Unit 1 vocabulary chapter 1 Vocabulary Marco Polo

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Chapter 1 Vocabulary

Marco Polo - Italian explorer who spent many years in China or near it. His return to Europe in 1295 sparked a European interest in finding a quicker route to Asia.

Francisco Pizarro - New World conqueror or Spanish conquistador who crushed the Incan civilization in Peru, took their gold and silver, and enslaved the Incas in 1532.

Ponce de Le—n - Spanish explorer who sailed to the New World in 1513 and in 1521. He explored Florida, thinking it was an island, while looking for gold and the perhaps the fabled "fountain of youth." He failed in his search for the fountain of youth but established Florida as territory for the Spanish, before being killed by a Native American arrow.

Hernando de Soto – A Spanish conquistador. He explored in 1540's from Florida west to the Mississippi with six hundred men in search of gold. He discovered the Mississippi River, before being killed by Indians and buried in the river.

Montezuma - Aztec chieftain who encountered Cortes and the Spanish and seeing that they rode horses, Montezuma assumed that the Spanish were gods. He welcomed them hospitably, but the explorers soon turned on the natives, crushed them, and ruled them for three centuries.

Christopher Columbus - An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World." The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492, and three other journeys until the time of his death in 1503.

Treaty of Tordesillas - In 1494, Spain and Portugal were disputing the lands of the New World, so the Spanish went to the Pope, and he divided the land of South America for them. Spain got the vast majority, the west, and Portugal got the east. Mestizos - The mestizos were the mixed race of people created when the Spanish intermarried with the surviving Indians in Mexico.

Renaissance - After the Middle Ages there was a rebirth of culture in Europe where art and science were developed. It was during this time of enrichment that America was discovered.

Canadian Shield – The geological shape of North America estimated at 10 million years ago. It held the northeast corner of North America in place and was the first part of North America theorized to come above sea level

Mound Builders - The mound builders of the Ohio River Valley and the Mississippian culture of the lower Midwest did sustain some large settlements after the incorporation of corn planting into their way of life during the first millennium A.D. The Mississippian settlement at Cahokia, near present-day East St. Louis, Ill., was perhaps home to 40,000 people in about A.D 1100. But mysteriously, around the year 1,300, both the Mound Builder and the Mississippian cultures had fallen to decline.

Spanish Armada - "Invincible" group of ships sent by King Philip II of Spain to invade England in 1588. The Armada was defeated by smaller, more maneuverable English "sea dogs" in the English Channel. This event marked the beginning of English naval dominance and fall of Spanish dominance.

"black legend" - The idea developed during North American colonial times that the Spanish utterly destroyed the Indians through slavery and disease and left nothing of value. In truth, there was good along with the bad (architecture, religion, government, etc.)

Conquistadores - Spanish explorers that invaded Central and South America for its riches during the 1500s. In doing so, they conquered the Incas, Aztecs, and other Native Americans of the area. Eventually, they intermarried with these tribes.

Aztecs - The Aztecs were a powerful Native American empire who lived in Mexico. Their capital was Tenochtitlan. They worshipped everything around them, especially the sun. Cortes conquered them in 1521.

Pueblo Indians - The Pueblo Indians lived in the Southwestern United States. They built extensive irrigation systems to water their primary crop, which was corn. Their houses were multi-storied buildings made of adobe (dried mud).

Joint stock companies - These were developed to gather the savings from the middle class to support finance colonies. Examples were the London Company and Plymouth Company. They’re the forerunner of modern day corporations.

Hiawatha - He was legendary leader who inspired the Iroquois, a powerful group of Native Americans in the northeaster woodlands of the U.S.

Vasco Nu–ez Balboa – European discoverer of the Pacific Ocean in 1513.

Ferdinand Magellan - In 1519, his crew began a voyage and eventually ended up becoming the first to circumnavigate the world, even though he died in the Philippines. The sole surviving ship returned to Europe in 1522.

Francisco Coronado - From 1540 to 1542, he explored the pueblos of Arizona and New Mexico looking for the legendary city of gold El Dorado, penetrating as far east as Kansas. He also discovered the Grand Canyon and enormous herds of bison. Hernando de Soto - From 1539 to 1542, he explored Florida and crossed the Mississippi River. He brutally abused Indians and died of fever and battle wounds.

Francisco Pizarro - In 1532, he crushed the Incas of Peru and obtained loads of bounty in gold and silver.

Encomienda system -- Plantation systems where Indians were essentially enslaved under the disguise of being converted to Christianity.

Bartolomé de Las Casas - A Spanish missionary who was appalled by the method of encomienda systems, calling it “a moral pestilence invented by Satan.”

Hernándo Cortés - Annihilator of the Aztecs in 1519.

Malinche - A female Indian slave who became Cortes’ translator.

John Cabot - AKA Giovanni Caboto, Italian who explored the northeastern coast of North America for England in 1497-98.

Giovanni da Verranzo - Another Italian explorer, he was dispatched by the French king in 1524 to probe the eastern seaboard of what is today’s U.S.

Don Juan de O–ate - Leader of a Spanish group that ranged parts of Mexico, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas in 1598. He brutally crushed the Pueblo Indians he met and proclaimed the province of New Mexico in 1609. He also founded its capital, Santa Fe.

Robert de La Salle - Sent by the French, he went on an expedition through the Great Lakes and down the Mississippi in the 1680s.

Chapter 2 Vocabulary

Lord De la Warr - An Englishman who came to America in 1610. He brought the Indians in the Jamestown area a declaration of war from the Virginia Company. This began the four year Anglo-Powhatan War. He brought in brutal "Irish tactics" to use in battle.

Pocahontas - A native Indian of America, daughter of Chief Powahatan, who was one of the first to marry an Englishman, John Rolfe, and return to England with him; about 1595-1617; Pocahontas' brave actions in saving an Englishman paved the way for many positive English and Native relations.

Powhatan - Chief of the Powhatan Confederacy and father to Pocahontas. At the time of the English settlement of Jamestown in 1607, he was a friend to John Smith and John Rolfe. When Smith was captured by Indians, Powhatan left Smith's fate in the hands of his warriors. His daughter saved John Smith, and the Jamestown colony. Pocahontas and John Rolfe were wed, and there was a time of peace between the Indians and English until Powhatan's death.

John Rolfe - Rolfe was an Englishman who became a colonist in the early settlement of Virginia. He is best known as the man who married the Native American, Pocahontas and took her to his homeland of England. Rolfe was also the savior of the Virginia colony by perfecting the tobacco industry in North America. Rolfe died in 1622, during one of many Indian attacks on the colony.

Lord Baltimore – 1694 - He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.

Sir Walter Raleigh - An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, Raleigh sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as "The Lost Colony."

Oliver Cromwell – Englishman, led the army to overthrow King Charles I and was successful in 1646. Cromwell ruled England in an almost dictatorial style until his death. His uprising drew English attention away from Jamestown and the other American colonies.

James Oglethorpe - founder of Georgia in 1733; soldier, statesman, philanthropist. Started Georgia (a) as a buffer to Spanish Florida and (b) as a haven for people in debt because of his interest in prison reform. Almost single-handedly kept Georgia afloat.

John Smith - John Smith took over the leadership role of the English Jamestown settlement in 1608. Most people in the settlement at the time were only there for personal gain and did not want to help strengthen the settlement. Smith therefore told them, "people who do not work, do not eat." His leadership saved the Jamestown settlement from collapsing.

nation-state - A unified country under a ruler which share common goals and pride in a nation. The rise of the nation-state began after England's defeat of the Spanish Armada. This event sparked nationalistic goals in exploration which were not thought possible with the commanding influence of the Spanish who may have crushed their chances of building new colonies. Slavery - the process of buying people (generally Africans) who come under the complete authority of their owners for life, and intended to be worked heavily; became prominent in colonial times around the mid to late 1600's (but also to a lesser degree, concerning natives during the early 1500's) because of the labor intensive nature of the crops being grown, and the desire for a profit; mainly used on southern plantations, but also a little bit in the north.

Enclosure - caused by the desire of land-owning lords to raise sheep instead of crops, lowering the needed workforce and unemploying thousands of poor, former farmers; the lords fenced off the their great quantities of land from the mid to late 1500's forcing many farmers out and into the cities, leading many of them to hire themselves as indentured servants for payment of passage into the New World, and therefore, supporting many of the needs of the labor-thirsty plantation owners of the New World

House of Burgesses - The House of Burgesses was the first representative assembly in the New World. The London Company authorized the settlers to summon this assembly. A momentous precedent was thus feebly established, for this assemblage was the first of many miniature parliaments to sprout form the soil of America 4 the beginnings of self-rule in America.

Royal Charter - A document given to the founders of a colony by the monarch that allows for special privileges and establishes a general relationship of one of three types: (1) Royal- direct rule of colony by monarch, (2) Corporate- Colony is run by a joint-stock company, (3) Proprietary- colony is under rule of someone chosen by the monarch. Royal Charters guaranteed that colonists would have "rights as all Englishmen"

"Slave Codes" - In 1661 a set of "codes" was made. It denied slaves basic fundamental rights, and gave their owners permission to treat them as they saw fit.

Yeoman - An owner and cultivator of a small farm.

Proprietor - a person who was granted charters of ownership by the king: proprietary colonies were Maryland, Pennsylvania and Delaware: proprietors founded colonies from 1634 until 1681: a famous proprietor is William Penn

Longhouse - The chief dwelling place of the Iroquois Indians; c. 1500s-1600s; longhouses served as a meeting place as well as the homes for many of the Native Americans. They also provided unity between tribes of Iroquois Confederacy.

Squatter - A person who settles on land without title or right, AKA a “homesteader.” Early settlers in North Carolina became squatters when they put their small farms on the new land. They raised tobacco on the land that they claimed, and tobacco later became a major cash crop for North Carolina. Squatters then followed the frontier westward all the way to the Pacific.

Primogeniture - A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. As a result the 2nd and 3rd sons, etc., were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.

Indentured Servitude - Indentured servants were Englishmen who were outcasts of their country, would work in the Americas for a certain amount of time as servants, usually seven years before being free to go.

Starving Time” - The winter of 1609 to 1610 was known as the "starving time" to the colonists of Virginia. Only sixty members of the original four hundred colonists survived. The rest died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the New World.

Act of Toleration - A legal document that allowed all Christian religions in Maryland. Protestants intruded on the Catholics in 1649 around Maryland. The act protected the Catholics from Protestant rage of sharing the land. Maryland became the #1 colony to shelter Catholics in the New World.

Virginia Company - A joint-stock company, based in Virginia in 1607, founded to find gold and a water way to the Indies. Confirmed to all Englishmen that they would have the same life in the New World, as they had in England, with the same rights. 3 of their ships transported the people that would found Jamestown in 1607.

Iroquois Confederacy - The Iroquois Confederacy was a military power consisting of Mohawks, Oneidas, Cayugas, and Senecas. It was founded in the late 1500s. The leaders were Degana Widah and Hiawatha. The Indians lived in log houses with relatives. Men dominated, but a person's background was determined by the woman's family. Different groups banded together but were separate fur traders and fur suppliers. Other groups joined, they would ally with either the French or the English depending on which would be the most to their advantage. During the American Revolution, the Confederacy mostly sided with the British. When the British were defeated, most of the Iroquois had to move to reservations in Canada. The morale of the people sank and they began dying out. In 1799, a leader named Handsome Lake, tried to revive the Iroquois and helped them to become proud and hard-working again.

Chapter 3 Vocabulary

John Calvin - John Calvin was responsible for founding Calvinism, which was reformed Catholicism. He writes about it in "Institutes of a Christian Religion" published in 1536. He believed God was all-knowing and everyone was predestined for heaven or hell.

Anne Hutchinson - A religious dissenter whose ideas provoked an intense religious and political crisis in the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1636 and 1638. She challenged the principles of Massachusetts’ religious and political system. Her ideas became known as the heresy of antinomianism, a belief that Christians are not bound by moral law. She was latter expelled, with her family and followers, and went and settled at Pocasset (now Portsmouth, R.I.)

Roger Williams - He was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for challenging Puritan ideas. He later established Rhode Island and helped it to foster religious toleration.

Henry Hudson - Discovered what today is known as the Hudson River. Sailed for the Dutch even though he was originally from England. He was looking for a northwest passage through North America.

William Bradford - A pilgrim that lived in the northern colony called Plymouth. He was chosen governor 30 times. He also conducted experiments of living in the wilderness and wrote about them; well known for "Of Plymouth Plantation."

Peter Stuyvesant - A Dutch General; He led a small military expedition in 1664. He was known as "Father Wooden Leg." Lost the New Netherlands to the English. He was governor of New Netherlands.

Thomas Hooker - 1635; a Boston Puritan, brought a group of fellow Boston Puritans to newly founded Hartford, Connecticut. William Penn - English Quaker; started the "Holy Experiment" of Pennsylvania; persecuted because he was a Quaker; 1681 he got a grant to go over to the New World; "first American advertising man"; freedom of worship there

John Winthrop - John Winthrop immigrated to the Mass. Bay Colony in the 1630's to become the first governor and to led a religious experiment. He once said, "We shall be a city on a hill," highlighting the special nature of Massachusetts.

King Philip II - He was king of Spain during 1588. During this year he sent out his Spanish Armada against England. He lost the invasion of England. Philip II was also the leader against the Protestant Reformation.

John Cotton - John Cotton, a Puritan who was a fiery early clergy educated at Cambridge University, emigrated to Massachusetts to avoid persecution by the church of England. He defended the government's duty to enforce religious rules. He preached and prayed up to six hours in a single day.

Sir Edmond Andros - Head of the Dominion of New England in 1686, militaristic, disliked by the colonists because of his affiliation with the Church of England, changed many colonial laws and traditions without the consent of the representatives, tried to flee America after England's Glorious Revolution, but was caught and shipped to England

The "elect" - John Calvin and the predestined Puritan souls who had been destined for eternal bliss in Heaven since the beginning of time ; it was discussed by John Calvin in "Institutes of the Christian Religion"

Patroonship - Patroonship was vast Dutch feudal estates fronting the Hudson River in the early 1600's. They were granted to promoters who agreed to settle fifty people on them.

Predestination - Primary idea behind Calvinism; states that salvation or damnation are foreordained and unalterable; first put forth by John Calvin in 1531; was the core belief of the Puritans who settled New England in the seventeenth century.

Freemen – a colonial period term used to describe indentured servants who had finished their terms of indenture and could live freely on their own land.

"visible saints" - A religious belief developed by John Calvin held that a certain number of people were predestined to go to Heaven by God. A visible saint was a person who’d gone through some emotional religious revival or awakening, an experience that was noted by the community as being legit. This belief in the elect, or "visible saints," figured a major part in the doctrine of the Puritans who settled in New England during the 1600's.

covenant - A binding agreement made by the Puritans whose doctrine said the whole purpose of the government was to enforce God's laws. This applied to believers and non-believers.

Protestant Reformation - The Protestant Revolution was a religious revolution, during the 16th century. It ended the supremacy of the Catholic Church and resulted in the establishment of the Protestant Churches. Martin Luther and John Calvin were influential in the Protestant Revolution.

Pilgrims - Separatists; worried by "Dutchification" of their children they left Holland on the Mayflower in 1620; they landed at Plymouth Rock in Massachusetts.

New England Confederation - New England Confederation was a union of four colonies consisting of the two Massachusetts colonies (The Bay colony and Plymouth colony) and the two Connecticut colonies (New Haven and scattered valley settlements) in 1643. The purpose of the confederation was to defend against enemies such as the Indians, French, Dutch, and prevent inter-colonial problems that affected all four colonies

Calvinism - Set of beliefs that the Puritans followed. In the 1500's John Calvin, the founder of Calvinism, preached virtues of simple worship, strict morals, pre-destination and hard work. This resulted in Calvinist followers wanting to practice religion, and it brought about wars between Huguenots (French Calvinists) and Catholics, that tore the French kingdom apart.

Massachusetts Bay Colony - One of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony. Became the state of Massachusetts, originally where Boston is located. It was a major trading center, and absorbed the Plymouth community.

Dominion of New England - In 1686, New England, in conjunction with New York and New Jersey, consolidated under the royal authority -- James II. Charters and self-rule were revoked, and the king enforced mercantile laws. The new setup also made for more efficient administration of English Navigation Laws, as well as a better defense system. The Dominion ended in 1688 when James II was removed from the throne.

Navigation Laws - In the 1660's England restricted colonial trade, saying Americans couldn't trade with other countries. The colonies were only allowed to trade with England.

The Puritans They were a group of religious reformists who wanted to "purify" the Anglican Church.

Their ideas started with John Calvin in the 16th century and they first began to leave England in 1608. Later voyages brought thousands to America in 1630s into the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

General Court - a Puritan representative assembly elected by the freemen; they assisted the governor; this was the early form of Puritan democracy in the 1600's

Separatists - Pilgrims that started out in Holland in the 1620's who traveled over the Atlantic Ocean on the Mayflower. These were the purest, most extreme Pilgrims existing, claiming that they were too strong to be discouraged by minor problems as others were.

Quakers - Members of the Religious Society of Friends; most know them as the Quakers. They believe in equality of all peoples and resist the military. They also believe that the religious authority is the decision of the individual (no outside influence.) Settled in Pennsylvania. Were “nice” to the Indians, and were anti-slavery.

Protestant Ethic - mid 1600's; a commitment made by the Puritans in which they seriously dwelled on working and pursuing worldly affairs. Sometimes called the “Protestant Work Ethic.”

Mayflower Compact - 1620- A contract made by the voyagers on the Mayflower agreeing that they would form a simple government where majority ruled. Step one in self-government in the Northern colonies.

Fundamental Orders - In 1639 the Connecticut River colony settlers had an open meeting and they established a constitution called the Fundamental Orders. It made a democratic government. It was the first constitution in the colonies and was a beginning for the other states' charters and constitutions.

Chapter 4 Vocabulary

William Berkeley - He was a British colonial governor of Virginia from 1642-52. He showed that he had favorites in his second term which led to the Bacon's rebellion in 1676 , which he ruthlessly suppressed. He had poor frontier defense.

Headright system - way to attract immigrants; gave 50 acres of land to anyone who paid their way and/or any plantation owner that paid an immigrant,s way; mainly a system in the southern colonies.

Jeremiads - In the 1600's, Puritan preachers noticed a decline in the religious devotion of second-generation settlers. To combat this decreasing piety, they preached a type of sermon called the jeremiad. The jeremiads focused on the teachings of Jeremiah, a Biblical prophet who warned of doom.

Middle Passage - middle segment of the forced journey that slaves made from Africa to America throughout the 1600's; it consisted of the dangerous trip across the Atlantic Ocean; many slaves perished on this segment of the journey

Bacon’s Rebellion - In 1676, Bacon, a young planter led a rebellion against people who were friendly to the Indians. In the process he torched Jamestown, Virginia and was murdered by Indians.

Leisler’s Rebellion - 1689-1691, an ill-fated bloody insurgency in New York City took place between landholders and merchants.

Halfway Covenant - A Puritan church policy; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.

Chapter 5 Vocabulary

Jonathan Edwards - Jonathan Edwards was an American theologian and Congregational clergyman whose sermons stirred the religious revival, called the Great Awakening. He is best known for his Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God sermon.

Benjamin Franklin - He was born January 17, 1706 in Boston, Massachusetts. Franklin taught himself math, history, science, English, and five other languages. He owned a successful printing and publishing company in Philadelphia. He conducted studies of electricity, invented bifocal glasses, the lightning rod, and the stove. He was an important diplomat and statesman and eventually signed the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States.

Michel-Guillaume de Crevecour - French settler of America in the 1770s, he posed the question, “What then, is this American?” after seeing people in America like he had never seen before. An American had really become a mixture of many nationalities.

George Whitefield - Whitefield came into the picture in 1738 during the 1st Great Awakening, which was a religious revival that spread through all of the colonies. He was a great preacher who had recently been an alehouse attendant. Everyone in the colonies loved to hear him preach of love and forgiveness because he had a passionate style of preaching. This led to new missionary work in the Americas in converting Indians and Africans to Christianity, as well as lessening the importance of the old clergy.

John Peter Zenger - Zenger was a newspaper printer in the eighteenth century. Using the power of the press, he protested the royal governor in 1734-35. He was put on trial for this "act of treason." The jury went against the royal governor and ruled Zenger innocent, since what he’d written was true. This set the standards for democracy and, most importantly, for the freedom of the press.

Phillis Wheatley - Born around 1753, Wheatley was a slave girl who became a poet. At age eight, she was brought to Boston. Although she had no formal education, Wheatley was taken to England at age twenty and published a book of poetry.

John S. Copley – Copley was a famous Revolution era painter. Copley had to travel to England to finish his study of the arts. Only in the Old World could Copley find subjects with the leisure time required to be painted, and the money needed to pay him for it. Although he was an American citizen, he was loyal to England during the Revolution.

Paxton Boys – They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks (similar to Nathaniel Bacon of 1676). They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.

Regulator Movement - It was a movement during the 1760's by western North Carolinians, mainly Scots-Irish, that resented the way that the Eastern part of the state dominated political affairs. They believed that the tax money was being unevenly distributed. Many of its members joined the American Revolutionists.

Great Awakening - The Great Awakening was a religious revival occurring in the 1730's and 1740's to motivate the souls of colonial America. Motivational speakers such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield helped to bring Americans together. Catawba Nation - A group of the remains of several different Indian tribes that joined together in the late 1700's. The Catawba Nation was in the Southern Piedmont region of the Carolinas. Forced migration made the Indians join in this group.

Old and New Lights - In the early 1700's, old lights were simply orthodox members of the clergy who believed that the new ways of revivals and emotional preaching were unnecessary. New lights were the more modern-preaching members of the clergy who strongly believed in the Great Awakening. These conflicting opinions changed certain denominations, helped popularize missionary work and assisted in founding many universities now known as Ivy League schools

Triangular trade – The triangular trade was a small, profitable trading route started by people in (1) New England who would barter a product to get slaves in (2) Africa, and then sell them to the (3) West Indies in order to get molasses to make rum which would be shipped north to New England. This form of trading was used by New Englanders in conjunction with other countries in the 1750's.

Molasses Act - A British law passed in 1773 to change a trade pattern in the American colonies by taxing molasses imported into colonies not ruled by Britain. Along with the Navigation Acts, the Molasses Act was part of Britain’s policy of mercantilism. Americans responded to this attempt to damage their international trade through bribery and smuggling. Their protest of this and other laws helped lead to revolution.

Scots-Irish - A group of restless people who fled their home in Scotland in the 1600s to escape poverty and religious
oppression. They first relocated to Ireland and then to America in the 1700s. They left their mark on the backcountry of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. These areas are home to many Presbyterian churches established by the Scots-Irish. Many people in these areas are still very independent like their ancestors.
Chapter 6 Vocabulary

Samuel de Champlain -- French explorer who sailed to the West Indies, Mexico, and Panama. He wrote many books telling of his trips to Mexico City and Niagara Falls. His greatest accomplishment was his exploration of the St. Lawrence River and his latter settlement of Quebec.

William Pitt -- British leader between 1757-1758. He was a leader in the London government earning himself the name, "Organizer of Victory" for his leadership in changing the direction and organization of the French & Indian War. Pittsburg was named after him.

Robert de La Salle -- French explorer who named Louisiana. He was the first European to float down the Mississippi River to the tip from Canada and upon seeing the beautiful river valley, named Louisiana after his king, Louis XIV, in 1682.

James Wolfe -- British general whose success in the Battle of Quebec won Canada for the British Empire. Even though the battle was only fifteen minutes, Wolfe was killed in the line of duty. This was a decisive battle in the French and Indian War. Edward Braddock -- British commander during the French and Indian War. He attempted to capture Fort Duquesne in 1755. He was defeated by the French and the Indians who fought “Indian Style of Warfare” (guerilla warfare hiding behind trees and rocks) At this battle, Braddock was mortally wounded.

Pontiac -- Indian Chief who led a post-war flare-up in the Ohio River Valley and Great Lakes Region in 1763. His actions led to the Proclamation of 1763 which forbade American settlements across the Appalachians and infuriated Americans who felt they’d just fought a war to win that land.

Huguenots -- French Protestants that lived from about 1560 to 1629. Protestantism was introduced into France between 1520 and 1523, and the principles were accepted by many members of the nobility, the intellectual classes, and the middle class. At first the new religious group was royally protected, but toward the end of the reign of King Francis I they were persecuted. Nevertheless, they continued to grow, were persecuted, then fled to the New World.

French and Indian War – A war that generally saw the French and Indians team up against English and Americans. I took place on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley. The English defeated the French in 1763. Historical significance lay in the facts that (1) it established England as the number one world power, (2) France was totally kicked out of North America, (3) England/America gained the land all the way to the Mississippi River, and (4) subsequent events began to gradually change the attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.

Albany Congress -- A conference in the United States colonies from June 19 through July 11, 1754 in Albany New York. It advocated a union of the British colonies for their security and defense against French. Ben Franklin was the famous proponent of the idea with his “Join or Die” disjointed snake cartoon. Eventually, unity was NOT achieved though, as the colonies didn’t want to give up their independence and sovereignty to a national group.

Proclamation of 1763 -- An English law enacted after gaining territory from the French at the end of the French and Indian War. It forbade the colonists from settling beyond the Appalachian Mountains. The colonists felt betrayed by the act thinking they’d just fought the war for the land then were not allowed to settle there. The Proclamation of 1763 caused the first major revolt against the British.

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