Unit 1 and 2 Short Answers Exam The Columbian Exchange: Please complete the following three tasks



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Unit 1 and 2 Short Answers Exam


  1. The Columbian Exchange: Please complete the following three tasks:

    1. Identify THREE different crops or livestock that were introduced by the Spanish in the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.

    2. Briefly explain how ONE of the examples from Part A changed work or trade in the Americas.

    3. Briefly explain ONE long-term result of the change explained in Part B on American Indians.


http://education.randmcnally.com/images/edpub/triangular_trade.png


  1. European traders reached West Africa and partnered with some African groups to recruit slave labor for the Americas.

    1. Briefly explain ONE important social response in the Americas to the statement above in the period 1492–1607.

    2. Briefly explain ONE important economic response in the Americas to the statement above in the period 1492–1607.

    3. Briefly explain the impact of the social response in Part A or the economic response in Part B on American society in the period 1492–1607.




  1. Compare and contrast Jamestown (1607) with Massachusetts Bay (1620)

    1. Briefly explain THREE reasons why Jamestown (1607) was an economic, social, and environmental disaster from 1607-1615

    2. Briefly explain THREE reasons why the Massachusetts Bay Company (1620) was economically, socially, and environmentally superior to Jamestown.




  1. Cultural Pluralism in the English Colonies

    1. Briefly explain ONE example of cultural pluralism in one of the English colonies in colonial North America

    2. Briefly explain a SECOND example of cultural pluralism in one of the English colonies in colonial North America

    3. Explain how ONE of your examples is similar to modern US cities.


  1. Political Cartoon A:

http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/79700/79729/79729_joinordie_lg.gif

Benjamin Franklin, 1754


Political Cartoon B:

http://www.newcommonsensebook.com/page_155/image010.jpg

King George III and the Colonial Rebels, 1773


For question 5, address all three parts:

  1. Briefly explain the meaning of Political Cartoon A.

  2. Briefly explain the meaning of Political Cartoon B.

  3. Describe the change in the political attitude in the American colonies between the years 1754 and 1773. Provide one specific piece of historical evidence not used in Part A or B to support your answer.


ANSWER Question 1: The Columbian Exchange: Please complete the following three tasks:




Feedback

a.

Possible responses include the following:

Horses, pigs, sugar, wheat, coffee, cows



b.

Possible responses include the following:

Sugar led to the development of plantation-based agriculture based on slave labor.

The introduction of horses led bison-hunting societies to adapt into horse cultures.

Wheat and grazing animals led to the European demand for native lands.



c.

Possible responses include the following:

Slave-based plantation agriculture grew and expanded for centuries.

The use of horses spread into North America and was particularly significant among Great Plains horse cultures, such as the Comanche and Sioux.

The land itself was modified for use in settled agriculture and grazing.



OBJ: ENV-1|WXT-1|PEO-4

TOP: Historical Thinking Skills: Causation

MSC: Key Concepts: 1.2.I.C
ANSWER Question 2: The impact of West African slavery on Colonial peoples





Feedback

a.

Possible responses include the following:

African slaves became critical in replacing natives in social hierarchy.

Intermarriage with blacks became more accepted.

Enslaved Africans created unique communities.



b.

Possible responses include the following:

The slave trade grew and became an important part of global economics for centuries.

The growth of the slave trade led to a modification of the encomienda system.

Native labor was replaced with slave labor.



c.

Possible responses include the following:

There was a greater tolerance of mixed-race peoples and racial difference in the Spanish world.

These changes led to the development of plantation agriculture based on slave labor.

The subjugation of African slaves became more intensive over time.



OBJ: PEO-5|WOR-1|WXT-1

TOP: Historical Thinking Skills: Change over Time

MSC: Key Concepts: 1.2.I.B

ANSWER Question 3 possible content: Compare and contrast Jamestown (1607) with Massachusetts Bay (1620)





Chesapeake Bay

New England

Economy

Profit

Failed at silk, wheat, glass, timber, cotton

Cash crops = Tobacco starting 1618

Undiversified

Slavery is introduced


Positive climate

Religion: Leave Anglican Church

Fishing, trade, agriculture, ship building

Self-sufficient farms



Society

1st New World Settlement

Negative Climate: poor settlement area, unhealthy environment, swamp, uninhabited by natives, contaminated water, malaria, trash in center, Rural, no cities

Jamestown is fortified

Female subordination, forbidden to marry

Scarcity of women

Indentured Servants: 4-7 years, 50 acres

Headright system

Protestant English settlers

80% IMR

“Starving Time 1609-1610 = 80% die”


40 year life expectancy

Later (1676) Bacon’s Rebellion in the West

Governor Berkley


Goal: most want to improve their own lives, First permanent colony

½ die during the first winter, but colony is successful after that.

Strict child discipline, Both genders, Pilgrims and puritans, 6 kids per family,

Higher literacy, Low IMR

70 year life expectancy is higher than Europe!

Nuclear family units and extended family too

Later = 1692 Salem Witch Trials


Politics

Initial failure of John Smith (Work if you want to eat), elite gentlemen, half work, half look for gold,

Wealthy planters, later an East to West conflict, appointed governors and councils.

John Rolfe and Tobacco

1619 Virginia House of Burgesses =1st representative assembly in the New World = forerunner for Virginia General Assembly



May Flower Compact, Pilgrims, Puritans, White male suffrage

Theocracy, Township governments or local governing institutes





ANSWER Question 4 possible content: Cultural Pluralism in the English Colonies





Feedback

A.

Philadelphia and New York are probably the best examples

B.

C.

Restoration/”Middle Colonies: Profit + individual betterment… More like future America than other colonies. 1. Economic diversity. 2. Large cities à more cosmopolitan culture. 3. Some slavery [6%-12% of the population]. 4. Ethnic and religious diversity. 5. Religious toleration. 6. “Bread Colonies.”

New Amsterdam- Dutch and Peter Stuyvesant

Philadelphia and New York City = Commerce, Dutch, French, Swedes, Germans, multiple languages, multiple religions, trade, mixed Christian peoples

Rhode Island- Roger Williams “Holy Experiment” Natives

Pennsylvania- William Penn, Quakers

Biggest city by 1760 = Philadelphia




ANSWER Question 5: The Albany Plan of Union and King George’s attitudes towards Colonials in 1773.




Feedback

a.

The Albany Plan of Union, one of the first political cartoons, Pennsylvania Gazette,

Ben Franklin

Failed attempt to unify colonies to fight Indian threats and the French. Why did it fail?


b.

The artist of this cartoon demonstrated that some Americans were beginning to believe that King George war controlling America through draconic parliamentary decisions without input from the colonists themselves- for example, the passage of the Stamp Act in 1765 without any input from the colonies.


c.

The colonists began to change their attitude toward the British with the passage of restrictive laws and regulations such as the writs of assistance, which gave the English army the right to enter any American home and search for contraband. These searches were a violation of the English principle that a “man’s home was his castle” and could not be entered unless there was a good purpose. As the years passed, there were more violations of the “right of Englishmen” enforced on the colonists- to the point that the people began to resent the king.


OBJ: ENV-1|WXT-1|PEO-4

TOP: Historical Thinking Skills: Causation



MSC: Key Concepts: 1.2.I.C


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