Unit 1 specificities



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UNIT 1 SPECIFICITIES

—    What were the major causes for the development of agriculture/agrarian societies?

—    What were the major effects of the Neolithic Revolution?

—    What are the characteristics of a civilization?


—    How did early civilizations impact other societies?
—    What governmental systems were established in early civilizations?
—    Which legal ideas can be traced to early civilizations and what was their impact?
—    Which religions and philosophies developed in river valley civilizations?
—    What are the central ideas for each of these religions?
—    What ideas in mathematics, science and technology can be traced to river valley civilizations?
—    How were ideas diffused during this time period?

Focus Vocabulary



  • Agrarian, Anthropologist, Archeologist, Historian, Caste, Cultural Diffusion



  • Periodization – an act or instance of dividing a subject into historical eras for purposes of analysis and study.

  • Neolithic Revolution – major change to human life caused by the development of farming

  • Civilization – a form of culture characterized by established cities, specialized labor, complex institutions, written records, and advanced technology

  • Irrigation – the bringing of water to fields through man-made canals

  • City-state – a political unit made up of a city and its surrounding land

  • Dynasty – several rulers from one single family

  • Cultural diffusion – the spreading of ideas and products from one culture to another

  • Empire – a political unit where large numbers of people and areas of land are controlled by one ruler

Identify, Describe -- CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SPECIFIC EVENTS BETWEEN 8000 BC AND 500 BC Including, but not limited to:

Development of agriculture:



  • Known as Neolithic or Agricultural Revolution

  • Causes

    • Hunter – gathering bands scattered seeds near campsites that resulted in growth of new crops (10,000 years ago).

    • Climate change – rising temperatures led to longer growing seasons and drier land.

    • Growing populations led to discovery of new food resources and steady source of food.

  • Effects

    • Shift from food-gathering to food-producing cultures leads to establishment of permanent settlements and eventually the first cities

    • Positive effects – settlement leads to development of culture including art, religion, and specialization of labor; irrigation systems developed as crop production and land use increase

    • Negative effects – close proximity of people leads to spread of disease; villages and cities susceptible to attacks; settlements could be destroyed by natural disasters

  • Development of river valley civilizations:

  • Four early major river valley civilizations developed

    • Tigris and Euphrates

    • Nile

    • Indus

    • Huang He Rivers

  • Mesopotamia/Fertile Crescent (3500 BC-1600 BC)

    • Settlement on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers around 4500 BC

    • Sumerians arrive in 3500 BC and begin irrigation

    • Sumerian city – states established around 3000 BC and initially controlled by temple priests

    • Polytheistic religion – Ziggurat (temple) center of each city-state

    • Scientific achievements – wheel, sail, plow, bronze, cuneiform

    • Babylonian Empire reaches its peak under Hammurabi (1792 BC-1750 BC), who establishes a written, uniform code of laws (Hammurabi’s Code).

    • Babylonian Empire ends around 1500 BC and other civilizations in this area, Assyrians, Phoenicians, and Hebrews, adopt ideas first developed by early Sumerians.

  • Egypt (3000 BC-2000 BC)

    • Earliest settlement along the Nile River begins in 5000 BC

    • Irrigation along the Nile leads to Egypt being known as “The Gift of the Nile.” Flooding was on a regular yearly cycle.

    • Ruled by pharaohs who were considered god-kings; theocracy established as form of government

    • Polytheistic religion

    • Religious features – pyramids built as tombs for pharaohs; belief in the afterlife; mummification of the dead to prevent bodies from decaying

    • Stratified society – royal family followed by upper class followed by middle class (merchants and artisans) and then the lower class (peasant farmers and unskilled laborers); slavery later became a source of labor

    • Writing system – hieroglyphics; writing done on papyrus

    • Scientific achievements – written numbers, geometry, stone columns, calendar for flooding cycle, advanced medicine

    • Empire declines as other civilizations invade Egypt after 1200 BC

  • Indus River Valley Civilizations (2500 BC-1700 BC)

    • First major cities include Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa that were developed on grid systems and had sophisticated plumbing and sewage systems

    • These early cities decline around 1750 BC due to a possible change in course by the Indus River

    • Indo-European people known as Aryans settle in the Indus Valley around 1500 BC

    • Aryan religious features: sacred literature known as Vedas

    • Caste system develops under Aryans

  • Chinese River Valley Civilizations (3950 BC-1000 BC)

    • Huang He (Yellow) River Valley

    • Shang Dynasty (2000 BC) – division of classes; importance of family

    • Writing system where each symbol represents an idea

    • Technology and science – bronze working, silk

Summarize -- IMPACT OF FARMING ON CREATION OF RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS

Including, but not limited to:



  • Development of agriculture

    • Known as Neolithic or Agricultural Revolution

    • Irrigation leads to development of social classes and organized religion

    • Farming resulted in permanent settlements that developed into the world’s first civilizations

Identify -- CHARACTERISTICS OF CIVILIZATION

Including, but not limited to:



  • Key features of civilization

    • Advanced cities

    • Specialized workers

    • Complex institutions – government, religion, economics

    • Record keeping (e.g., cuneiform in Sumerian cities)

    • Advanced technology – pottery, metalwork, beginning of Bronze Age in Sumer in 3000 BC

Create, Interpret -- THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, MODELS, DATABASES

Including, but not limited to:



  • Possible types of graphs

    • Double and triple bar and line graphs, circle graphs

  • Possible types of charts and maps

    • Free hand sketch maps, graphic organizers, web and fishbone maps

      • All maps, graphs, and charts used should show a relationship between geography and the historical development of a region or nation.

 

Analyze,_Compare'>Analyze, Compare -- QUESTIONS ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION, PATTERNS

Including, but not limited to:


Examples:

  • How did geography influence the development of civilizations?

 Locate -- PLACES, REGIONS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO MAJOR ERAS AND TURNING POINTS

Including, but not limited to:



  • Early River Valley Civilizations – Mesopotamia, Fertile Crescent, Nile River Valley, Indus Valley, Huang-He River Valley

Analyze -- EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS

Including, but not limited to:



  • Development of river valley civilizations

    • Advanced cities

    • Irrigation

    • Systems of government and religion

    • Written legal codes

    • Trade networks

    • Architecture – arch

    • Divisions of time/calendar system

    • Writing

Interpret, Explain -- HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY MAPS, GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS

Including, but not limited to:



  • Historic Maps

Identify -- IMPORTANT CHANGES CAUSED BY THE NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION

Including, but not limited to:



  • Neolithic Revolution

    • Changes in human life caused by the Neolithic agricultural revolution (establishment of settlements which led to civilized societies)

Summarize -- ROLE OF ECONOMICS IN POLITICAL CHANGES OF THE NEOLITHIC

Including, but not limited to:



  • Neolithic Revolution

    • Settlements need rules and law to maintain order

    • Rules and laws needed to regulate irrigation

    • Threats of external invaders made it necessary to have leaders who could provide security

    • Finances were maintained by imposing taxes or tributes on residents

Identify -- CHARACTERISTICS OF MONARCHIES AND THEOCRACIES IN EARLY CIVILIZATIONS

Including, but not limited to:



  • Monarchies – military leaders who commanded soldiers displace priests as rulers; power passed on to their sons, who in turn passed it on to their sons; this leads to formation of early dynasties in river valley civilizations (e.g., Sumerian city-states)

  • Theocracies – rulers were divine leaders who were seen as god-kings (e.g., pharaohs in Egypt; stood at the center of both religion and the government and its army)

Identify -- IMPACT OF POLITICAL AND LEGAL IDEAS FROM HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS

Including, but not limited to:



  • Hammurabi's Code

    • Political impact – by deriving a single code of laws from the body of custom of his day, Hammurabi made law something objective, and less personal and, therefore, more stable and predictable

    • Legal impact – the notion of a separate judiciary, as part of overall government (this is a hallmark of modern democratic governments, the world over)

  • Jewish Ten Commandments

    • Moses the Lawgiver

    • High standard of moral conduct

    • Covenant between God and the Hebrew people – God’s protection in exchange for keeping God’s commandments

Describe -- ORIGINS/IDEAS/SPREAD OF RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL TRADITIONS

Including, but not limited to:



  • Buddhism

    • Founded by Siddhartha Gautama, born in 6th Century BC to a noble family in Northern India. Buddhism follows many of the beliefs of Hinduism, including non-violence, self-denial, and to seek oneness with the “Great World Soul,” but it rejects the Caste System and numerous gods.

  • Confucianism

    • Based on the ideas of Confucius (the Latin name for Master Kung). His major ideas are recorded in the Analects.

    • Living in a time of great confusion and chaos in China, Confucius sought to restore order through a basic set of ideas. Within Confucianism, there is an assumption that the universe has an order; therefore, mankind should focus on Human Behavior. Additionally, although the following is often associated with being a work ethic, Confucianism believes if we focus on the five Relationships and do what is right, there will be harmony.

  • Hinduism

    • Polytheistic religion dating back to the Aryan invasion in 1500 BC

    • Vedas – collection of hymns and religious ceremonies of the Hindus that were passed down orally and eventually written down

    • Reincarnation – belief that the soul is reborn in a different form after death. Reincarnation reinforces the caste system of India

    • Karma – a person’s actions on Earth that determine how the soul will be reborn

    • Hinduism is associated primarily with India and has spread little throughout the world.

  • Judaism – historical origins and the central ideas of, including:

    • Abraham, Moses, David

    • Ethical monotheism

    • 10 commandments

    • Torah

    • “Promised Land”

    • Messiah

  • Development of monotheism

    • Gradual development

    • Mesopotamian civilizations – cities had a local patron deity, such as Sin at Ur.

    • Egypt – Pharaoh Akhenaten claims to be a supreme god

    • India – references in the Rig Veda

    • Zoroastrianism – Ahura Mazda is supreme deity

    • Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, Islam) – one supreme God; also referenced as Yahweh or Allah

Identify -- ORIGIN AND DIFFUSION OF MAJOR IDEAS IN MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Including, but not limited to:



  • River Valley Civilizations (Pre 700s)

    • Mesopotamia

      • Plow

      • Pottery

      • Bronze

      • Wheel

      • Arch

      • Sail

      • Cuneiform writing

      • Number system based on 60 and 360 degree circles

      • Phoenicians – alphabet

    • Egypt

      • Mummification of the dead

      • Pyramids

      • Hieroglyphics

      • Papyrus

      • Calendar system based on Nile’s flood cycle

      • Medical advancements in surgery and for repairing broken bones

    • Indus River Valley

      • Sewer and plumbing systems in Mohenjo-Daro

      • Planned city systems

    • Huang He River Valley

      • Writing system based on symbols

      • Silk

      • Coined money

      • Ironworks

      • Great Wall of China

Identify -- METHODS USED TO ANALYZE EVIDENCE BY

Including, but not limited to:



  • Archaeologists (artifacts, fossils, excavations, etc.)

  • Anthropologists (fieldwork, analysis of written records, DNA, etc.)

  • Historians (primary sources, secondary sources, oral history, etc.)

  • Geographers (GIS, satellite images, different types of maps, etc.)

Analyze -- INFORMATION BY

Including, but not limited to:



  • Sequencing

  • Categorizing

  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships

  • Comparing

  • Contrasting

  • Finding the main idea

  • Summarizing

  • Making generalizations and predictions

  • Drawing inferences and conclusions

  • Developing connections between historical events over time

 

Construct -- THESIS ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT SUPPORTED BY EVIDENCE

Use -- APPROPRIATE READING AND MATHEMATICAL SKILLS TO INTERPRET SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:



  • Maps

  • Graphs

 

Use -- SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

 
Directory: cms -> lib -> TX01000615 -> Centricity -> Domain -> 129
129 -> Unit 8a global Conflicts 1914 to wwii
129 -> Unit 7 Political Revolutions 1750-1914
129 -> Identify, Describe causes and effects of important turning points in world history from 1450 to 1750
129 -> Unit 8b specificities global Issues, Post World War II (1945) to the Present
129 -> Unit 4-a specificities
129 -> What were the causes and effects of the development of major world religions such as Islam and Sikhism?
129 -> Explain impact of fall of rome on western europe
129 -> Causes and effects of specific events between 8000 bc and 500 bc
129 -> Unit 6: Scientific & Economic Revolutions Notes Inventiveness can impact societies through time
129 -> What political factors from classical Greece have impacted the beliefs and values of


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