Unified New York Common Law Grand Jury • po box 59; Valhalla, New York 10595 • Phone (845) 229-0044 • Fax (888) 891-8977



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A Sovereign Person is one who believes they are self-ruling and do not need the government controlling their behavior. The People should be controlling our servant government’s behavior. Isn’t that what Thomas Jefferson expressed in the Declaration of Independence when he penned “We have government by the consent of the People”. Isn’t that what our founders expressed in the preamble of the Constitution for the united States of America, where we read “We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. We the People are self-ruling as we read: "The very meaning of 'sovereignty' is that the decree of the sovereign makes law.” American Banana Co. v. United Fruit Co.7

The New York Supreme Court said in 1829: “The people of this State, as the successors of its former sovereign, are entitled to all the rights which formerly belonged to the King by his prerogativeIt will be admitted on all hands that with the exception of the powers granted to the states and the federal government through the Constitutions, the people of the several states are unconditionally sovereign within their respective states.” Lansing v. Smith 8

The United States Supreme Court said: “… sovereignty itself remains with the people, by whom and for whom all government exists and acts and the law is the definition and limitation of power…” Yick Wo v. Hopkins9

"The very meaning of 'sovereignty' is that the decree of the sovereign makes law." American Banana Co. v. United Fruit Co. 10

The doctrine of Sovereign Immunity is one of the Common-Law immunities and defenses that are available to the Sovereign.” Yick Wo v. Hopkins11

In United States, sovereignty resides in people. The Congress cannot invoke the sovereign power of the People to override their will as thus declared.” Perry v. US12



The sovereignty of a state does not reside in the persons who fill the different departments of its government, but in the People, from whom the government emanated; and they may change it at their discretion Sovereignty, then in this country, abides with the constituency, and not with the agent; and this remark is true, both in reference to the federal and state government.Spooner v. McConnell13

It is the public policy of this state that public agencies exist to aid in the conduct of the people's business.... The people of this state do not yield their sovereignty to the agencies which serve them. ...at the Revolution, the sovereignty devolved on the people; and they are truly the sovereigns of the country, but they are sovereigns without subjects...with none to govern but themselves...” Chisholm v. Georgia14

The necessary existence of the state and that right and power which necessarily follow is "sovereignty. By sovereignty in its largest sense is meant supreme, absolute, uncontrollable power, the absolute right to govern. The word which by itself comes nearest to being the definition of "sovereignty" is will or volition as applied to political affairs.” City of Bisbee v. Cochise County15

Even New York Code cvr. law §2 agrees: “Supreme sovereignty in the people - No authority can, on any pretence whatsoever, be exercised over the citizens of this state, but such as is or shall be derived from and granted by the people of this state.”

Black's Law Dictionary defines Sovereign: “a person in which independent and supreme authority is vested; a chief ruler with supreme power; a king or other ruler with limited power.”

The power to do everything in a state without accountability, to make laws, to execute and to apply them, to impose and collect taxes and levy contributions, to make war or peace, to form treaties of alliance or of commerce with foreign nations, and the like.” Story, Const. Sec 207

The words "sovereign state" are cabalistic words (secrete meaning), not understood by the disciple of liberty, who has been instructed in our constitutional schools. It is our appropriate phrase when applied to an absolute despotism. The idea of sovereign power in the government of a republic is incompatible with the existence and foundation of civil liberty and the rights of property.” Gaines v. Buford16

The assertion of federal rights, when plainly and reasonably made, is not to be defeated under the name of local practice.” Davis v. Wechsler17

Where rights secured by the Constitution are involved, there can be no rule making or legislation which would abrogate them.” Miranda v. Arizona18

There can be no sanction or penalty imposed upon one because of this exercise of constitutional rights”. Sherer v. Cullen19

The state cannot diminish rights of the people.” Hurtado v. People of the State of California20

And finally the Bible tells us God is King of kings (people) as we read in Dan 2:37Thou, O king, art a king of kings: for the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, power, and strength, and glory “ and then in 1 Tim 6:13-15I give thee charge in the sight of God, who quickeneth all things, and before Christ Jesus, who before Pontius Pilate witnessed a good confession; That thou keep this commandment without spot, unrebukeable, until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ: Which in his times he shall show, who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords;” and finally in Rev 17:14These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them: for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings: and they that are with him are called, and chosen, and faithful.”

John Adams on October 11, 1798 wrote: "Our Constitution was made only for a moral and religious people. It is wholly inadequate to the government of any other." The meaning of sovereign, hereinafter People, is conclusive, “it’s the heritage of the American People”, the authority of the Law of the Land, by the will of God. It is what our founding fathers pledged their life, fortune and sacred honor to secure for you!

Yet, America’s oath-takers have lost their way. You have forgotten who you are. You have been enchanted by the BAR through their progressive handlers who have seized control of our government while you were lulled asleep, and the sad truth is that if this alarm falls on deaf ears America will be lost on your guard. There is still time to redeem yourself, wake up and save the good People by learning about your oath, then “enforce” it. It is the duty, more today than ever, that you pledge your life, your fortune and your sacred honor for your posterity and the good People of New York. Our prayer is that God give you the gift of discernment for His sake and the People. You shall know them by their fruits21.

We the People are a lawful people, we are not the terrorists! We hold in contempt unlawful statutes that is consuming our Bill of Rights like a cancer. "The general rule is that an unconstitutional statute, though having the form and name of law, is in reality no law, but is wholly void and ineffective for any purpose, since its unconstitutionality dates from the time of its enactment... In legal contemplation, it is as inoperative as if it had never been passed... Since an unconstitutional law is void, the general principles follow that it imposes no duties, confers no right, creates no office, bestows no power or authority on anyone, affords no protection and justifies no acts performed under it... A void act cannot be legally consistent with a valid one. An unconstitutional law cannot operate to supersede any existing law. Indeed insofar as a statute runs counter to the fundamental law of the land, (the Constitution) it is superseded thereby. No one is bound to obey an unconstitutional law and no courts are bound to enforce it." Bonnett v. Vallier22

The progressives claim the People are Litigants Is it a crime to exercise our unalienable rights, protected by our 1st Amendment? “Congress shall make no law respecting the right of the people peaceably to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.” While they cast out the people, fraudulently claiming they have “no standing” or “no cause of action”. Now that we understand their fraud some people are lawfully taking control of the courts, as is their unalienable right, because it is our court. If we have no legitimate positions that will hold up in court why are they so worried about it?

The progressives claim the People are Commentators As if that is a terrorist act of some kind and that unalienable right is also protected by the 1st Amendment where we read “Congress shall make no law respecting abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble...”

The progressives claim the People are Tax Protestors and Schemers The truth is they are the schemers. The Constitution for the United States Article 1. Section 9. Says: "No capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken."

And the United States Supreme Court has already rightfully settled the tax on peoples salary problem as we read:

"The legal right of an individual to decrease or altogether avoid his/her taxes by means which the law permits cannot be doubted" Gregory v. Helvering23

"Congress cannot by any definition (of income in this case) it may adopt, conclude the matter, since it cannot by legislation alter the Constitution, from which alone it derives its power to legislate, and within whose limitations alone that power can be lawfully expressed." Eisner v. Macomber24

"The 16th Amendment does not justify the taxation of persons or things previously immune. It was intended only to remove all occasions for any apportionment of income taxes among the states. It does not authorize a tax on a salary" Evans V. Gore25

So, if some people want to pay the slave tax because they fear the IRS or maybe they don’t want to spend the time to learn court procedure and defend themselves, they are free to do so, but so does the people that prefer to study the law and challenge them in courts of justice, without lawyers.



The progressives claim the People are answerable only to common law and are not subject to any statutes This is true, Common law finds statutes applied upon people repugnant the mixing of the two is like water and oil. One is Natural Law from the mind of God with the intention of protecting His creation. The other is illegal progressive statutes from the mind of man to control the slaves. This position will ring true by the time you reach the end of this memorandum.


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