Unit 1b early American Literature: Rationalism Essential Questions: Is perfection possible? When is it time to rebel?



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Unit 1B Early American Literature: Rationalism

Essential Questions: Is perfection possible? When is it time to rebel?

Day

Assignment

Grade

CC Claims and Targets




AOTU - 50 Ways to Fix Your Life by Carolyn Butler

  • Close Reading Annotations

  • Bubble Map – Self Improvement

  • SOAPSTone and BCR

  • Homework – define the literary devices




Reading Target: Read closely and analytically to comprehend a wide range of literary and informational texts.

(1/8) Key Details: Cite explicit textual evidence to support inferences made or conclusions drawn about a text.

(2/9) Central Ideas: Summarize central ideas and key details in literary and informational text.

(3/10) Word Meanings: Distinguish the connotation and denotation in words with multiple meanings.

(4/11) Reasoning and Evaluation: Apply reasoning and evidence to justify analysis of the plot, setting, mood, characterization, and narrative structure in a literary text and cite evidence to support inferences.

(5/12) Analyze Within or Across Texts: Analyze the interrelationship between a literary and informational piece that shares the same topic or theme.



Writing Target: Produce effective and well organized essays for a range of purposes and audiences.

(7) Write full arguments about topics or texts, attending to purpose and audience: establish and support a claim, organize and cite supporting evidence, provide appropriate transitional strategies for coherence, and develop an appropriate conclusion.






The Autobiography and Sayings of Poor Richard by Benjamin Franklin (McDougal Littell 262-271)

  • Close Reading Questions

  • Tree Map







Read “Persuasive Rhetoric” (McDougal Littell 222-223)

Take Cornell Notes

Short Essay: Is perfection worth striving for? Explain your position with evidence from Butler and Franklin (300 Words).

Be sure to include three persuasive techniques and three rhetorical devices.

Homework: Complete the first draft of the essay.








Computer Lab: revise, edit, and type the essay in MLA format.







The Speech to the Virginia Convention by Patrick Henry (McDougal Littell 224-230)

Close Reading Questions

SOAPSTone / Rhetorical Précis








The Speech to the Virginia Convention continued.

Types of Appeals

BCR

Watch the biography of Patrick Henry on biography.com. According to the documentary, what made Henry such a convincing speaker? How does speaking persuasively differ from writing persuasively?









Review the Butler/Franklin essays. What worked well? What needs improvement?







The Declaration of Independence by Thomas Jefferson

  • Bubble Maps: Justified Rebellion/ Equality

  • Vocabulary and Close Reading Questions

  • SOAPSTone / Rhetorical Précis

  • BCR’s







Compare and Contrast The Speech to the Virginia Convention to The Declaration of Independence. Be sure to consider: rhetorical devices, appeals, speaker, occasion, audience, subject, purpose and tone.




AOTW 5o Ways to Fix Your Life by Carolyn Kleiner Butler

Pre-reading

  1. Number the paragraphs.

  2. Scan the text for academic vocabulary that should be defined. Highlight the word and write the definitions (at least 10)

Close Reading

  1. Circle the descriptive words and phrases and the names of people and places (at least 10).

  2. Underline the author’s arguments.

  3. Write in the margins. You can make comments as to why this is important or ask clarifying questions.

50 Ways to Fix Your Life

From small tinkers that can improve your life to major transformations that might save it, experts weigh in on how to make a new you in 2005

Americans have long been captivated by the notion of self-improvement--none more so than Benjamin Franklin. An accomplished printer, author, postmaster, scientist, inventor, and diplomat who taught himself to speak five languages, this Founding Father never stopped striving to change for the better. At the tender age of 79, he "conceiv'd the bold and arduous project of arriving at moral perfection," describing 13 virtues to aim for--temperance, silence, order, resolution, frugality, industry, sincerity, justice, moderation, cleanliness, tranquillity, chastity, and humility--and an intricate system for charting his progress in each. "Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself; avoid trifling conversation," he writes in his Autobiography. "Lose no time; be always employ'd in something useful; cut off all unnecessary actions."

Today, self-help is not just a way of life--it's practically a national obsession. There are 7,500 books on the topic on amazon.com alone, covering just about every imaginable bad habit or dilemma, from How to Make Anyone Fall in Love With You and Positive Magic: Occult Self-Help to The Trick to Money Is Having Some! and Change Your Underwear--Change Your Life . Flip on the television and you can't avoid the latest spate of reality shows, which pledge to help everyday Joes and Janes remake their bodies, homes, careers, and relationships over the course of an hour-long episode or, at most, a season--all for their health, wealth, and happiness and, of course, your personal viewing pleasure.

Such offerings "appeal to the deeply felt American idea of 'before and after,' " says Robert Thompson, professor of media and popular culture at Syracuse University in New York, who points out the underlying similarities between Franklin and, say, Dr. Phil. "If you were born a peasant in a medieval village, you knew who you were and it was very hard to change that, but here there is fluidity of class, and entire industries and program types pop up that reflect the ultimate optimism that really anybody can be a 'swan' and completely turn [his or her] life around."

Time to change. The hard truth is that lasting change doesn't usually happen in a single TV season. In reality, of the 40 to 45 percent of people who will make New Year's resolutions come January--be it to quit smoking, start flossing, declutter, or finally plan for retirement--fewer than half will succeed within six months, according to John Norcross, professor of psychology at the University of Scranton in Pennsylvania and coauthor of Changing for Good. But while many of us struggle to better ourselves in these various ways, always seeming to fall short, somehow, and to stay mired in destructive routines, the fact is that when someone makes a serious commitment to transform his or her life, it is possible. Norcross, who has been studying the subject for over 25 years, says that 70 to 80 percent of those who actively attempt a switch are ultimately successful, though it may take two, five, 10 tries or more. "Once people understand that change is a process--a developmental progression with distinct steps to move through--then our capacity to alter behavior is quite impressive," he says. "It is a marathon, not a 100-yard dash."

How can you cross that far-off finish line? While the key to success varies from person to person, experts agree that certain attitudes and behaviors both prior to and during the change process help predict who will make it. Suppose you want to lose 20 pounds: First and foremost, you really have to be ready to do it and understand that the pros outweigh the cons: that being heavy has harmful consequences, for one thing, and that losing weight has tangible benefits, like improved health. People who are committed to working hard at dieting and who view it as a major undertaking rather than a minor episode are more likely to stick with a program, and the more confidence you have in your ability to lose weight, the more likely it is that you will.

Once you decide that you are, indeed, prepared to break a bad habit, it's essential to set realistic goals--like losing 1 or 2 pounds a week versus a full suit size--and to come up with an equally sensible plan of attack. "Many of us don't change until we're in crisis mode, until we get diagnosed with high blood pressure or our mate leaves us or we lose our job, and once that moment comes we're looking for a big leap to get out of pain, but for most of us, those big leaps don't get results," says Robert Maurer, a clinical psychologist and author of One Small Step Can Change Your Life: The Kaizen Way. "Research on lasting change shows that it tends to be incremental, so that the body, the relationship, or the organization has a chance to adapt." For example, instead of trying to halve your daily caloric intake or to cut all carbs overnight, Maurer suggests that dieters throw away the first bite of every meal, eventually building to two bites in the second week, three in the third, and so on. "You're not counting on this taking years; you're counting on the brain getting used to the idea of looking at this huge quantity of food and developing the habit of not eating the whole portion," he explains.

It's also important to cleave to your strengths and interests while pursuing change. "It has to feel good for people to keep doing it," says medical psychologist Dan Baker, founding director of the life enhancement program at Canyon Ranch Health Resorts, who suggests that those who want to get into better shape and love the outdoors try cycling, not a stuffy gym; if you enjoy interacting with people, work out with a friend. Research shows that keeping track of your development in a visible way--charting weight loss, for one, or graphing your heart rate and stamina--is associated with sustainable lifestyle change, as is social support, whether in the form of friends, online discussion groups, or reliable, proven, self-help books. Find a healthy alternative to your problem behavior, like chewing sugarless gum instead of smoking, and be sure to reward your efforts--promise yourself a massage for every 5 pounds lost, perhaps, or a shopping spree once you reach your goal weight.

Lastly, and most important, don't give up if you tumble off the wagon now and then. "When people who slip once equate it with a fall, a lapse becomes a relapse," says John Norcross. "Now they're drinking again, smoking again, overeating or not exercising at all, and they feel like a failure; they view it as evidence of their inability to change, and give up entirely." In contrast, triumphant changers often see a setback as a reason to recommit to their goal, and they get back on the horse immediately.

In the end, simply making a concerted effort to improve your lifestyle can have lasting benefits, no matter what the final result. Consider Franklin: A notorious ladies' man who had difficult relationships with his family, he also had varying levels of success with his quest for moral perfection. Though he made great strides overall, Franklin found the virtue of order--"Let all your things have their places; let each part of your business have its time" --particularly vexing and ultimately unattainable. That's not to say his self-help experiment was a failure. Indeed, the inestimable Franklin recounts, "But, on the whole, tho' I never arrived at the perfection I had been so ambitious of obtaining, but fell far short of it, yet I was, by the endeavor, a better and a happier man than I otherwise should have been if I had not attempted it." -Carolyn Kleiner Butler

This story appears in the December 27, 2004 print edition of U.S. News & World Report.






50 Ways to Fix Your Life

Bubble Map: Self Improvement (use only adjectives)


SOAPSTone

Speaker




Occasion




Audience




Subject




Purpose




Tone






BCR

Based on the article, what are the most important steps for self-improvement? Cite specific examples from this article to support your answer.

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Literary Terms to Know


Thesis/ Author’s Argument

Claim


Evidence/ Support

Counterargument/ Opposing View Point

Transitions

Appeals to Emotion

Appeal to Logic

Appeal to Ethics

Appeal to Authority

Appeal to Association



The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin

All answers should be complex sentences that incorporate a quote and include a citation.

Read the first two paragraphs of the autobiography. Why does Franklin decide to “arrive at moral perfection”?

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Read Franklin’s list of virtues. Which has the least to do with moral perfection? Explain.

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How does Franklin plan to achieve moral perfection? Describe the process, then critique it. Is it likely to work? Why or why not.

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Reread lines 111-123. What conclusion does Franklin come to about his quest for moral perfection?



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Synthesize information from The Autobiography and Poor Richard’s Almanack

Create a tree map. Each branch will be labeled with one virtue from The Autobiography at the top, then include two aphorisms that support the virtue in the middle two boxes. Finally, comment on the value of this virtue in modern society.



Virtues and Aphorisms


“Industry:

Loose no time. Be always employed in something useful; cut of all unnecessary actions.”










“Early to bed, early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.”


























PERSUASIVE RHETORIC

Essential Question:

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What does a persuasive work need to do to engage its audience?


1. To argue deductively is to

2. To argue inductively is to

3. Logical appeals are persuasive appeals that

4. Emotional appeals are persuasive appeals that

5. Ethical appeals are persuasive appeals that


What types of rhetorical devices can enhance an argument?

1. A rhetorical question is a question that

2. In the rhetorical device called antithesis

8. Repetition is

9. Parallelism is a form of repetition in which


Summary


The Speech to the Virginia Convention by Patrick Henry: Text Based Questions

Reread lines 1-11. What are some examples of antithesis? How do these examples illustrate a division among the colonists?

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In lines 1-14, Henry must address those with whom he disagrees. What tone does he use to use and why? Cite explicit details that show this tone.

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In lines 18-40, Henry uses two rhetorical devices to emphasize that those who do not want to fight are ignoring the truth. What two devices does he use? Cite an example for each.

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Reread lines 69-79, what is the effect of the repetition of the word “sir”?

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SOAPSTone (Please complete the rhetorical précis on a separate paper.)



Speaker




Occasion




Audience




Subject




Purpose




Tone




The Speech to the Virginia Convention by Patrick Henry: Types of Appeals

The chart below contains details from Patrick Henry’s “Speech to the Virginia Convention.” Each detail is a persuasive appeal. Decide whether the appeal is emotional or logical by underlining specific words in the first column. Then write “emotional” or “logical” on the line. Finally, comment on the details’ effectiveness.



Example of Persuasive Appeal

Type of Appeal

Comment

Ask yourselves how this gracious reception of our petition comports with these war-like preparations which cover our waters and darken our land. Are fleets and armies necessary to a work of love and reconciliation?







Shall we gather strength by irresolution and inaction? Shall we acquire the means of effectual resistance, by lying supinely on our backs, and hugging the delusive phantom of hope, until our enemies shall have bound us hand and foot?







There is no retreat but in submission and slavery! Our chains are forged! Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston! The war is inevitable²and let it come! I repeat it, sir, let it come.








Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!







How well do you think Patrick Henry presented his case? Explain your answer.

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Review the different persuasive techniques in this essay. Which technique does he use most often? Is this an effective choice? Explain?

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The Declaration of Independence Thinking Maps





The Declaration of Independence by Thomas Jefferson

Background: In September 1774, 56 delegates met in Philadelphia at the First Continental Congress to draw up a declaration of colonial rights. They agreed to reconvene in May 1775 if their demands weren’t met. At this Second Continental Congress, Thomas Jefferson joined Benjamin Franklin and John Adams on the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence. The task of writing it fell to Jefferson. Although Congress made many changes to the list of grievances, Jefferson’s declaration of rights remained untouched—an abiding testament to “self-evident” truths for the nation and the world.

Vocabulary – Define each word. You may use the textbook (236-240) to find the definitions

Impel –


Unalienable –

Usurpations –

Despotism –

Arbitrary –

Abdicated –

Mercenaries –

Perfidy –

Redress –

Rectitude –

IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.

Preamble

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

Declaration

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.



List of complaints

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.



Conclusion

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.




Underline the claim that Jefferson presents in the first paragraph.

Circle words that convey a sense of urgency and responsibility.

Underline the counter-claim that Jefferson anticipates in paragraph two.

Underline the most powerful verb in each complaint.

Is the list of complaints primarily a logical appeal, an emotional appeal or an equal balance of both? Cite specific textual evidence to support your answer.

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Analyze the text structure. Of the four parts of this text (the preamble, the declaration, the list of complaints, and the conclusion), the list of complaints is the longest. Why would Jefferson spend the most time on this section? Cite explicit diction to support your answer.

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To what extent does Jefferson hold the British people responsible? Cite specific textual evidence to support your answer.

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SOAPSTone (Please complete the rhetorical précis on a separate paper.)

Speaker





Occasion





Audience





Subject





Purpose





Tone





The Declaration BCR’s

Draw Conclusions: Read The Declaration of Independence. Which set of reasons for breaking away from British rule strikes you as most important, and why? Choose from one of the reasons below. Then, support your claim with at least two details from the text.

• the colonists’ philosophical ideals • the hardships colonists suffered as a result of British policies

• the king’s response to colonists’ complaints

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Historical Context: Jefferson’s celebrated statement “All men are created equal” had several limitations at the time. How has the meaning of Jefferson’s statement changed over time? How has it stayed the same? Cite at least two details from the text and two details from contemporary issues to support your answer.



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