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9. PREDICT: What do you think Kahekili, ruler of several other islands, will do now that Kamehameha controlled the Big Island?

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On O’ahu, Kahekili, lord of the Leeward Islands, decided that no better time could be chosen to attack Kamehameha. He and his half-brother Ka’eokulani of Kaua’i sailed for Hawai’i, carrying with them on their war canoes a foreign gunner Mare Amara from France, some trained dogs, and special group of fighting men called the pahupu. Kahekili had taken his own name from a thunder god, and as a reminder of this he had tattooed one side of his body black from head to toe. The pahupu were tattooed in the same way, “with eyelids turned inside out and held up by props and only their eyeballs and teeth left in their natural state,” These warriors fought along Kamehameha’s coastal lands and looted the villages and defiling the graves of the island’s rulers. Finally Kamehameha’s canoes and ships caught up with them off Waimanu, not far from the beautiful valley of Waipi’o. For the first time a Hawaiian sea battle was fought in which both sides had foreign gunners – Mare Amara with Kahekili, and Isaac Davis and John Young with Kamehameha. The battle was bloody enough to be called Kepuwaha’ula’ula, the battle of the red-mouthed gun, but it was indecisive, and Kahekili was able to break off and withdraw safely to O’ahu.

10. What was the significance of this battle between Kahekili and Kamehameha?

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