of life, liberty, and property, except according to law.

2. Know what a Quaker is and what they believed in.

They settled mainly in the Middle Colonies such as Pennsylvania and were led by William Penn. They were pacifists and believed each individual had an “inner light.” They also believed each individual was equal, therefore would not bow to Lords and ladies.

3. Know why the New England Colonies were not suitable for farming.

The New England Colonies had thin rocky soil, a very cold climate, and short growing season.

4. Know why England viewed the American Colonies as an_economic Resource_.

5. Know who Thomas Hooker was and what colony he founded. Also, know what first emerged from this colony.

Thomas Hooker founded the Colony town of Hartford, Connecticut which adopted the plan of government called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. It was the First Written Constitution in America.

6. Know what mercantilism is.

The Theory that states a nation’s power depended on its wealth-It exports more than it imports.

7. Know what the Virginia House of Burgesses was? The First Representative Assembly in the Colonies. It was created in 1619 in Jamestown, Virginia.
8. Know what the Mayflower Compact was and its terms.

It was a social agreement and an attempt at self-government by the Pilgrims in 1620.

9. Know what the Great Awakening was and the role Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield played in it.

It was the Religious movement which swept through the colonies. Many new Churches were established during this movement. Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield were leaders of this movement.
10. What hardships did the colonists face at Jamestown?

The Colonists faced starvation, diseases brought on by mosquitoes, Native American Attacks, brutal winters, poor farming conditions, and poor water supply.
11. What do the colonies of Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, and Maryland have in common?

They were all founded on the principle of religious freedom.

12. Discover the main difference between the New England Colonies and the Middle Colonies.

The New England Colonies were mainly English. They were created for Religious Freedom. The soil was not suited for large scale farming. They had harsh winters and a short growing season. Puritans

The Middle Colonies The soil was good for farming, had a mild climate, and had a longer growing season. The Middle Colonies were also much more culturally diverse. Quakers

13. Know what region in the colonies that Jamestown, Virginia was in.

Southern Colonies

14. Know who John Wheelright was and what colony he established.

He established the Colony of New Hampshire. He was looking for fur and fishing trade. It was the only New England Colony not established for religious reasons.

15. Be able to locate the Atlantic Ocean and know why the original 13 colonies were developed near it.

Eastern border of the Colonies. The Colonies were dependent on England and other countries for trade and commerce. Most colonies were developed near the Atlantic Ocean because of the ports bordering the Ocean.
16. Know what subsistence farming was.

It generally produced just enough to meet the needs of the farmers families, with little leftover to sell or exchange.

17. Know who William Penn was and what colony he established.

Penn was known as the first town planner in America. He designed Philadelphia and wrote Pennsylvania’s first constitution. He established the colony of Pennsylvania.

18. Be able to describe the major products, climate, and the diverse population of the Middle Colonies.

Many different peoples. They produced lumber, rum, and cattle. Cash Crops. Mild Climate. Good Soil.

19. Be able to describe the major products, climate, and population of the Southern Colonies.

Main population was not English. Large Plantations. Tobacco and Indigo. Warm Climate. Mainly Agricultural.

20. Know what the Act of Toleration was.

In 1649 Maryland passed this Act allowing religious tolerance which allowed all religions to worship there.

21. Know the cause Carolina split into two colonies.

The Northern Part of Carolina was inhabited by poor tobacco farmers who migrated from Virginia. The Southern part was inhabited by a wealthy class of Proprietors who planted rice and indigo. They had many disagreements so in 1729 they became South Carolina and North Carolina.

22. Know who generally had voting rights in the American Colonial Period.

Voting rights in the colonies were usually limited to white men who owned property.

23. Know who founded Georgia and the reasons behind it.

James Oglethorpe. He founded this colony as a debtor’s colony where people could come instead of going to a debtor’s prison.

24. Know what the Navigation Acts were and the response to them by the colonists.

These Acts forced the colonies to ship all goods on ships from England. They also started listing goods such as tobacco and sugar which only could be sold to England. This Allowed England to set the price on these goods. This led the Colonists to start smuggling and trading illegally.

  • 25. Know the reasons for which the Maryland and Pennsylvania colonies were founded.

  • Maryland was a proprietorship which means that the proprietor had executive authority. Lord Baltimore

  • Tobacco was very profitable for the colony.

  • Religious freedom for different sects of Christianity was widespread, especially after the passage of the Act of Toleration in 1649 which allowed for toleration to all Christians. Maryland eventually became known as a 'haven for Catholics'.

William Penn founded Pennsylvania with a land grant that was owed his deceased Father. His goal was to create a colony that allowed for freedom of religion due to his desire to protect himself and fellow Quakers from persecution

  • Penn allowed for a representative assembly elected by landowners.

  • Freedom of worship and religion was granted to all citizens.

26. Why did the Puritans value education?

Education, especially learning to read; allowed Puritans to study the word of God or the Bible. Next to religion the Puritans valued education, and they had scarcely become established in their new home when they turned their attention to the education of their children. In 1647 the General Court of Massachusetts ordered that a common school be established in every township of fifty families, and a grammar school in each of the larger towns. From this crude beginning has developed the public school systems of the United States.

27. What were the major characteristics of Quakers?

They settled mainly in the Middle Colonies such as Pennsylvania and were led by William Penn. They were pacifists and believed each individual had an “inner light.” They also believed each individual was equal, therefore would not bow to Lords and ladies.

The Quakers established an extremely liberal government for the seventeenth century. Religious freedom was granted and there was no tax-supported church. They insisted on developing good relations with the Native Americans. Women saw greater freedom in Quaker society than elsewhere, as they were allowed to participate fully in Quaker meetings.

28. What was the Triangular Trade?

  • New Englanders manufactured and shipped rum to the west coast of Africa in exchange for slaves.

  • The slaves were taken on the “Middle Passage” to the West Indies where they were sold for molasses and money.

  • The molasses would be sent to New England to make rum and start the entire system of trade all over again.

29. How did the theory of Mercantilism lead to the practice of the Triangular Trade?

Beginning around 1650, the British government pursued a policy of mercantilism in international trade. Mercantilism stipulates that in order to build economic strength, a nation must export more than it imports. To achieve this favorable balance of trade, the English passed regulatory laws exclusively benefiting the British economy. These laws created a trade system whereby Americans provided raw goods to Britain, and Britain used the raw goods to produce manufactured goods that were sold in European markets and back to the colonies. As suppliers of raw goods only, the colonies could not compete with Britain in manufacturing. English ships and merchants were always favored, excluding other countries from sharing in the British Empire’s wealth.
British mercantilism manifested itself in the form of the triangular trade. Trade routes linked the American Colonies, West Indies, Africa, and England. Each port provided shippers with a payoff and a new cargo. New England rum was shipped to Africa and traded for slaves, which were brought to the West Indies and traded for sugar and molasses, which went back to New England. Other raw goods were shipped from the colonies to England, where they were swapped for a cargo of manufactured goods.

30. What type of people settled in New York? What was the colony of New York’s characteristics?

  • The Land in New York was very fertile and ideal for farming which was why the British wanted it from the Dutch.

  • New York was named for James the Duke of York.

  • Originally occupied by Dutch settlers, New York was completely taken over by the English in 1674.

  • While under Dutch control New York was called New Amsterdam. 

  • The New York colony became a state on July 26, 1788.

  • The New York colony was founded by Peter Minuit in 1626 on Manhattan Island.

  • New York was originally a Dutch colony.

  • Peter Minuet's purpose for founding New Amsterdam was Trade & profit.

31. What were the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut?

The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut is considered to be the first written Constitution in North America, and many of its ideas are seen in the American Constitution. Perhaps the most important point in the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut is the first, which lays out the method for electing the officials of the Colony, and the duties of these officials.
32. What was the Enlightenment? Who were some of its well-known thinkers?

The Enlightenment is the period in the history of western thought and culture, stretching roughly from the mid-decades of the seventeenth century through the eighteenth century, characterized by dramatic revolutions in science, philosophy, society and politics; these revolutions swept away the medieval world-view and ushered in our modern western world.

Ben Franklin, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Baron de Montesquieu, Voltaire, Adam Smith

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