- Louisiana - diplomacy - Tejanos - San Jacinto River
- Napoleon Bonaparte - diplomats - William Travis - Lone Star Republic
- James Monroe - John Quincy Adams - Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
- Toussaint L’ Ovuverture - Moses Austin - Alamo - annex
- Meriwether Lewis - converts - Bear Flag Republic - Rio Grande - cession
- William Clark - conestoga wagons - Zachary Taylor - South Pass - Gen. Stephen Kearny
- by 1700s = thousands of farmers were settling west past the Appalachian Mts.
- crops to market = travel down Mississippi River into New Orleans = then on ships to export for trade
- depended on moving items freely down Mississippi
- French owned New Orleans
- across Mississippi = unexplored territory of Louisiana = immense region stretched from Canada south to Texas
- 1st claimed by France
- given to Spain after the French and Indian War
- ruler of France – Napoleon Bonaparte – convinced Spain to return it to France
- had a plan to settle the territory w/thousands of French farmers
- this alarmed American frontiersmen b/c New Orleans was part of Louisiana Territory
- If Napoleon closed the harbor to the U.S., farmers could’t get their crops to market.
- Pres. Thomas Jefferson – understood the concern of the farmers
- 1803 – sent James Monroe to France w/an offer to buy New Orleans for $7.5 million
- Due to a slave Revolt in the French Caribbean by a slave named Toussaint L’ Ouverture, Bonaparte had
changed his mind about wanting to settle farmers from his Caribbean sugar plantations in the Louisiana
- Also, France and Britain were fighting again, and Napoleoan didn’t want Britain to gain the territory.
- France agreed to sell the Louisian Territory to the U.S. for $15 million.
- It became known as “The Louisiana Purchase.”
C) The Purchase Debate
- The purchase doubled the size of the United States!
- It averaged out to be 2 to 3 cents an acre!!
- Some agreed w/the purchase, while other Americans declared it unconstitutional.
- However, in late 1803, the Senate voted to ratify the Louisiana Purchase Treaty.
- deal was made through diplomacy = the art of conducting negotations w/other countries; ppl who engage in
diplomacy are called diplomats
- attention turned to Florida
- Spanish said NO at first
- Georgians were upset w/slave runaways being taken in by Spanish and Seminole Indian communities, Seminole
raids on their farms, and the Spanish govt. not doing anything to help.
A) Andrew Jackson Invades Florida
- 1818 = Pres. James Monroe sent Andrew Jackson – the hero of the Battle of New Orleans – to Georgia w/orders
to end the raids.
- Jackson was told he could chase raiding Seminoles INTO Georgia, BUT HE COULD NOT raid Spanish Florida!
- HOWEVER, despite his orders, Jackson and 1,700 troops marched into Florida and evfentually captured nearly
every military post in the colony.
- He arrested, tried, and convicted two British officers for stirring up Indian attacks!
- replaced the Spanish governor w/an American one
- Spain demanded he be sent back to Washington and tried for illegally invading Florida.
B) Govern or Get Out
- Pres. Monroe asked his cabinet what to do
- all said to make Jackson apologize and get out of Florida
- John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State, said to send a message to Spain: Either govern Florida properly or get
- Fearful of war, Spain decided to get out.
- Many southerners felt Texas was very valuable to them and growing cotton.
- Moses Austin – dreamed of starting an American colony in Spanish Texas
- 1821 – Spanish officials granted Austin a huge tract of land, but he died suddenly that year.
- Son, Stephen Austin, took over father’s dream and arrived in Texas just as Mexico delcared its independence fr
- Texas = now part of Mexico
2) settlers had to promise to become Mexican citizens and join the Catholic Church
- success of colony started a rush of settlers to Texas
- 1830: 25,000 Americans in Texas; only 4,000 Tejanos, or Texans of Mexican descent
- tensions began to rise
- Americans didn’t like taking orders from Mexicans officials
- All official documents were in Spanish and Americans refused to learn the language.
- Also, many had slaves and Mexico outlawed slavery in 1829.
- Tejanos didn’t like the Am. settlers that came to Texas illegally
- said they had little respect for the Mexican culture
- didn’t want to become citizens
- Mexican govt. CLOSED TEXAS to new American immigration
- govt. sent troops to Texas to assert its authority and enforce the immigration laws
- Americans in Texas got mad at this
- William Travis began calling for revolution
- Stephen Austin went to the Mexican govt. and asked to make Texas a separate Mexican state, open up
immigration, and let them govern themselves.
- 1833 – Austin traveled to Mexico and presented the Texans’ demands.
- Leader of Mexican govt., General Antonia Lopez de Santa Anna, refused, threw Austin in jail, and sent 6,000
troops north to crush the rebels.
- 1836 – lg part of Santa Anna’s army reached San Antonio, Texas.
- only 180 Texas volunteers, including eight Tejanos
- took over an old Spanish mission known as the Alamo
- well-known freedom fighters Davy Crockett, William Travis, and James Bowie were in the group
- Santa Anna’s troops surrounded the Alamo and outnumbered the Americans 10 – 1.
- Travis sent for reinforcements from other Texas towns, but none came.
- Mexicans pounded the Alamo for 13 days w/cannon fire.
- then attacked
- 90 minutes of fighting
- almost all Alamo defenders died
- those who didn’t = killed
- Sam Houston, commander of the Texas revolutionary army, retreated eastward and lured Santa Anna deeper into
Texas to try to keep him fr being able to get supplies for his army.
- suspected a surprise attack at night
- kept his men up
- nothing happened; they began to relax
- Houston then attacked yelling, “Remember the Alamo!”
- Santa Anna escaped
- was caught the next day
- gave Texas their independence and removed troops from there in exchange for his release
- Texas now independent!!!
F) To Annex Texas or Not?
- now independent country
- called the Lone Star Republic b/c of the single star on its flag (pic pg 203)
- most ppl in Texas wanted it to become part of U.S.
- stayed independent, though, for 10 yrs
- ppl in U.S. didn’t know whether to annex (add a territory to a country) Texas or not
- South = wants to add another slave state
- North = wanted to keep Texas out
- Others = feared this would lead to a war w/Mexico
G) Presidential Election of 1844 Decides
- candidate Henry Clay: “Annexation and war w/Mexico are identical”
- candidate James K. Polk: believed in Manifest Destiny (obvious fate; from ocean to ocean)
- Polk won and Texas was annexed in 1845 as the 28th state of the U.S.
- far northwest of Texas – Oregon Country
- tree-covered wilderness
- stretched from the Rocky Mts. to the Pacific Ocean
- northern border = Russian Alaska
- 1819 = claimed by four nations: (1) Russia, (2) Spain, (3) Great Britain, & (4) United States
- Spain dropped out after U.S. took Florida
- Russia dropped out next
- agreed to claim their land ended at the 54, 40 parallel of latitude
- today that is the southern mark of Alaska
- left G.B. and U.S.
- agreed to “joint occupy” for a time
- Am.’s claimed was based on the expedition of Lewis and Clark
aa) Lewis and Clark
- 1804 – 1806 = Meriwether Lewis and William Clark led a small band of explorers to the Oregon coast
- Sacajawea, a Shoshone Indian, helped guide them
- two years of harsh life
- finally reached the Pacific Ocean
- we learned about the West based on their journals
bb) Jedediah Smith
- young fur trapper and very religious man
- he found a better way through a passage in the Rockies called the South Pass
- low and flat for wagon travellers
B) Oregon Fever
- first ppl to travel through the pass to Oregon were missionaries
- made few converts (ppl who accept a new religion) among Oregon’s Indians
- wrote home saying Oregon was like a “pioneer’s paradise”
- exaggerated how wonderful everything was there
- the reports inspired others to come out West
- 1843: 1,000 pioneers packed their belongings into covered wagons (Conestoga – created by land-locked settlers
who needed a way to transport goods for export) and headed for Oregon
- 1844: twice as many ppl – Oregon “fever” had begun!
C) All of Oregon or Half?
- 1844 Presidential Election: Polk won again by promising “All of Oregon or nothing” and “Fifty-four forty or fight”
as his campaign slogan.
- would not rest until he annexed Oregon for the U.S.
- HOWEVER, he did not want to start another war w/G.B.
- agreed to a compromise treaty that divided Oregon roughly in half at the 49th parallel
- This line now marks the western border between the U.S. and Canada.
- Senate debate was fierce.
- South and East: strongly in favor
- West: wanted to hold out for all of Oregon
- June 18, 1846: Senate ratified the compromise treaty by a vote of 41 to 14
- Polk got NEITHER 54,40 nor a fight.
- What he got was even better: a diplomatic settlement tha both the U.S. and G.B. could accept w/out spilling any
blood! (m. 205)
- Polk wanted to expand the U.S. as far as he could = Manifest Destiny
- Now wanted Mexican California and New Mexico (used to be Spanish territory)
- going to have both = either by force or agreement
- Both areas were being neglected, so Polk set his sights on them
- sent a representative to Mexico to purchase; was denied
- When the U.S. annexed Texas, it angered Mexico.
- Also, Texas and Mexico could not agree on a border.
- Texas claimed the Rio Grande as its border on the south and west.
- Mexico claimed the Nueces River, about 150 miles northeat of the Rio Grande.
- April 25, 1846: Mexican soldiers fired on American troops who were patrolling along the Rio Grande.
- 16 Ams were killed or wounded
- excuse Polk was looking for
- Congress declared war on Mexico!
- Mexico didn’t see it that way – to them it was the greedy Ams fought!
- American General Stephen Kearny led the Army of the West out of Kansas.
- His orders were to occupy New Mexico and then continue west to California.
- Mexican forces didn’t want to fight him.
- Ams took control of New Mexico w/out firing a shot
- John C. Fremont launched a rebellion agst Mexican rule in California.
- Americans arrested/jailed the Mexican commander of Northern California.
- Then they raised a crude flag showing a grizzly bear sketched in blackberry juice.
- California, they declared, was now the Bear Flag Republic.
- Kearny and his men reached California and joined forces w/the rebels.
- W/in weeks, all of California was under American control.
- It was harder to invade Mexico than the Ams thought.
- General Zachary Taylor (Old Rough and Ready) and his troops battled their way south fr Texas.
- Am. troops took Monterrey, Mexico but were surprised by an old enemy – Santa Anna.
- fought for two rough days
- Santa Anna retreated south
- 1 month later: Am forces led by Gerneral Winfield Scott (Old Fuss and Feathers) landed at Veracruz in southern Mexico.
- for 6 months they fought their way to Mexico City, the capital of Mexico.
- Despite a lot of resistance, Scott’s army captured Mexico City.
D) The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
- signed in early 1848
- Mexico agreed to give up Texas and a vast region known as the Mexican Cession ( a cession is something that is
- included California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico, as well as parts of Colorado & Wyoming
- U.S. agreed to pay Mexico $15 million and to protect 80,000 – 100,000 Mexicans living in Texas and in the
- Several senators had different views of this new territory.
- It was ratified 38 to 14.
E) From Sea to Shining Sea
- few yrs later the U.S. received more Mexican land
- 1853 – James Gadsden arranged the purchase of a strip of land just south of the Mexican Cession for $10 million
- Railroad builders wanted this land to use to build railroads
- After quiring this land known as the Gadsden Purchase, the nation stretched “from sea to shining sea.”
Life in the West
VI The Pioneer Women’s Legacy
- wherever settled = schools, churches, libraries, literary societies, and charitable groups
- NOWHERE else in the U.S. did women enjoy the freedom and sense of equality of the western pioneers.
VII The Mormons
- 1846: Brigham Young led a wagon train of pioneers West in search of a new home.
- saw the Great Salt Lake and decided that was the place to be
- No one but Young wanted to settle there, but they did.
- Mormons: Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
- founded in NY by Joseph Smith in 1830
- Smith said a received a sacred book (The Book of Mormon) from an angel
- thought he should create a community of believers who would serve god faithfully
- persecuted by others everywhere they went
- much of this was due to their beliefs in polygamy, the practice of having more than one wife
- also resented their rapidly growing power and wealth
- Smith was killed by a mob in Illinois
- Young took over as leader and moved the community to Utah
- wanted them to be left alone to worship as they pleased
- When they were unable to purchase wagons or oxen for their journey, they pulled their belongings in
B) West to Utah
- Young carefully planned the trip to Utah
- pioneers stopped along the way to build shelters and plant crops for those who would follow
- his ppl’s first permanent settlement: Salt Lake City
- dry country
- had to learn new ways to farm
- built dams, canals, and irrigation ditches
C) Mormons Legacy
- Mormons: first Americans to settle in the Great Basin
- new ways of farming kept them alive
- Salt Lake City became an important stop for travelers in need of food and supplies
- Now a world-wide religion (minus the polygamy)
VII The Forty-Niners
- 1848: James Marshall found gold in California
- word leaked out
- thousands began their journey for gold and adventure
- 1849: tens of thousands from around the world came to California
- about 2/3 were American
- called the forty-niners
- the rest: Mexico, S. America, Europe, Australia, and China
- most young
- most men
- women were scarce
- Wherever gold was spotted, camps sprang up overnight
- Ex: Mad Mule Gulch, You Bet, Coyote Diggings, etc.
- lived in canvas tents
- drinking saloons, gambling tables, etc.
- eggs: $6 dozen - flour: $400 barrel
- no police to keep law and order
- miners often fought over the boundaries of their claims
- punished crimes themselves
- digging was hard, tedious work
- sometimes long days spent digging up mud, dirt, and stones while standing knee-deep in icy streams
- easy-to-find gold disappeared quickly
- many couldn’t go home after the “rush” was over b/c they didn’t have the money
C) The Forty-Niners’ Legacy
- the invasion of so many other groups of ppl truly hurt the Native American population
- disease killed thousands
- large numbers of ppl made California become the first state in the far west
- Chinese called California “Gam Saan” = Gold Mountain
- to poor, hungry Chinese peasants this seemed like Paradise
- by 1852: 20,000 Chinese came across the Pacific to California
- at first they were welcomed
- soon prejudice came into effect
- American miners called on the govt. to drive foreigners out of the goldfields.
- 1852: state legislature passed a law requiring foreign miners to pay a monthly fee for a license to mine
- lots of them left as the tax collectors came to the camps
- Chinese paid the tax and stayed
- Then, Americans tried to bully them by hacking off their braids, burning their shacks, beating them up, etc.
- many left the mines to open restaurants, laundries, and stores
- San Francisco was their main settling area
- Their neighborhood became known as Chinatown
- Today, Chinatown remains the oldest and largest Chinese community in the4 U.S.
- many became farmers
- drained swamps
- dug irrigation ditches
- Most Chinese that came to Cal. for gold hoped to return to China as rich men.
- Few did.
- Most stayed on in America,
- Wherever they settled, they brought w/them the arts, tastes, scents, and sounds of one of the world’s oldest
and richest cultures.