Unit 1 grammar revision of tenses



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UNIT 1

GRAMMAR
Revision of tenses.




Tense

Affirmative/ negative/ question

  • Meaning

Signal words

Simple Present

A: He speaks.
N: He does not speak.
Q: Does he speak?

  • actions in the present taking place once, never or several times

  • facts

  • actions taking place one after another

  • action set by a timetable or schedule

always, every …, never, normally, often, seldom, sometimes, usually
if sentences type I (If I talk, …)

Present Progressive

A: He is speaking.
N: He is not speaking.
Q: Is he speaking?

  • action taking place at the moment of speaking

  • action taking place only for a limited period of time

  • action arranged for the future

at the moment, Listen!, Look!, now, right now, nowadays, still, these days

Simple Past

A: He spoke.
N: He did not speak.
Q: Did he speak?

  • action in the past taking place once, never or several times

  • actions taking place one after another

  • action taking place in the middle of another action

yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday
if sentence type II (If I talked, …)

Past Progressive

A: He was speaking.
N: He was not speaking.
Q: Was he speaking?

  • action going on at a certain time in the past

  • actions taking place at the same time

  • action in the past that is interrupted by another action

when, while, as, all day/ night/ morning

Present Perfect Simple

A: He has spoken.
N: He has not spoken.
Q: Has he spoken?

  • putting emphasis on the result

  • action that is still going on

  • action that stopped recently

  • finished action that has an influence on the present

  • action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking

already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far

Present Perfect Progressive

A: He has been speaking.
N: He has not been speaking.
Q: Has he been speaking?

  • putting emphasis on the course or duration (not the result)

  • action that recently stopped or is still going on

  • finished action that influenced the present

all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, lately, recently

Past Perfect Simple

A: He had spoken.
N: He had not spoken.
Q: Had he spoken?

  • action taking place before a certain time in the past

  • sometimes interchangeable with past perfect progressive

  • putting emphasis only on the fact (not the duration)

already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day
if sentence type III (If I had talked, …)

Past Perfect Progressive

A: He had been speaking.
N: He had not been speaking.
Q: Had he been speaking?

  • action taking place before a certain time in the past

  • sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple

  • putting emphasis on the duration or course of an action

for, since, the whole day, all day

Future Simple




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